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    qing, H.L., cai, H.W. & ping, S.Z. Study on Techniques of Decoding Output Data Packages from AIS 2005 Journal of Jimei University Natural Science  article  
    Abstract: This paper discussed the technical requirement for AIS user interface, the message's kinds of AIS outputting, corresponding protocol of interface, the software and hardware to realize the collection and decoding of the output data packages from AIS. The experiment showed that the AIS data obtained through collection and decoding in this way was accurate and reliable, and this solution could be widely used in auto collision-prevention system, ECDIS, remote control and telemetry system. The research on the decoding of AIS output data packages was the groundwork of development and application of AIS information.
    BibTeX:
    @article{2005,
      author = {HUANG LI-qing and HU Wen-cai and SHAO Zhe-ping},
      title = {Study on Techniques of Decoding Output Data Packages from AIS},
      journal = {Journal of Jimei University Natural Science},
      year = {2005}
    }
    
    editors, W. Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) 2011 Wikipedia  misc URL 
    Abstract: Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is a surveillance technology for tracking aircraft as part of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen).[1] The United States will require the majority of aircraft operating within its airspace to be equipped with some form of ADS-B Out by January 1, 2020.
    BibTeX:
    @misc{ADS-B,
      author = {Wikipedia editors},
      title = {Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B)},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Automatic_dependent_surveillance-broadcast&oldid=429461015}
    }
    
    editors, W. Airport Surface Detection Equipment, Model X (ASDE-X) 2011 Wikipedia  misc URL 
    Abstract: Airport Surface Detection Equipment, Model X, or ASDE-X, is a runway-safety tool that enables air traffic controllers to detect potential runway conflicts by providing detailed coverage of movement on runways and taxiways. By collecting data from a variety of sources, ASDE-X is able to track vehicles and aircraft on airport surfaces and obtain identification information from aircraft transponders.
    BibTeX:
    @misc{ASDE-X,
      author = {Wikipedia editors},
      title = {Airport Surface Detection Equipment, Model X (ASDE-X)},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=ASDE-X&oldid=419406484}
    }
    
    editors, W. MISLE 2011   misc URL 
    Abstract: The Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement (MISLE) is a database system managed and used by the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The MISLE is used to store data on marine accidental and deliberate pollution and other shipping and port accidents in US territorial waters. It accounts for vessels and other facilities, like port terminals and shipyards. The system has now been operational for a few years. It was introduced in December 2001 to replace the previous Marine Safety Information System (MSIS).[1]

    The public may access portions of the data contained on the MISLE system through the Port State Information eXchange (PSIX). Originally, the PSIX system was designed to provide other countries with Port State Intervention data on foreign-flagged vessels. Currently, it contains information on over 650,000 U.S. and foreign flagged vessels (including those used for recreational purposes). The PSIX system contains vessel specific information derived from the United States Coast Guard's Marine Information Safety and Law Enforcement System (MISLE). The information contained in PSIX represents a weekly snapshot of Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) data on U.S. flag vessels, foreign vessels operating in U.S. waters, and Coast Guard contacts with those vessels. Information on unclosed cases or cases pending further action is considered privileged information and is precluded from the PSIX system.

    Review: MISLE consumes and displays AIS data, but I (Kurt) have never seen the USCG Misle interface.
    BibTeX:
    @misc{misle2011,
      author = {Wikipedia editors},
      title = {MISLE},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=MISLE&oldid=409981126}
    }
    
    editors, W. Traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS) 2011 Wikipedia  misc URL 
    Abstract: A traffic collision avoidance system or traffic alert and collision avoidance system (both abbreviated as TCAS) is an aircraft collision avoidance system designed to reduce the incidence of mid-air collisions between aircraft. It monitors the airspace around an aircraft for other aircraft equipped with a corresponding active transponder, independent of air traffic control, and warns pilots of the presence of other transponder-equipped aircraft which may present a threat of mid-air collision (MAC). It is a type of airborne collision avoidance system mandated by the International Civil Aviation Organization to be fitted to all aircraft with a maximum take-off mass (MTOM) of over 5700 kg (12,586 lbs) or authorized to carry more than 19 passengers.

    Official definition from PANS-ATM (Nov 2007): ACAS / TCAS is an aircraft system based on secondary surveillance radar (SSR) transponder signals which operates independently of ground-based equipment to provide advice to the pilot on potential conflicting aircraft that are equipped with SSR transponders.

    In modern glass cockpit aircraft, the TCAS display may be integrated in the Navigation Display (ND) or Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI); in older glass cockpit aircraft and those with mechanical instrumentation, such an integrated TCAS display may replace the mechanical Vertical Speed Indicator (which indicates the rate with which the aircraft is descending or climbing).

    BibTeX:
    @misc{TCAS,
      author = {Wikipedia editors},
      title = {Traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS)},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Traffic_collision_avoidance_system&oldid=429358196}
    }
    
    Aarsaether, K. & Moan, T. Combined Maneuvering Analysis, AIS and Full-Mission Simulation 2007 TransNav  article URL 
    Abstract: This paper deals with a method for identifying the main parameters of a maneuver using both real-time full mission simulators and positioning data obtained from the Automatic Identification System of the same area. The effort required for experiments in real time maneuvering is naturally larger than the effort required to collect already available data. Analysis of both data sources is presented. We show how the curvature of the ships track can be related to the wheel-over point and further used to estimate the main parameters of a course-changing maneuver. The southern approach to the Risavika harbor in the southwest of Norway is used as a demonstration. The approach angle and turning circle diameter was accurately identified in both AIS and simulator data, but significant navigational markings was only quantifiable in simulator data.
    BibTeX:
    @article{aarsaether2007,
      author = {K.G. Aarsaether and T. Moan},
      title = {Combined Maneuvering Analysis, AIS and Full-Mission Simulation},
      journal = {TransNav},
      year = {2007},
      url = {http://transnav.am.gdynia.pl/proceedings/pdfs/056-114.pdf}
    }
    
    Aarsather, K.G. & Moan, T. Computer Vision and Ship Traffic Analysis: Inferring Manoeuvre Patterns From the Automatic Identification System 2009 8th International Symposium on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, TransNav 2009  conference  
    Abstract: FIX: need to get this paper
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Aarsaether2009,
      author = {Karl Gunnar Aarsather and Torgeir Moan},
      title = {Computer Vision and Ship Traffic Analysis: Inferring Manoeuvre Patterns From the Automatic Identification System},
      booktitle = {8th International Symposium on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, TransNav 2009},
      year = {2009}
    }
    
    Adveto.se AIS - History 2000? web w/ Google Translation  misc URL 
    Abstract: http://translate.google.com/translate?js=n&prev=_t&hl=sv&ie=UTF-8&layout=2&eotf=1&sl=sv&tl=en&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.adveto.se%2Fais_history.htm

    1993 - Adveto first in the world to sell software for AIS?

    Early AIS experiments were made by the Swedish Maritime Administration in 1991,
    was driven primarily by Bo Trygg and Benny Pettersson.
    The contact with Bo Trygg became in 1993 an inquiry by the Maritime Administration
    to Adveto of custom software for a test system with a number of
    "GPS transponders" (known as the AIS were not yet)
    som skulle installeras bl.a. which would be installed, for example p Styrsbolaget i Gteborg. on Styrsbolaget in Gothenburg. Installation Installation
    skulle ske p ett tiotal fartyg. would be at about a dozen ships.

    The primitive AVMS had now given way to the invention from Lans
    "GPS-transponder" as with synchronous transmission and superior
    capacity is now completely took over.
    In retrospect, it appears that these ten "test system" mentioned above
    is the first AIS system in the world!

    Administration ordered the hardware (GPS transponders) from the SSC,
    Chamber is now owned by SAAB.
    The software for the ten test systems were purchased from Adveto and consisted of
    standard software with a special run of "GPS-transponder".

    Summering: Summary:

    1. AIS is a Swedish invention!
    2. The first installations in the world was made in Sweden!
    3. AIS display, probably the first widely sold in the world!

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Adveto.se2000?,
      author = {Adveto.se},
      title = {AIS - History},
      year = {2000?},
      note = {Accessed Mar 2011},
      url = {http://www.adveto.se/ais_history.htm}
    }
    
    AIS Hub AIS Hub - AIS data sharing and vessel tracking 2011 web  misc URL 
    Abstract: AIS is the mariner's most significant development in navigation safety since the introduction of radar. The system was originally developed as a collision avoidance tool to enable commercial vessels to ‘see' each other more clearly in all conditions and improve the helmsman's information about his surrounding environment. AIS does this by continuously transmitting a vessels identity, position, speed and course, along with other relevant information to all other AIS equipped vessels within range. Combined with a shore station, this system also offers port authorities and maritime safety bodies the ability to manage maritime traffic and reduce the hazards of marine navigation.

    There are many Web sites tracking AIS targets, and it's amazing how much they vary in style, extra features, and even motivation. However the access to raw AIS feeds is limited.The main goal of AISHub.net is to become a raw NMEA AIS data sharing centre and valuable data source for all enthusiasts and professionals interested in development of AIS related software.

    Everybody who wants to receive the data from all available sources in real time has to share his own feed with the other AISHub members. We do not set any restrictions and all members are free to decide how to use the data - they can keep it for themselves, share it with other AIS sites or even use it for commercial projects. Think about it and... join us!

    We have used some parts of our AIS server source code and we have created a new application - AIS Dispatcher. AIS Dispatcher is a free utility for receiving, processing and forwarding of AIS data. We have tried to keep it simple, small and fast and we hope that you will enjoy it. You can choose between AIS Dispatcher for Windows or AIS Dispatcher for Linux.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{AISHub2011,
      author = {AIS Hub},
      title = {AIS Hub - AIS data sharing and vessel tracking},
      year = {2011},
      note = {Accessed Mar 2011},
      url = {http://www.aishub.net/}
    }
    
    Alexander, L. Providing Meteorological and Hydrographic Information via AIS Application Specific Messages: Challenges and Opportunities 2011 U.S. Hydro  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Alexander2011a,
      author = {Lee Alexander},
      title = {Providing Meteorological and Hydrographic Information via AIS Application Specific Messages: Challenges and Opportunities},
      booktitle = {U.S. Hydro},
      publisher = {The Hydrographic Society of America},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www.hypack.com/ushydro/2011/program.aspx}
    }
    
    Alexander, L. Providing Meteorological and Hydrographic Information via AIS Application Specific Messages: Challenges and Opportunities 2011 US Hydro  inproceedings URL 
    Abstract: AIS Application-Specific Messages (ASMs) transmitted in binary format will be increasingly used to digitally communicate maritime safety/security information between participating vessels and shore stations. This includes time-sensitive metrological and hydrographic (met/hydro) information that is critical for safe vessel transits and efficient ports/waterways management. IMO recently published a new Safety-of-Navigation Circular (SN.1./Circ.289) that includes a number of meteorological and hydrographic message applications and data parameters. While there are no specific display standards for AIS ASMs on shipborne or shore-based systems, IMO Has also issued general guidance for the presentation/display of ASMs (SN.1/Circ.290). It includes specific mention of conforming to the e-Navigation concept-of-operation. For any new IHO S-57 or S-100-related product specifications dealing with dynamic met/hydro information, IHO and its Member States should use the same data content fields and parameters that are defined in IMO SN.1/Circ.289. Also, there is a need to consider the implications of IMO guidance regarding the presentation/display of AIS ASMs on ECDIS.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Alexander2011,
      author = {Lee Alexander},
      title = {Providing Meteorological and Hydrographic Information via AIS Application Specific Messages: Challenges and Opportunities},
      booktitle = {US Hydro},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www.hypack.com/ushydro/2011/program.aspx}
    }
    
    Alexander, L. Research Project Proposal: Protection of Right Whales from Vessel Collisions
    Using Marine Information Objects (MIOs) with Electronic Charts
    2005 Invited Proposal to NOAA  misc  
    Abstract: The North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis) is among the world’s most endangered cetaceans. The population is now believed to less than 300 individuals and declining. The decline is due primarily to high mortality from human activities, most notably fishing gear entanglements and vessel collisions. Of the 50 dead right whales reported since 1986, at least 19 (38%) were killed by vessel collisions (Kraus et al, 2005). This number is likely an underestimate of total mortality due to ship strikes since the fate of whales struck by vessels is not always known. Further, the mortality rate for right whales has reportedly increased between 1980 and 1998 to a 4% level (~14 whales per year). Given that during the past 20 years, the average number of reported whale deaths is 2.4 per year, this indicates a detection rate of only 17% (Kraus et al, 2005).

    Right whales were included in the 1931 Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, and have been protected from commercial whaling since 1949. In USA waters, right whales are protected by the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Since 1973 they have been listed as “endangered species.” The Secretary of Commerce has the authority to protect most endangered marine species, including right whales. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has lead responsibility for developing and implementing a recovery plan.

    A Right Whale Recovery Plan has been recently reissued (NMFS, 2005). In the Plan, collisions with ships are cited as the main threat and greatest known cause of right whale mortality in the western Atlantic, and the primary recovery strategy is to reduce or eliminate human-related deaths and injuries. Objective #1 of the Recovery Plan is to “significantly reduce sources of human-caused death, injury and disturbance.” Key actions listed include an early warning/sighting advisory system, vessel traffic management, and mandatory ship reporting systems.

    Title 50 CFR Part 222.32 stipulates that vessels should not approach within 500 yards to any Right Whale. However, at night or during periods of low visibility (e.g., fog or rain), this may not be possible. Even if the vessel is transiting at reduced speed, it is not likely that a whale would be spotted in time by the Officer on Watch to take avoidance measures. Title 50 CFR Part 226.203 establishes three (3) critical habitat areas for right whales, including Great South Channel, Cape Cod Bay, and an area of the southeast coast of the USA. However, these are static areas designations and right whales are not always located within the area boundaries. Depending on the time of year, North Atlantic right whales migrate from The Bay of Fundy and The Scotian Shelf in Canadian waters to coastal Florida and Georgia.

    Performance Standards for a Universal Shipborne Automatic Identification System (AIS) were adopted by IMO in 1998 (IMO 1998). Although originally envisioned as primarily a vessel identification and tracking system, AIS has now evolved into digital information system capable of being used for collision avoidance (ship-to-ship), vessel traffic management (ship-to-shore), and marine safety broadcasts (shore-to-ship). Figure 2 shows a diagram of the planned AIS Network. Shipboard and shore-based AIS transponders will utilize a world-wide available frequency spectrum, and will have sufficient capacity to operate in the busiest ports and waterways. Beginning in 2004, all SOLAS ships (>40,000 vessels) and many non-SOLAS ships (possibly 10 times SOLAS) are required to carry AIS transponders. Electronic charting systems are a preferred means to display of AIS targets (other vessels) and other marine safety-related information.

    Currently, aerial surveys of right whales are conducted by NMFS on an almost daily basis. The information contained in the survey reports of right whale sightings is compiled and then issued by NOAA to maritime users via: USCG safety net broadcasts, NOAA weather radio (voice), and NAVTEX messages. However, this information is not in a format that can be easily used with electronic charting or integrated navigation systems. What is needed in an improved means to deliver information about current location/movement of right whales that can be readily displayed and used. Figures 4-7 show four (4) “screen captures” of an electronic chart system that displays a prototype right whale MIO on top of a raster nautical chart. The hypothetical scenario is that a small pod of right whales is reported in the vicinity of Great South Channel (east of Cape Cod). Every 12 hours a new MIO is issued updating the whales’ current location/movement. When the actual location of the right whales known, mariners will most likely alter their route to avoid transiting through this area. Given the behavior of right whales towards ships, it would be far better to avoid areas where whales are located, rather than simply reducing speed.

    Any new system or service is only as good as who is using it and what it is being used for. If provided to mariners in a timely and reliable manner, the provision of right whale MIOs would be important information that mariners can use for making informed decisions for both voyage planning and route monitoring. However, for right whale MIO service to be implemented, an applied research, development, test and evaluation program is needed. However, there are no major technological hurdles to overcome. If MIOs can provide information related to ice coverage, severe weather, tides/water levels, coral reefs and other “special areas”, then MIOs can also provide time-critical information on the current location and movement of right whales.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Alexander2005,
      author = {Lee Alexander},
      title = {Research Project Proposal: Protection of Right Whales from Vessel Collisions
    Using Marine Information Objects (MIOs) with Electronic Charts}, year = {2005} }
    Alexander, L. & Schwehr, K. Concept: IALA AIS Binary Messages Web site for message Catalog and Register 2009   techreport  
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{alexander2009,
      author = {Alexander, L. and Schwehr, K},
      title = {Concept: IALA AIS Binary Messages Web site for message Catalog and Register},
      year = {2009}
    }
    
    Alexander, L., S.K. New Standards for Providing Meteorological and Hydrographic Information via AIS Application-Specific Messages 2010 International Hydrographic Review
    Vol. 3, pp. 37-44 
    article URL 
    Abstract: AIS Application-specific messages transmitted in binary format will be increasingly used to digitally communicate maritime safety/security information between participating vessels and shore stations. This includes time-sensitive meteorological and hydrographic information that is critical for safe vessel transits and efficient ports/waterways management. IMO recently completed a new Safety-of-Navigation Circular (SN/Circ.) that includes a number of meteorologi- cal and hydrographic message applications and data parameters. In conjunction with the development of a new SN/Circ., IMO will establish an International Application (IA) Register for AIS Application-Specific Messages. IALA plans to establish a similar register for regional appli- cations. While there are no specific standards for the presentation/display of AIS application- specific messages on shipborne or shore-based systems, IMO issued guidance that includes specific mention of conforming to the e-Navigation concept of operation. For both IHO S-57 and S-100-related data dealing with dynamic met/hydro information, it is recommended that IHO uses the same data content fields and parameters that are defined in the new IMO SN/Circ. on AIS Application-specific Messages.
    BibTeX:
    @article{alexander2010b,
      author = {Alexander, L., Schwehr, K.},
      title = {New Standards for Providing Meteorological and Hydrographic Information via AIS Application-Specific Messages},
      journal = {International Hydrographic Review},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {3},
      pages = {37-44},
      url = {http://vislab-ccom.unh.edu/~schwehr/papers/201005-alexander-schwehr-IHR-MetHydro-ais.pdf}
    }
    
    Alexander, L., S.K.Z.R. Establishing an IALA AIS Binary Message Register: Recommended Process 2010 17th IALA CONFERENCE, pp. 108-115  article URL 
    Abstract: The goal of the Regional AIS Application Specific Message Register is to provide awareness of what applications exist, facilitate harmonization, and promote proper binary messaging for regional applications. To be hosted on the IALA website, establishing the Register will be a 3-step process:

    1) Compile all existing AIS binaries into a "collection."
    2) Convert the "collection" into a Register.
    3) Develop IALA guidance on best practices for creating and using AIS Binary Messages.

    Recommendations are provided in regard to:

    - Benefit of a web-based HTML user interface for input/output.
    - Use of XML to organize/format register applications in a consistent manner.
    - Having the collection/registration become a "loop" process.
    - Conforming to ISO standards to organize and manage the Register.

    - Benefit of a joint IMO-IALA register for both international and regional applications.

    BibTeX:
    @article{alexander2010a,
      author = {Alexander, L., Schwehr, K. Zetterberg, R.},
      title = {Establishing an IALA AIS Binary Message Register: Recommended Process},
      journal = {17th IALA CONFERENCE},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {108-115},
      url = {http://vislab-ccom.unh.edu/~schwehr/papers/201003-iala-7th-conf-regional-ais.pdf}
    }
    
    Anderson, L.K. ShipPlotter - A User Guide for the Ship Spotting Enthusiast 2009 , pp. 132  book URL 
    Abstract: FIX: has anyone reviewed this book?

    ShipPlotter is a unique piece of software that enables a user to have a quais live radar type display of shipping in their local coastal region or other regions and waterways around the world. The software decodes radio signals, received using a VHF radio receiver or scanner, from ships transmitting digital data using the marine Automatic Identification System (AIS). The book provides an excellent description of the AIS system and messaging. ShipPlotter visually displays the position and identification of each ship either as radar view or on a chart created from a graphic image file, a satellite image download or a downloaded Open Street Map. Whilst mariners, small boat owners and yachtsmen can use the ShipPlotter software this book is written for and intended solely for the hobbyist and ship-spotting enthusiast. Its contents therefore should not be used as any sort of guidance or advice for those who are not firmly fixed to their seats in the comfort of their homes on dry ground!

    BibTeX:
    @book{Anderson2011,
      author = {Lionel K Anderson},
      title = {ShipPlotter - A User Guide for the Ship Spotting Enthusiast},
      publisher = {Las Atalayas Publishing},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {132},
      url = {http://www.lulu.com/product/paperback/shipplotter---a-user-guide-for-the-ship-spotting-enthusiast-%28contains-greyscale-images%29/15227455}
    }
    
    Andraschko, M., Antol, J., Horan, S. & Neil, D. Commercially hosted government payloads: Lessons from recent programs 2011 Aerospace Conference, 2011 IEEE  inproceedings DOI URL 
    Abstract: In a commercially hosted operational mode, a scientific instrument or operational device is attached to a spacecraft but operates independently from the spacecraft's primary mission. Despite the expected benefits of this arrangement, there are few examples of hosted payload programs actually being executed by government organizations. The lack of hosted payload programs is largely driven by programmatic challenges, both real and perceived, rather than by technical challenges. Partly for these reasons, NASA has not sponsored a hosted payload program, in spite of the benefits and visible community interest in doing so. In the interest of increasing the use of hosted payloads across the space community, this paper seeks to alleviate concerns about hosted payloads by identifying these programmatic challenges and presenting ways in which they can be avoided or mitigated.

    ... The hosted payloads included in this study are the Federal Aviation Administration's Wide Area
    Augmentation System (WAAS) payloads, United States Coast Guard's Automatic Identification
    System (AIS) demonstration payload, Department of Defense's IP Router In Space (IRIS ...

    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Andraschko2011,
      author = {Andraschko, Mark and Antol, Jeffrey and Horan, Stephen and Neil, Doreen},
      title = {Commercially hosted government payloads: Lessons from recent programs},
      booktitle = {Aerospace Conference, 2011 IEEE},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=5747491},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AERO.2011.5747491}
    }
    
    Andress, M., Freeman, B. & Spalding, J. Maritime Domain Awareness Data Sharing Community of Interest (MDA DS COI) 2007 (Spiral 2 Vocabulary Handbook Version 2.0.2 Final Release)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: The Maritime Domain Awareness Data Sharing Community of Interest (MDA DS COI) Data Management Working Group (DMWG) was established in February 2006 to develop a repeatable process for developing and registering a community vocabulary supporting the MDA DS COI, beginning with the schematic representation of Automatic Identification System (AIS) data as it pertained to the MDA DS COI Spiral 1 pilot objectives.

    While under spiral 1 the MDA DS COI provided AIS data as a service, the MDA DS COI is providing several value added services under spiral 2:
    Data Augmentation Service (DAS) - This service provides a capability for AIS data providers to augment AIS messages with data from an authoritative reference source
    Historical Archive Service (HAS) - The HAS will provide users with an ability to view previous vessel locations over time.
    Anomaly Detection Service (ADS) - This service will be built using the previous two services. If a discrepancy exists between the AIS sensor and the authoritative reference source or if the vessel is making anomalous movements, then an anomaly has been detected and consumers of the message will be notified of such.

    n order to avoid this, the majority of modeling in support of the DAS shifted from UML to the XSDs. We no longer employed an automated process to go from UML to XSD. We started with XSDs and generated UML models afterwards. We found that one particular tool (i.e., SPARX Enterprise Architect) performed reasonably well in automatically generating UML from XSDs. That said, it could not generate all constructs resident within the XSDs and manual changes were still required to simplify the diagram. The UML artifacts in Appendix D are a result of this process.

    http://metadata.dod.mil/mdr/ns/MaritimeDomainAwareness

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Andress2007,
      author = {Mark Andress and Brian Freeman and Jay Spalding},
      title = {Maritime Domain Awareness Data Sharing Community of Interest (MDA DS COI)},
      year = {2007},
      number = {Spiral 2 Vocabulary Handbook Version 2.0.2 Final Release},
      url = {http://www.uscg.mil/acquisition/nais/RFP/SectionJ/MDA-COI-vocab.pdf}
    }
    
    Andrienko, N. & Andrienko, G. Spatial Generalization and Aggregation of Massive Movement Data 2011 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
    Vol. 17, pp. 205-219 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Movement data (trajectories of moving agents) are hard to visualize: numerous intersections and overlapping between trajectories make the display heavily cluttered and illegible. It is necessary to use appropriate data abstraction methods. We suggest a method for spatial generalization and aggregation of movement data, which transforms trajectories into aggregate flows between areas. It is assumed that no predefined areas are given. We have devised a special method for partitioning the underlying territory into appropriate areas. The method is based on extracting significant points from the trajectories. The resulting abstraction conveys essential characteristics of the movement. The degree of abstraction can be controlled through the parameters of the method. We introduce local and global numeric measures of the quality of the generalization, and suggest an approach to improve the quality in selected parts of the territory where this is deemed necessary. The suggested method can be used in interactive visual exploration of movement data and for creating legible flow maps for presentation purposes.
    Review: Only slight reference to AIS.
    3 path aggregation styles: spatial, temporal, and catagorical
    Voronoi tessellation / delaney triangulation
    characteristic points -> clusting -> create cells -> sequence of visits of cells -> aggregated statistics
    BibTeX:
    @article{Andrienko2011,
      author = {Natalia Andrienko and Gennady Andrienko},
      title = {Spatial Generalization and Aggregation of Massive Movement Data},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics},
      publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {17},
      pages = {205-219},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5432167},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TVCG.2010.44}
    }
    
    Ankerstjerne, P. Gate House eNavigation 2007 eNavigation conference, pp. 17  article  
    Abstract: "Collection"

    Coastal AIS
    LRIT
    Space based AIS (AIS-S) w/ COM DEV
    Radar

    E-navigation calls for a mix of technologies and high degree of interoperability !

    Based on polling
    Position report every 6 hour
    Position reports are time-stamped
    SatCom ID will correspond to a MMSI #

    -Global coverage
    -data are shared on a need to knows basis via the International Data Exchange (USCG interim solution)

    Normal AIS messages retrieved by satellite from space
    Based on existing infrastructure (Class A transponder)
    Global coverage
    IALA compliant => direct integration with existing AIS systems
    Includes all AIS message (destination, speed, heading etc.)

    -AIS-S will provide global coverage
    -AIS-S will complement LRIT
    -AIS-S will in some cases provide alternative to a coastal AIS infrastructure

    "Exchange and integrate"
    Use of virtual AtoN during accidents

    October 30, 2007 the vessels OMER N capsized in a heavy trafficked area of Danish Waters
    The Danish Authorities initiated a virtual AtoN maintained by base stations on shore
    The virtual AtoN was supplemented with a AIS text message service
    All vessels in proximity could see the Virtual AtoN
    Vessels heading toward the wreck received an addressed AIS message explaining the situation in more detail

    ghTrack (tm)
    Track, Monitor and Control Framework

    Generic Service Oriented Component Framework - a track, Monitor and Control OS

    Scalable -
    From local to global deployments
    Scales with the number of users
    Scales with the number of assets
    Scales with the number of alerts

    Complexity increase => Modeling

    BibTeX:
    @article{Ankerstjerne2007,
      author = {Pia Ankerstjerne},
      title = {Gate House eNavigation},
      journal = {eNavigation conference},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {17}
    }
    
    Appler, J.A., Finney, S.M. & McMellon, M.A. Aerial Remote Radio Frequency Identification System for Small Vessel Monitoring 2009   techreport URL 
    Abstract: This MBA Professional Report proves the feasibility of using aircraft mounted RFID antennas to detect commercially available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags affixed to small vessels. The project was conducted because monitoring small vessels in U.S. coastal and inland waters is considered a gap in homeland security, as well as problematic for marine resource managers tasked with enforcing sanctuary and fishing regulations. The premises of the project are that 1) RFID tags are less invasive and more cost effective than other current methods of proposed monitoring, 2) airborne platforms can monitor areas of interest faster and more efficiently than surface based monitoring systems, and 3) small vessel registration numbers can be electronically associated with the serial number of the affixed RFID tag. The cost of tagging each vessel is low (around $$50 per vessel), and the tag number of any vessel could be read remotely from 0.3 to 0.5 nautical miles away. The agency reading the tag would be able to retrieve the associated vessel registration information from a national database through a back-end data-link system. This system could improve coastal and port security by providing remote monitoring of real-time vessel location information, and could enable improvements in resource management methods by enabling correlation of location and identification data for recreational vessels engaged in natural resource use.

    For example, AIS is currently required of many commercial vessels, with the result that large ships and boats working in and around vessel traffic schemes show up on all compatible RADAR and electronic navigation displays as special icons with directional vectors and data summaries. AIS broadcasters alone can cost hundreds to thousands of dollars, but beyond that, they require integration with professional-grade bridge equipment that adds thousands more to the cost per boat. How can one realistically expect the taxpayer, let alone a citizen who owns a 17-foot runabout that may have cost less than an AIS broadcaster, to pay for such systems? This is a case in which the law of diminishing returns may apply. Added to the financial limitations of AIS, is the fact that even now, with only commercial vessels carrying AIS, professional mariners operating in the vicinity of a busy port with many other commercial vessels will see an overwhelming amount of AIS information on their navigation systems, making it difficult to distinguish between significant and insignificant information on the displays. If small vessels were broadcasting AIS as well, the amount of traffic around commercial ports like Long Beach, Galveston, Boston, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and many others would likely create AIS information overload for all users.

    Crofts (2007) points out that although AIS is not required of small vessels, there are other identification requirements they must comply with. As previously mentioned, all vessels over 30 feet in length or over five gross tons in displacement must be documented with the U.S. Coast Guard and are then referred to as 'Documented Vessels.' All undocumented vessels with propulsion machinery must be registered by name of vessel and hailing port18 with the state in which the hailing port is located (USC, 2007).

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Appler2009,
      author = {Jason A. Appler and Sean M. Finney and
    Michael A. McMellon}, title = {Aerial Remote Radio Frequency Identification System for Small Vessel Monitoring}, year = {2009}, url = {http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA513997} }
    de Araújo, J.L.R. AIS - A SOTDMA cellular network for maritime safety-related communication: Simulation of VHF coverage over a designated Area of Interest under a specific AIS traffic load scenario 2004   techreport URL 
    Abstract: The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is filling a gap and contributing to the positive identification of ships in the maritime environment, where until recently the only information available was that generated by echoes on the radar screen or ECDIS (Electronic Chart Display and Information System) displays.

    The VHF (Very High Frequency) digital data link along which the information travels allows widening the AIS initial scope of ship monitoring and reporting only to embrace additional application areas, such as AtoNs (Aids to Navigation, including lighthouses and buoys), and SAR (Search-And-Rescue) operations among others.

    All those applications have in common the need for a system that continuously monitors and reports the precise geographical position of a device that floats or a platform that moves, or needs some sort of remote control. The VDL (VHF Data Link) is invaluable under such circumstances for carrying all the data, including text messages and channel monitoring.

    A growing number of national networks are being implemented worldwide nowadays, from the moment that the carriage of AIS onboard ships has become mandatory, under an organized time schedule for every type of ship defined and approved by the International Maritime Organization.

    By combining well-experienced ways of communication, such as VHF, and proved Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), such as Global Positioning System (GPS), with the arrival of the Self-Organizing Time Division Multiple Access (SOTDMA) algorithm, the AIS is the common platform for a new set of emerging applications offering enough ground for additional developments.

    This report explains the concept of a cellular AIS network, and provides an analysis on the effective coverage provided by a shore AIS base station (one fundamental element of the network) over a designated AOI (Area of Interest) under ships' traffic working scenario designed on purpose and approaching reality.

    In this context, after a site survey was conducted to identify a suitable location for the base station, the VHF cell range over the sea was calculated and validated, the AIS traffic load on the base station cell was evaluated, the cell load handling capability was demonstrated, and research was conducted and documented on applicable standards, techniques and combined concepts of AIS coverage.

    The report also briefly addresses future AIS areas of application, and identifies the applicable standards and the International Bodies that rule on this field.

    Includes VHF Line-of-Sight (LOS) coverage calculation

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Araujo2004,
      author = {J. L. Ribeiro de Araújo},
      title = {AIS - A SOTDMA cellular network for maritime safety-related communication: Simulation of VHF coverage over a designated Area of Interest under a specific AIS traffic load scenario},
      year = {2004},
      url = {http://www.ribeirodearaujo.com/AIS-A%20SOTDMA%20network.htm}
    }
    
    Arnold, L.L. & Zandbergen, P.A. Positional accuracy of the wide area augmentation system in consumer-grade GPS units 2011 Computers & Geosciences
    Vol. In Press, Accepted Manuscript, pp. -  
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Global Positioning System devices are increasingly being used for data collection in many fields. Consumer-grade GPS units without differential correction have a published horizontal positional accuracy of approximately 10 to 15 m (average positional accuracy). An attractive option for differential correction for these GPS units is the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). Most consumer-grade GPS units on the market are WAAS capable. According to the FAA, the WAAS broadcast message provides integrity information about the GPS signal as well as accuracy improvements which are reported to improve accuracy to 3 to 5 m. Limited empirical evidence has been published on the accuracy of WAAS-enabled GPS compared to autonomous GPS. An empirical study was conducted comparing the horizontal and vertical accuracy of WAAS-corrected GPS and autonomous GPS under ideal conditions using consumer-grade receivers. Data were collected for 30-min time spans over accurately surveyed control points. Metrics of median, 68th and 95th percentile, RMSE, and average positional accuracy in the horizontal and vertical dimensions were computed and statistically tested with a hypothesis test. The test found no statistical difference between WAAS and autonomous position fixes when using two different consumer-grade units. When using WAAS, a third unit type exhibited a statistically significant improvement in positional accuracy. Analysis of data collected for a 27-h time span indicates that while WAAS is altering the estimated position of a point compared to an autonomous position estimate, WAAS augmentation actually appears to decrease the positional accuracy.
    Review: Which AIS Units have WAAS in their GPS receivers?
    BibTeX:
    @article{Arnold2011,
      author = {Lisa L. Arnold and Paul A. Zandbergen},
      title = {Positional accuracy of the wide area augmentation system in consumer-grade GPS units},
      journal = {Computers & Geosciences},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {In Press, Accepted Manuscript},
      pages = { - },
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V7D-52H9GMB-1/2/d320f89e82a1ce22c7ef36f3f08ae67e},
      doi = {DOI: 10.1016/j.cageo.2010.12.011}
    }
    
    ARRL The AARL Handbook for Radio Communications 2008
    Vol. 85 
    book URL 
    Abstract: The ARRL Handbook is part reference and part applied theory, filled with practical treatments of basic electronic fundamentals, RF design, digital and software radio technology, and antenna construction. It strikes the perfect balance between presentations of time-tested material and coverage of the expanding scope of Amateur Radio and the state-of-the-art.

    For more than eight decades, The Handbook has empowered radio amateurs and professionals alike with its do-it-yourself approach, finding its way onto workbenches and operating desks, and into technical libraries and institutions.

    BibTeX:
    @book{arrl2008,
      author = {ARRL},
      title = {The AARL Handbook for Radio Communications},
      publisher = {The ARRL},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {85},
      url = {http://www.arrl.org/}
    }
    
    Arroyo, J. The Automatic Identification System: Then, now, and in the future. 2011 USCG Proceedings
    Vol. Spring, pp. 51-57 
    article URL 
    Abstract: After the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, Congress en- acted the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, which changed how we deal with oil pollution prevention and response and made participation in Coast Guard vessel traffic serv- ices (VTS) mandatory. One other important provision in the law was the mandate to create a dependent sur- veillance system to monitor tankers navigating to and from Valdez, Alaska.

    Frequency Information
    AIS primarily operates on two world-wide designated radio chan- nels VHF-FM channel 87B and 88B but to ensure its universal- ity, the system also operates on any channel in the VHF-FM band for areas where the designated frequencies may be unavailable.
    To further provide robustness, AIS communicates using a time- division multiple access scheme, which allows several users to share the same frequency channel by dividing the signal into dif- ferent time slots. The users transmit in rapid succession, each using his own time slot.

    s ca- pability to home in on vessels such as lifeboats? Thus began an effort to develop an AIS-based search and res- cue transmitter (AIS SART).
    The U.S. Coast Guard conducted trials with prototype AIS search and rescue transmitters designed to broad- cast in eight-second bursts to ensure the equipment broadcasts at least once on the crest of a wave. In all tri- als AIS SART performance far exceeded the radar coun- terpart. Aircraft flying at 20,000 feet were able to detect an AIS SART from more than 120 nautical miles, while radar search and rescue transponders only came within range at one-half to one-third the distance. Addition- ally, the new technology sends a GPS-derived position report, which promises to reduce the 'search' in search and rescue operations.

    AIS ASM. Also in the technological forefront, the IMO has adopted a compendium of application-specific messages (ASM) that promise to greatly enhance AIS users' navigation safety. These applications will pro- vide for the exchange of:
    *environmental, meteorological, and hydrological data;
    *reporting dangerous cargo and/or persons;
    *port clearance and berthing information;
    *mandatory and recommended routes;
    *amplifying vessel static and voyage-related data;
    *VTS or synthetic targets (vessels without AIS);
    *pertinent time-critical dynamic navigation infor- mation concerning a specified geographic area, poly-line, or position.
    AIS SAT. Finally, the latest change to the AIS technical standard includes a message specifically designed for AIS reception from satellite (AIS SAT). To enhance AIS satel- lite reception, the U.S. developed a new automatic iden- tification service message in which the number of bits has been compressed to improve long-range detection.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Arroyo2011,
      author = {Jorge Arroyo},
      title = {The Automatic Identification System: Then, now, and in the future.},
      journal = {USCG Proceedings},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {Spring},
      pages = {51-57},
      url = {http://www.uscg.mil/proceedings/Spring2011/Spring%202011.pdf}
    }
    
    Arroyo, J. USA Shipboard AIS Data Entry Guidelines 2010   standard URL 
    BibTeX:
    @standard{arroyo2010,
      author = {Jorge Arroyo},
      title = {USA Shipboard AIS Data Entry Guidelines},
      year = {2010},
      note = {This link is not working for the older version: http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pdf/USA_AIS_Data_Entry_Guidance_v4.pdf},
      url = {http://navcen.uscg.gov/pdf//USA_AIS_Data_Entry_Guidance%20v5.pdf}
    }
    
    Arroyo, J. United States Coast Guard Waterways Management: Providing navigation safety information for America's waterways 2009 TEXAS III, pp. 35  article URL 
    Abstract: What started the USCG on AIS?

    In 1990, Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act which participation in VTS mandatory and directed the USCG to seek ways to have -dependent surveillance' of all tankers bound for Valdez, Alaska.
    To that end, in 1993 the USCG developed Automated Dependent Surveillance Shipboard Equipment (ADSSE), based on Digital Selective Calling (DSC) protocol.

    International Maritime Organization (IMO), headquartered in London, is a specialized agency of the United Nations which is responsible for measures to improve the safety and security of international shipping and to prevent marine pollution from ships. It also is involved in legal matters, including liability and compensation issues and the facilitation of international maritime traffic. It was established by means of a Convention adopted under the auspices of the United Nations in March 1948. It currently has 165 Member States.
    IMO.74(69) AIS Performance Standard
    SOLAS V/19.2 (Int'l) (2002 Amendment)
    SN/Circ.222 Guidelines on Operational Use of AIS
    SN/Circ.227 & 245 Installation Guidelines
    SN/Circ.236 Guidelines on Use of Binary Messages
    SN/Circ.243 Presentation of Navigation-Related Symbols
    SN/Circ.244 Use of Destination Field (UN/LOCODES)
    IMO AIS STW Model Course
    Re: the publication of AIS data
    MSC/Circ.1251 Annual AIS Inspection

    Safety of Life at Sea Conventions (SOLAS) Chapter V, Regulation 19

    2.4 All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards engaged on international voyages and cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards not engaged on international voyages and passenger ships irrespective of size shall be fitted with an automatic identification system (AIS), as follows:
    .1 ships constructed on or after 1 July 2002;
    .2 ships engaged on international voyages constructed before 1 July 2002:
    .2.1 in the case of passenger ships, not later than 1 July 2003;
    .2.2 in the case of tankers, not later than the first survey for safety equipment on or after 1 July 2003;
    .2.3 in the case of ships, other than passenger ships and tankers, of 50,000 gross tonnage and upwards, not later than 1 July 2004;
    .2.4 in the case of ships, other than passenger ships and tankers, of 300 gross tonnage and upwards, but less than 50,000 gross tonnage, not later than the first safety equipment survey ' after 1 July 2004 or by 31 December 2004, whichever occurs earlier; and
    .3 ships not engaged on international voyages constructed before 1 July 2002, not later than 1 July 2008;
    .5 AIS shall:
    .1 provide automatically to appropriately equipped shore stations, other ships and aircraft information, including the ship's identity, type, position, course, speed, navigational status and other safety-related information;
    .2 receive automatically such information from similarly fitted ships;
    .3 monitor and track ships; and
    .4 exchange data with shore-based facilities;
    .6 the requirements of paragraph 2.4.5 shall not be applied to cases where international agreements, rules or standards provide for the protection of navigational information; and
    .7 AIS shall be operated taking into account the guidelines adopted by the Organization. Ships fitted with AIS shall maintain AIS in operation at all times except where international agreements, rules or standards provide for the protection of navigational information

    The International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) is a non profit making international technical association. Established in 1957, it gathers together marine aids to navigation authorities, manufacturers and consultants from all parts of the world and offers them the opportunity to compare their experiences and achievements.

    IALA's AIS as a VTS Tool
    IALA Guideline 1028 Part I, AIS Operations Issues
    IALA Guideline 1029 Part II, Technical Aspects of AIS
    IALA Guideline 1050 Monitoring & Management of AIS
    IALA Recommendation A-123 Shore-based AIS
    IALA Recommendation A-124 AIS as a Network Service
    IALA Recommendation A-126 AIS as a Marine Service (AtoN)
    IALA Technical Clarification re: ITU-R M.1371-1 (Ed. 2)

    The International Electrotechnical Commission is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies. These serve as a basis for national standardization and as references when drafting international tenders and contracts. Through its members, the IEC promotes international cooperation on all questions of electrotechnical standardization and related matters, such as the assessment of conformity to standards, in the fields of electricity, electronics and related technologies.
    IEC 61993-2 AIS Class A Mobile
    IEC 62287-1 AIS Class B/CS Mobile
    IEC 62320-1 AIS Base Station
    IEC 62320-2 AIS Aide to Navigation (ATON)
    IEC 61162-1 Digital Interfaces
    IEC 61162-2 Digital Interfaces (Hi-speed)
    IEC 61162-3 Digital Interfaces (NMEA2000)
    IEC 61174-3 ECDIS
    IEC 62288-1 Presentation of navigation-related information on shipborne navigation displays

    Maritime Transportation Security Act
    46 U.S.C. 70114 - Automatic identification system
    On the navigable waters of the United States, each-
    Self-propelled commercial vessel of at least 65 feet,
    Towing vessel of more than 26 feet and 600 hp,
    Passenger vessels as determined by the USCG,
    Any other vessel deemed necessary for the safe navigation of the vessel.
    shall be equipped with and operate an AIS under regulations prescribed by the USCG.

    AIS Carriage Regulations 33 CFR 164.46
    The following must have a properly installed, operational, type-approved AIS

    On international voyage:
    Tankers, Passenger > 150 GT, all others > 300 GT
    Per SOLAS Regulation V/19.2.4
    Self-propelled commercial vessels > 65 feet
    Except fishing and small passenger vessels (<150 passengers)
    Within a VTS area:
    Self-propelled commercial vessel 65+ feet
    Except fishing & small passengers vessels
    Towing vessel > 26 feet and > 600 hp
    Vessel certificated to carry > 150 passengers

    AIS Rulemaking [Changes in Bold-type]
    10/23/03 current AIS requirement (33 CFR 164.46)
    07/01/03-01/09/04 sought AIS expansion comment
    10/31/05 - notice expansion of AIS to all waters
    12/16/08 NPRM -4/15/09 comment deadline
    Could effect 17,442 vessels / 14,506 small biz's, i.e.
    Commercial self-propelled vessels of > 65 feet
    No exclusions
    Towing vessels > 26 feet & >600 hp
    Vessels with > 50 passengers (vice 150 for hire)
    Hi-speed passenger vessels (> 12 pax)
    Certain dredges & floating plants, &
    Vessel moving certain dangerous cargoes

    US AIS Carriage Population:
    Solas 438, IR 7/02 4121, FR 11/03 2963, 17442

    AIS On Goings-

    FCC Regulations
    Designates AIS 1 & 2 Nation-wide
    Limits AIS Base Stations to Federal entities
    Class B Type-certification
    Type-Approvals: 9 new Class B's; Class A's still at 18 to date
    AIS for ATON's
    2 USCG Test Units. AIS PATON under consideration, policy in development
    ITU-R M.1371-3 provides 4 new messages
    Single and Multi-slotted Binary Messages
    Group Assignment Message
    Expanded Static Data Message
    IEC 61097 - AIS Search & Rescue Transmitter (SART)
    In Final Stage, we expect availability later this year
    IEC 61993-2 - AIS Class A, 2nd Generation AIS-in development-2010

    NAIS I-1 Actual Coverage for 1-16 Oct 2007

    79th Session of IMO Marine Safety Committee
    .1 agree that the publication on the world-wide web or elsewhere of AIS data
    transmitted by ships could be detrimental to the safety and security of ships and
    port facilities and is undermining the efforts of the Organization and its Member
    States to enhance the safety of navigation and security in the international

    maritime transport sector;
    .2 urge masters of ships, notwithstanding the provisions of Guidelines for the
    on-board operational use of Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) adopted by
    the Organization by resolution A.917(22) as amended by resolution A.956(23) not
    to switch off the shipís AIS on account of the publication on the world-wide web
    or elsewhere of the AIS data transmitted by their ships;
    .3 urge Member Governments, subject to the provisions of their national laws, to
    discourage those who make available AIS data to others for publication on the
    world-wide web, or elsewhere from doing so;
    .4 condemn the regrettable publication on the world-wide web or elsewhere of AIS
    data transmitted by ships;
    .5 condemn those who irresponsibly publish AIS data transmitted by ships on the
    world-wide web or elsewhere, particularly if these offer other services to the
    shipping and port industries; and
    .6 request the Secretary-General to bring to the attention of those who publish or
    who may publish AIS data transmitted by ships on the world-wide web or
    elsewhere, the conclusions of the Committee.

    86th Session of IMO Marine Safety Committee
    .1 concerns had been raised, which should be conveyed to relevant bodies in ITU,
    to be taken into account in their further studies, namely:
    .1.1 the relation with the implementation of the LRIT system;
    .1.2 integrity and confidentiality issues;
    .1.3 security issues;
    .1.4 collection and dissemination of data;
    .1.5 technical issues, such as the risk of interference to critical existing maritime radiocommunication services and the need for changes to the
    current AIS Class A equipment; and
    .1.6 global policy issues, including the view that all countries should benefit from the development and implementation of this system;

    .2 there was general support for the continuation of studies under the framework of ITU; and
    .3 IMO should not make any commitment at this stage, awaiting the outcome of studies.

    Technical Clarifications on AIS Navigation Status Considering the advent of Navigation Light Controllers and Foreseen Equipment Interfacing

    BibTeX:
    @article{Arroyo2009,
      author = {Jorge Arroyo},
      title = {United States Coast Guard Waterways Management: Providing navigation safety information for America's waterways},
      journal = {TEXAS III},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {35},
      note = {powerpoint},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/twiki/pub/Main/TexasIII/ArroyoTEXAS-III.ppt}
    }
    
    Arroyo, J. U.S. Coast Guard AIS Regulations:
    Now & Proposed
    2009 Web  standard URL 
    Abstract: PROPOSED RULEMAKING [USCG-2003-21869]
    On December 16th, 2008 (73 FR 78295)—in an effort to improve navigation safety, enhance the ability to identify and track vessels, heighten our overall maritime domain awareness, and thus help us address threats to maritime transportation safety and security and mitigate the pos- sible harm from such threats, the Coast Guard published and solicited comments on a proposed rule that would expand the applicability of AIS requirements, beyond USCGV esselT rafficServiceareas,toallU. S.navigable waters and require it use by most commercial self- propelled vessels (in excess of 17,000);
    BibTeX:
    @standard{Arroyo2009a,
      author = {Jorge Arroyo},
      title = {U.S. Coast Guard AIS Regulations:
    Now & Proposed}, year = {2009}, url = {http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pdf/AIS/USCG_AIS_Regs_Current-Proposed_v2.pdf} }
    Arroyo, J. United States Coast Guard Office of Navigation Systems, Providing navigation safety information for America's waterways 2006 AIS 06  conference URL 
    Abstract: AIS Carriage Regulations 33 CFR 164.46
    AIS On Goings…
    Class B's: standard adopted Feb'06, available in ‘07
    Wheelhouse II 1.18
    C2PC
    Logged vessels graph by USCG RDC AIS system from 2003-
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Arroyo2006,
      author = {Jorge Arroyo},
      title = {United States Coast GuardOffice of Navigation Systems, Providing navigation safety information for America's waterways},
      booktitle = {AIS 06},
      publisher = {rhppublishing},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20090219050300/http://rhppublishing.com/Presentations%20Day%201/Arroyo@AIS06.ppt}
    }
    
    Arroyo, J. & USCG PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND INTEROPERABILITY OF PROPOSED CLASS B AIS WITH EXISTING CLASS A AIS SYSTEM USING SIMULATION SOFTWARE 2005 (8B/234-E)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: The operation of Automatic Identification System (AIS) technology is governed by logic rules built into each device. The rules for Class A AIS equipment are now established as published in ITU-R M.1371-1 Recommendation with minor adjustments published in the International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) Technical Clarifications on ITU Recommendation ITU-R M.1371-1, edition 1.4. The complexity of these rules makes it difficult to analyze AIS performance as the local number of AIS units grows to many hundreds or thousands. Since physical tests under such conditions were considered prohibitively expensive, the U. S. Coast Guard Research and Development Center (R&DC) developed computer simulation software for assessing the effectiveness of AIS equipment interaction.
    As development of Class B AIS technology progressed, a number of additional methods and rules were proposed for Class B devices. These proposals were primarily intended to ensure that Class B equipment would have a minimal impact on the level of operational performance that is expected by Class A equipment users - the mariners for whom the International Maritime Organization (IMO) defined AIS technology. Working Group 8a (WG 8A) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee (TC) 80 desired to recommend a Class B that provided acceptable performance, and more importantly, closely supported the spirit of IMO Resolution MSC.140(76) - "Recommendation for the Protection of the AIS VHF Data Link."
    The alternative Class B rules proposed by IEC WG 8A were added to the R&DC computer simulation. The simulation was then configured using two separate geographic vessel traffic patterns, and the relative performance of the alternative methods and rules compared. The objective of this paper is to report the findings that support the IEC decision to recommend the introduction of Class B technology that uses the Carrier Sense TDMA (CSTDMA) access scheme.
    The computer simulation is designed to create a "virtual" environment where "virtual AIS units" are put in motion and interact. The operation of each AIS unit follows the rules for a particular type of AIS device - Class A, Class B (SOTDMA), Class B (CSTDMA), etc. These rules are described in documents, such as, ITU-R M.1371-1, IALA Technical Clarifications on ITU Recommendation ITU-R M.1371-1, new rules proposed by IEC WG 8A, or by the laws of physics for radio design and signal propagation. A major factor in the simulation's results is the modeled signal propagation loss between each virtual AIS unit.
    The relative movement and location of units during the simulation determines the signals received from the other units in the simulation. Rather than attempting to simulate the motion of each unit in the simulation, the simulation uses actual vessel movement reports captured from different geographic areas using the R&D Center's AIS research network.
    The simulator package also includes display software that provides tabular and geographic windows by which the interactions of the simulation's virtual AIS units can be viewed.
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Arroyo2005,
      author = {Jorge Arroyo and USCG},
      title = {PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND INTEROPERABILITY OF PROPOSED CLASS B AIS WITH EXISTING CLASS A AIS SYSTEM USING SIMULATION SOFTWARE},
      year = {2005},
      number = {8B/234-E},
      url = {http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pdf/AIS/ITU-R_WP8BUSA-Performance%20Assesment%20of%20AIS%20B%20vs%20A.pdf}
    }
    
    asa & Dewberry AIS Production Tools: AIS Desktop Add-In Application Design Version 2.0 2011   techreport  
    Abstract: The NOAA Coastal Services Center has a requirement to design and build a GIS based software system for processing of Automatic Identification System (AIS) data. The system shall consist of two main components (1) an AIS data hosting service for storage and extraction of AIS data and (2) a suite of GIS tools in the form of an ArcGIS Desktop Add-In for preparing the data for hosting, importing and processing the extracted AIS data. The purpose of this document is to provide NOAA with the proposed design of the AIS Desktop Add-In and guide implementation of the proposed design. This document contains an overview of the system architecture, descriptions of how the user will interact with the system (use cases) and descriptions of the tools to clean, filter, query, and analyze AIS data included in the software
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{asa2011,
      author = {asa and Dewberry},
      title = {AIS Production Tools: AIS Desktop Add-In Application Design Version 2.0},
      year = {2011}
    }
    
    asa & Dewberry AIS Production Tools: AIS Hosting Service Application Design Version 2.0 2011   techreport  
    Abstract: The NOAA Coastal Services Center has a requirement to design and build a GIS based software system for processing of Automatic Identification System (AIS) data.The system shall consist of two main components (1) a data hosting service for storage and extraction of AIS data and (2) a suite of GIS tools in the form of an ArcGIS 10 Add-In for preparing the data for hosting, importing and processing the extracted AIS data. The purpose of this document is to provide NOAA with the proposed design to the AIS Hosting Service. This document contains an overview of the system architecture, descriptions of how the users and system administrators will interact with the AIS Hosting Service (use cases) and a discussion of the various components.
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{asa2011a,
      author = {asa and Dewberry},
      title = {AIS Production Tools: AIS Hosting Service Application Design Version 2.0},
      year = {2011}
    }
    
    Backer, H. Transboundary maritime spatial planning: a Baltic Sea perspective 2011 Journal of Coastal Conservation, pp. 1-11  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Maritime Spatial Planning is a new form of spatial planning emerging at the intersection of expanding demands for commercial use of marine space and increasing concerns for marine ecosystems. Many coastal countries around Europe are presently engaged in this field -not only by their national activities but also cooperating across borders through transboundary dialogue, joint strategies and even considering joint planning. In the Baltic Sea region transboundary cooperation takes all these forms. Such activities, including the Plan Bothnia pilot planning of the Bothnian Sea between Sweden and Finland, bring into surface differences in planning procedures and approaches, views on the environment, compatibilities of geographical data and the general complexity of the international-national legal framework. Creativity and transparent, accountable procedures are needed to ensure that such initiatives are both useful and legitimate.

    To help in the follow-up of these measures the whole Baltic Sea area has been covered by a coordinated land-based monitoring system for ships based on Automatic Identification System (AIS) signals, from 1 July 2005. This information is available through the HELCOM AIS central website for national authorities and certain third party users.
    By February 2010 the regional network of HELCOM MPAs, Baltic Sea Protected Areas (BSPAs), covered 159 sites. The total area of these amounts to a marine area of 42,823 km2 which is over 10.3% of the total marine area (HELCOM 2010). In addition to the BSPAs a number of other protected areas have been established in the Baltic Sea including Natura 2000 sites network required by the EU Habitats and Birds Directives, and Emerald sites launched by the Council of Europe. Natura 2000 and Emerald sites are in practice part of the umbrella network of BSPAs, even if not all of these sites have been officially designated as such. If excluding overlaps the total share of Baltic Sea marine area protected by any of the three regimes was in 2010 over 12% (HELCOM 2010).

    BibTeX:
    @article{Backer2011,
      author = {Backer, Hermanni},
      title = {Transboundary maritime spatial planning: a Baltic Sea perspective},
      journal = {Journal of Coastal Conservation},
      publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {1-11},
      note = {10.1007/s11852-011-0156-1},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11852-011-0156-1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11852-011-0156-1}
    }
    
    Backstrom, R., Koivisto, M., Kuokkanen, L. & Jokinen, J. AN INTELLIGENT SHARED DATA NETWORK FOR AIS AND REMOTE CONTROLLED VTS VHF 2001   techreport URL 
    Abstract: IMO is gradually implementing the mandatory carriage of AIS from year 2002 and onwards. The dangerous coasts of Finland are particularly well suited to implement AIS on a large scale. It enables the VTS community to monitor and exchange safety related data with the vessel traffic with an unprecedented accuracy and quality. This necessitates, however, build- ing a network of AIS base stations along the coasts and inland waterways.
    There are problems, though. The coverages of individual AIS base stations may overlap, caus- ing duplicate instances of targets to appear in the network, the data transfer rates between the local nodes of the network may differ and network Control and display facilities are required, but standards on how to implement these AIS network components are still lacking. This document presents some elements of the Finnish solution. A method of determining the per- formance and coverage of an AIS station is shown.
    A significant fringe benefit is that a remotely controlled VHF- base station network for VHF- use and even a GMDSS network may be included with only marginal incremental cost, as the infrastructure is almost identical. Thus significant cost savings may be achieved both regard- ing investment as well as running costs.

    During the testing phase of the AIS network in the Sea of Archipelago in 1998 it became evi- dent that the nature of the AIS VDL (VHF Data Link) allows bi-directional data interchange between ship-shore with a reasonably good throughput. During the testing weather informa- tion to ships was distributed with fairly good results. The broadcast capability of AIS had been shown, but in order to fully utilise AIS as a tool between the ship and shore it was neces- sary to perform some tests to determine the actual throughput of the AIS VDL in a two-way communication scenario. At the end of the testing phase it became evident that there was a considerable loss of messages, which used the maximum number of timeslots available. Therefore some testing had to be done in order to establish the nature of the problem. A loss of messages containing the maximum number of timeslots would for instance have a negative impact on “VTS footprint” messages that are likely to be transmitted using the maximum amount of timeslots in order to preserve the bandwidth of the VDL.
    The AIS VDL is a digital communication channel. Hence the throughput is often presented as a function of the BER (Bit Error Rate) and distance between the transceivers. As the AIS VDL is message based it would have been difficult to obtain the actual BER. Also, the value would have been of little use, as the smallest unit in the VDL is a message occupying one timeslot. The purpose of the field studies was to show the probability of successful message communication between two parties using different binary message lengths. This would prove to be valuable information for application developers that are going to utilise the AIS network for digital two-way communication.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Backstrom2001,
      author = {Rolf Backstrom and Mats Koivisto and Lauri Kuokkanen and Jouni Jokinen},
      title = {AN INTELLIGENT SHARED DATA NETWORK FOR AIS AND REMOTE CONTROLLED VTS VHF},
      year = {2001},
      url = {http://www.ultra-crea.fi/brochures/filters_network.pdf}
    }
    
    Bacon, E. Comments on [Docket No. USCG-2009-0701] 2010 Regulations.gov  article URL 
    Abstract: My interest in the sharing of AIS information stems from 40 years as a liveaboard in NY Harbor, 26 years as a charter yacht captain and broker of harbor charter yachts, 5 years as a member of the NY Harbor Ops Education Subcommittee and 3 years as developer of iboatnyharbor.com , a website to educate and inform recreational boaters and cruisers using NY Harbor.

    A major complaint in mixed-use harbors is the interaction of recreational and commercial vessels. Collision avoidance, keeping shipping channels clear of recreational vessels, and avoidance of heavy traffic areas such as ferry terminals are areas in which open access to all three levels of NAIS information would lead to improvements in harbor safety. Examples of the beneficial use of having the three levels of information open to the public on a real-time basis on the Internet are:

    First level (Level A) - unfiltered real time: The main concern of sharing this information is stated as: '…the unfiltered, embedded addressed and encrypted information, the release of which may pose a security risk.' If the AIS vessel name, speed, direction and track were available on a real time basis, a boater could use the information from his mobile device such as a smartphone to communicate with the correct vessel on VHF channel 13 in crossing, overtaking and head-on situations in a crowded harbor environment. Another use would be in identifying a vessel that has just caused damage or injury. This information is already available on a line of sight basis with an AIS receiver and on a 5-10 minute delay basis with marinetraffic.com, which can be run on a smartphone now.

    To summarize, if the information specified above for each level of sharing were available on a real time basis from the Internet, safety would be improved in mixed-use harbors for both recreational and commercial users.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Bacon2010,
      author = {Ed Bacon},
      title = {Comments on [Docket No. USCG-2009-0701]},
      journal = {Regulations.gov},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=USCG-2009-0701-0006.1}
    }
    
    Bailey, N., Ellis, N. & Sampson, H. Training and Technology Onboard Ship: How seafarers learned to use the shipboard Automatic Identification System (AIS) 2008 , pp. 46  book URL 
    Abstract: This report is the first of a series which will focus upon seafarer training in relation to the introduction of shipboard technology as, and when, it occurs. The report focuses upon the universal introduction of AIS in December 2004 which provided the ideal opportunity to observe the extent to which training accompanies the introduction of new onboard technology. Prior to the conduct of interviews with seafarers about the training which accompanied the introduction of AIS, we attempted to ascertain the level of errors identified in relation to information transmitted using AIS and we treated this as an indicator of the competence of seafarers in relation to its use.
    The report is based on data collected at three time points over a four year period (October 2004, October 2005 and October 2007). The report indicates the levels of errors in the use of AIS and how these levels varied over time. It also considers the extent to which AIS appears to encourage the 'improper' use of VHF radio for collision avoidance and the implications of this for training. The use of VHF radio to negotiate collision avoidance between ships has long been held to be a problem by many agencies concerned with navigation, such as, the UK Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA).

    Errors in data transmission
    -During the 2007 research period 3.5% of vessels transiting the South West (SW) lane of the Dover Strait transmitted errors in their AIS data. This was down from 7.9% in 2005, which in turn was down from 10.4% in 2004. These figures represent a statistically significant year on year improvement1.
    -The number of errors reduced in relation to all major categories of information transmitted in the period 2004.
    -Of the errors transmitted, in each of the three years 2007, 2005, and 2004, the majority were in destination and draught data.

    - Errors in identification data, i.e. MMSI number, call sign and ship name, increased between 2004 and 2005, but fell below the original 2004 levels in 2007.
    AIS and VHF Radio
    - Increased use is being made of VHF radio, and specifically for collision avoidance. In 2004, 11.5% of ships transiting the Strait initiated inter-ship calls, in 2005 this figure had increased to 17% and in 2007 this was up to 20.8%. This represents a statistically significantly change from 2004.
    -In 2007, 94.2% of inter-ship calls were for the purpose of collision avoidance, up from 89.4% in 2004.
    Other findings
    -There have been procedural changes in the way in which Coastguard operators take information from reporting vessels, which emphasises the use of AIS.
    -An increased use of the AIS text facility was recorded.
    -Ships were spontaneously indicating errors to each other via the AIS text
    facility and occasionally by VHF radio.
    - Ships' officers were using the AIS text facility to conduct AIS self-test procedures.

    Conclusion
    Our data suggest that there has been a slow but clear learning process taking place in relation to the use of AIS. Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) operators further reported that ships' officers appeared to be more responsive to correcting errors when these were detected and brought to their attention. This was further borne out by analysis of text messages that indicated that many ships were pro-actively engaging in AIS self- test procedures. Moreover examples were identified of ships' officers spontaneously pointing out detected errors by radio and text message to other ships. The learning that has taken place has not only been limited to those onboard but is also reflected in the practice of Channel Navigation Information Service (CNIS) operators and the response of maritime authorities such as the MCA.

    As part of this developmental process we have also witnessed the emergence of unanticipated practices, the ultimate significance of which remains unclear. Firstly,
    2
    the introduction of AIS has led to a significant increase in the use of VHF radio for the purpose of collision avoidance. This phenomenon has become significantly more common, despite the reissue of advice, by the UK MCA in 2006, that VHF radio should not generally be used for collision avoidance. Secondly, there is evidence of growing and widespread use of the AIS text facility, especially for inter-ship communication. The full significance of the emergence of this form of communication is still to be determined.
    Further research needs to be undertaken to fully assess the learning process that appears to have taken place. This is the aim of the continuing over-arching project investigating training and technology. In particular, the ongoing research will seek to determine whether ships' crews have, through a process of use and informal learning, developed an enhanced appreciation of the system and developed ways of utilising its various features, or whether they have received formal structured training on board or ashore. Consideration will also be given to the external drivers of the process, i.e. those forces which have led to individuals and/or companies to enhance their performance.

    BibTeX:
    @book{Bailey2008,
      author = {N Bailey and N. Ellis and H. Sampson},
      title = {Training and Technology Onboard Ship: How seafarers learned to use the shipboard Automatic Identification System (AIS)},
      publisher = {SIRC Publication},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {46},
      url = {http://www.sirc.cf.ac.uk/pdf/Training%20&%20Technology%20AIS.pdf}
    }
    
    Ban, N.C., Adams, V., Pressey, R.L. & Hicks, J. Promise and problems for estimating management costs of marine protected areas 2011 Conservation Letters, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract Management costs are rarely taken into account in marine protected area (MPA) design. We estimate the management costs of two different protection scenarios within a large proposed MPA, the Coral Sea in Australia. We use three methods to estimate costs: an existing model of global MPA management costs; a new statistical model based on Australian MPA management costs; and expert estimates that extrapolate from the adjacent Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Both the new statistical model and expert estimates were relevant to both protection scenarios and indicate that a single large no-take reserve is less expensive to manage than a multiple-use MPA of the same area with a 30%% no-take component. Expenses associated with compliance drive the difference in management cost between scenarios. Estimating management costs of MPA scenarios adds an important, though still challenging, financial perspective to MPA design.

    ... require additional resources at three times the regular rate. Vessel Monitoring System (VMS)
    and Automated Identification System (AIS) operating costs (purchase or leasing and operation
    of receivers and related equipment and transmission services) ...

    Review: No actual AIS work yet done by this group in Australia
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ban2011,
      author = {Natalie C. Ban and Vanessa Adams and Robert L. Pressey and John Hicks},
      title = {Promise and problems for estimating management costs of marine protected areas},
      journal = {Conservation Letters},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Inc},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2011.00171.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2011.00171.x}
    }
    
    Banlaoi, R.C. & 28 others Lloyd's MIU Handbook of Maritime Security 2009 , pp. 408  book URL 
    Abstract: http://www.lloydslistintelligence.com/llint/index.htm

    Global maritime security has been through radical changes in recent years. Many changes were necessary and long overdue, but others seem to have created situations in which the only beneficia- ries appear to be the providers of security services and equipment. Against this background, this book sets out to provide a reality check. It brings together a range of different perspectives of key maritime issues from around the world. It includes chapters that explore the operational, policy and legal realities of the new maritime security measures instigated post-9/11.
    This book is aimed at those with an interest in any dimension of the new security measures. This interest might be a general one in maritime security, or it could be a more specific one, such as implementing the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code, devising and executing practical maritime security measures both at sea and in port, or in assessing security threats and risks inherent in the vast and often opaque realm of international shipping. Hopefully, everyone will find something of interest in this book.

    Chapter 2: Lifeline or Pipedream? Origins, Purposes, and Benefits of Automatic Identification System, Long-Range Identification and Tracking, and Maritime Domain Awareness

    Automatic Identification System: What Is It?
    Automatic Identification System: Technical Features
    Automatic Identification System: The Advantages.
    Automatic Identification System: The Disadvantages
    Long-Range Identification and Tracking: Why Has It Come About?
    Long-Range Identification and Tracking: What Is It?
    Long-Range Identification and Tracking: Technical Features
    Long-Range Identification and Tracking: Who Benefits?
    Long-Range Identification and Tracking: Information Flows .
    Long-Range Identification and Tracking: Information Mechanisms
    Long-Range Identification and Tracking: The Disadvantages
    Maritime Domain Awareness
    Lifeline or Pipedream?

    This chapter focuses on the Automatic Identification System (AIS) and Long-Range Identifica- tion and Tracking (LRIT) and explores how they contribute to the concept of 'Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA)', which is an attempt by a limited number of states, the United States, Canada and Australia in particular, to gain a greater understanding of the threats (criminal and political), which exist in their coastal waters or might enter them from the vastness of the deep ocean. The scheme is complex and definitions of its purpose, and expectations about what can be achieved cost- effectively, change regularly. To succeed in its broad aim of building an intelligible picture of threats at sea that is clear and accurate enough for action to be taken demands that several substantial tech- nical and procedural problems be overcome. The peculiar American temptation to place too much emphasis on technical solutions, which in this case would translate into an overdependence on sur- veillance at the expense of intelligence, needs to be checked.3 However, the scale of the project and difficulties that it faces illustrate the immense challenges posed by the ever changing and multiple character of illicit maritime activity.

    Chapter 14: Long-Range Identification and Tracking Systems for Vessels: Legal and Technical Issues

    Review: MIU == Marine Intelligence Unit
    BibTeX:
    @book{Banlaoi2009,
      author = {Rommel C. Banlaoi and 28 others},
      title = {Lloyd's MIU Handbook of Maritime Security},
      publisher = {CRC Press},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {408},
      url = {http://www.booki.org/chinablue/buk/Maritim/Lloyd%27s%20MIU%20Handbook%20of%20Maritime%20Security.pdf}
    }
    
    Batty, E. Binary Messaging - What it is, its capabilities and how it may affect mariners in the future. 2006 AIS 06  conference  
    Abstract: IMIS is experiencing the shift in focus from AIS being an untested and new safety technology fitted on ships and in VTS centres to a focus on AIS as an information source and communications medium. This shift in focus is allowing the value-add potential of the AIS technology to be recognised and used to not only enhance the safety and security of the maritime environment but also enhance the efficiency of ports through the availability of identification, positional and navigational data from the AIS units fitted on all SOLAS vessels and, in our experience, on most tugs and pilot vessels.
    The capture, processing and integration of AIS derived data with data already available from other sources within ports, has increased the accuracy and thus value of information available. The significant advances in Vessel Traffic Information Systems [VTIS] due to the availability of AIS data and the automation of many of the reporting activities within a port environment, is adding value to almost all entities within the port community, some who, due to complexity, never considered such information as being viable.
    These advancements in AIS enabled information environments have also come at an ever- decreasing cost where the cost per user or report is a fraction of what it cost just a year ago and the trend is ever downwards.

    Broadcast messages are sent to all AIS units within the coverage area - this means that any device capable of receiving AIS data will receive and decode the messages. Addressed Messages are received by the AIS devices to which the message is addressed to, using the MMSI number as the address. The addressed AIS device then acknowledges the addressed message.
    This was the way it was supposed to work. What has happened in reality is that most AIS receivers and AIS base stations now decode all messages (addressed or broadcast) and these messages are available at the serial port (Presentation Interface [PI]) of the device that received the message. The addressed device (or some device connected to it) now responds to the addressed binary message.
    So the first important item to note is that addressed messages no longer afford any privacy to any addressed message; they only allow confirmation that some device that decoded it has received the message and this same device (or system) issued an acknowledgment.

    It is important to note that there is no Forward Error Correction [FEC] in place to recover from a single or multiple errors that may have occurred in the transfer of the binary data from the sending AIS to AIS device. The largest source of errors is the radio path between the sending and receiving AIS devices. As the radio signal strength decreases so the error rate increases and eventually this gets to a point where the message has a high probability of having an error.

    The success of the BBM or ABM message is directly related to the PER and the number of packets or slots occupied. This means that a single packet message has a far higher chance of being transferred between AIS units than a five-packet message. The table below illustrates the number of slots occupied versus the number of data bytes transferred for an ITU-R.M1371-1 type 8 (BBM).

    The ability to use ABM and BBM messages in an almost free format environment makes this feature a very powerful one but the lack of specified IAI and RAI besides what is in the ITU- R.M1371-1 and the St Lawrence Seaway documents, makes the wide scale use of ABM and BBM difficult.
    We have so far made an assumption that the data can easily be entered and, once it has arrived at the receiving AIS, can be easily displayed. The entry and display of ABM and BBM data makes the use of these message sets within the SOLAS fleet complex in that there has to be an application that enters the data and one that displays the resultant data on the receiving side.
    The basic Minimum Keyboard Display [MKD] does not make provision for ABM and BBM applications but this situation is changing rapidly with the availability of more complex third party displays that implement specific ABM and BBM based application. The connection of AIS systems on board vessels to both the radar and Electronic Chart System [ECS] will also enable more ABM and BBM based applications to be deployed.

    These applications include:
    Pilotage activity tracking
    Tug activity tracking
    Encrypted text messaging  Telemetry
    Waterway / Seaway management (St Lawrence Seaway AIS message set as an example)

    These systems are being matched by the integration of similar systems within the AIS enabled information systems being deployed along coastlines, in ports, for systems that protect traffic separation schemes and for operations that surround Oil Platforms.
    The use of ABM and BBM in ports may raise the AIS slot map occupancy to unacceptable levels especially when combined with the increasing deployment of Class B and the increase of non- SOLAS vessels being fitted with Class A AIS terminals. This will require a review of AIS shore side infrastructure topology and AIS shore station antenna system design.

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Batty2006,
      author = {Ernie Batty},
      title = {Binary Messaging - What it is, its capabilities and how it may affect mariners in the future.},
      booktitle = {AIS 06},
      year = {2006}
    }
    
    Bauer, N. DLR-s Maritime Surveillance Capabilities & Plans 2009 TE, pp. 27  article URL 
    Abstract: German Aerospace Center (DLR) MARISS Test from 15-JUL-2009 until 25-JUL-2009 SHIP DETECTION DLR ship detection processor Based on imagery?
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bauer2009,
      author = {Norbert Bauer},
      title = {DLR-s Maritime Surveillance Capabilities & Plans},
      journal = {TE},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {27},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/twiki/pub/Main/TexasIII/DLR_DFD_TEXAS_III.ppt}
    }
    
    Behrens, J. & Lehner, S. NRT Ship Detection using satellite AIS data & TerraSar-X images 2009 TEXAS III, pp. 17  article URL 
    Abstract: SatAIS reports (green) of the German research vessel Polarstern superimposed on the vessel track as reported by the German Research Center AWI-Alfred Wegner Institute (red) during its most recent Antarctic cruise (2008/2009)
    BibTeX:
    @article{Behrens2009,
      author = {Jorg Behrens and Susanne Lehner},
      title = {NRT Ship Detection using satellite AIS data & TerraSar-X images},
      journal = {TEXAS III},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {17},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/twiki/pub/Main/TexasIII/Texas_III_August_2009.ppt}
    }
    
    Bell, M.D., Elliott, S.M., Yang, Y.T. & You, P. Multi-Source Maritime Vessel Tracking 2006   techreport URL 
    Abstract: NRL Code 8100 is developing the Common Distributed Virtual Database/Information Extraction (CDVD/IE) System for the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Maritime Intelligence Fusion Center (MIFC) in Dam Neck, Virginia. The CDVD/IE semiautomatically identifies vessels via multisource data. This provides the USCG with maritime domain awareness of vessels operating in an area of responsibility (AOR) encom- passing the Atlantic Ocean, north of the equator, and the Gulf of Mexico/Caribbean Sea. NRL system and software engineers have designed an architecture that implements a multilevel data aggregation and semi- automated tracking system. The CDVD/IE enables the MIFC to monitor potential vessels of interest (VOIs) and automatically generates alerts when behaviors meeting user-defined parameters are detected.
    The CDVD/IE Program is sponsored by the U.S. Navy (USN) Office of Naval Research (ONR) and is scheduled for delivery to the MIFC during summer 2006. During fiscal year 2007, NRL and the USCG will exercise the system and assess suitability to support an upgradable path using multiple CDVD/IE installations to form a distributed maritime community grid. The CDVD/IE System uses a suite of commercial and NRL- developed computing technologies and resources to address two main areas:
    Multilevel Security Architecture
    Data Aggregation and Semiautomated Tracking
    Capability
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Bell2006,
      author = {M. D. Bell and S. M. Elliott and Y T Yang and P You},
      title = {Multi-Source Maritime Vessel Tracking},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA522656&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf}
    }
    
    Bentzen, M., Borup, O. & Christensen, T. The EfficienSea e-Navigation approach Filling the gap... 2011 EfficienSea E-NAVIGATION UNDERWAY, pp. 14-  article URL 
    Abstract: The EffcienSea e-Navigation project methodology has been to identify possible e-Navigation services by means of different approaches:
    -simulation sessions, in order to analyze how things are done today in the maritime environment. The simulation sessions included both ship and shore side users. Based on the simulations, areas needing improvement from future e-Navigation services were identified.
    -workshops/focus groups with navigators, VTS Operators, Port Authorities, Pilots and other maritime experts.
    -development of an interactive presentation (Mock-up) based on feedback and results from above sessions. The mock-up has been discussed in workshops with end users to mature ideas and describe services in detail.

    The first services / functions developed are: -METOC (Meteorological and Oceanographic data on route) -Maritime Safety Information (MSI) -Route Exchange - Exchange of Intended Route o Route Suggestion

    Mapping services to IMO process The IMO e-Navigation process has led to a description of needed functions derived from the initial user requirements analysis. These functions are described in Annex 1 of the IMO e-Navigation correspondence groups report from NAV56. The annex is titled: ARCHITECTURE TO THE ?DEVELOPMENT OF AN E- NAVIGATION STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION PLAN. The functions mentioned below refers to this document.
    The MSI service aims at fulfilling the function A2.3 Use Maritime Safety Information (MSI) Service'.
    The METOC service aims at fulfilling the functions A2.6 Use Meteorological Information Service and Warnings and A2.7 Use Hydrographic Information Service'.
    The route exchange service aims at fulfilling the function A2.4 Use Routing Information Service'.
    The first services to be implemented thus maps very direct into the IMO process. However, some of the future services that are on the drawing board, that are of a more visionary nature, may not map quite as direct to the IMO process. We still do want to prioritize these more visionary services, since we believe they are important if the full potential of the e-Navigation concept shall be released.

    The ship-side e-Navigation prototype display, or the e-Navigation enhanced INS (ee-INS) prototype, is based on the open source product OpenMap (www.openmap.org), which is a tool for building applications that needs to show geographic information. A motivating factor to use this platform was the fact that a commercial plug-in existed, capable of rendering S52 charts from S57 and S63. If the demonstrator should give the impression of an integrated navigation display, the ENC is of course crucial.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Bentzen2011,
      author = {Mads Bentzen and Ole Borup and Thomas Christensen},
      title = {The EfficienSea e-Navigation approach Filling the gap...},
      journal = {EfficienSea E-NAVIGATION UNDERWAY},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {14-},
      url = {http://www.efficiensea.org/files/conferenceproceedings.pdf}
    }
    
    Berder, O., Rostaing, P. & Burel, G. Inter-channel interference rejection for maritime AIS system 2005 The 5th Int. Conf. on Intelligent Transportation Systems Telecomm.  inproceedings URL 
    Abstract: We study inter-channel interferences in VHF transmissions for the maritime automatic identifi- cation system and propose solutions to avoid them. The inter-channel interference is caused by the brevity of SOTDMA frames used by ships to transmit their position. In order to avoid the spreading of the spectrum, two so- lutions are considered. A Tukey window is first used to avoid a too hard transition between consecutive tempo- ral slots. The second solution consists in using a Cheby- shev lowpass filter. We compare these two solutions in term of interference and show that their association can be envisaged with reasonable complexity.

    In order to make safe maritime traffic, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) recently published a stan- dard [1] for Automatic Identification System (AIS). Such systems use GPS to allow ships to communicate each other their respective position, thus avoiding risks of col- lision. Two Very High Frequency (VHF) channels and a Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) modulation are used, and the ships transmissions are organized by the Self Organized Time Division Multiple Access (SOT- DMA) technology.

    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Berder2005,
      author = {Olivier Berder and Philippe Rostaing and Gilles Burel},
      title = {Inter-channel interference rejection for maritime AIS system},
      booktitle = {The 5th Int. Conf. on Intelligent Transportation Systems Telecomm.},
      year = {2005},
      url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.81.8825&rep=rep1&type=pdf}
    }
    
    Berking, B. Potential and benefits of AIS to Ships and Maritime Administrations 2003 WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs
    Vol. 2(1), pp. 61-78 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The Universal Automatic Identification System (AIS) provides a huge variety of potential applications and services which exceed the well known ship-to-ship data exchange. The purpose of this paper is to address the most important AIS services, in particular the AIS position report and the AIS safety-related and binary messages ("AIS telegrams"). The main issue is the impact of this new technology on the on-board use of AIS in collision avoidance (and its limitations) as well as the impact on shore-based services such as Vessel Traffic Service (VTS), port management and the need of an effective AIS network.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Berking2003,
      author = {Bernhard Berking},
      title = {Potential and benefits of AIS to Ships and Maritime Administrations},
      journal = {WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {2},
      number = {1},
      pages = {61-78},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03195034},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03195034}
    }
    
    Betz, S., BOHNSACK, K., CALLAHAN, A.R., CAMPBELL, L.E., GREEN, S.E. & LABRUM, K.M. REDUCING THE RISK OF VESSEL STRIKES TO ENDANGERED WHALES IN THE SANTA BARBARA CHANNEL:
    An Economic Analysis and Risk Assessment of Potential Management Scenarios
    2011 School: UC Santa Barbara  mastersthesis URL 
    Abstract: Endangered blue, fin, and humpback whales migrate through the Santa Barbara Channel region, an area that also receives some of the highest densities of commercial maritime shipping traffic in the world. This co-occurrence of ships and whales likely carries a risk of lethal vessel strikes to whales, as demonstrated by several confirmed deaths due to ship strikes in the region. The purpose of this project is to provide a framework for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary (CINMS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to evaluate the economic impacts and risk implications of different management scenarios for reducing the risk of lethal vessel strikes to whales by re-routing or slowing ships in the Channel region. We developed two models, one that estimates the change in relative risk of a lethal strike based on predicted whale distributions and a second that calculates the change in total cost to the shipping industry. We applied these models to four management scenarios. We conclude that a mandatory speed reduction has potential to be the most cost effective management option, but that further research is needed to refine our risk analysis. Ultimately, the project provides a basic methodology for analyzing the cost effectiveness of potential management scenarios for reducing the risk of vessel strikes to whales in any region where strikes occur.
    Review: Cites the whale paper that Phil and I wrote for IEEE
    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Betz2011,
      author = {SARAH Betz and KAREN BOHNSACK and A. RENEE CALLAHAN and LAUREN E. CAMPBELL and SARAH E. GREEN and KATE M. LABRUM},
      title = {REDUCING THE RISK OF VESSEL STRIKES TO ENDANGERED WHALES IN THE SANTA BARBARA CHANNEL:
    An Economic Analysis and Risk Assessment of Potential Management Scenarios}, school = {UC Santa Barbara}, year = {2011}, url = {http://fiesta.bren.ucsb.edu/~whales/pdfs/Whales_Report.pdf} }
    Bilstrup, K., Uhlemann, E., Strom, E.G. & Bilstrup, U. Evaluation of the IEEE 802.11p MAC method for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication 2008 article URL 
    Abstract: In this paper the medium access control (MAC) method of the upcoming vehicular communication standard IEEE 802.11p has been simulated in a highway scenario with periodic broadcast of time-critical packets (so-called heartbeat messages) in a vehicle-to-vehicle situation. The 802.11p MAC method is based on carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) where nodes lis- ten to the wireless channel before sending. If the channel is busy, the node must defer its access and during high utilization periods this could lead to unbounded delays. This well-known property of CSMA is undesirable for time-critical communications. The simulation results reveal that a specific node/vehicle is forced to drop over 80% of its heartbeat messages because no channel ac- cess was possible before the next message was generated. To overcome this problem, we propose to use self-organizing time division multiple access (STDMA) for real-time data traffic be- tween vehicles. This MAC method is already successfully applied in commercial surveillance applications for ships (AIS) and air- planes (VDL mode 4). Our initial results indicate that STDMA outperforms CSMA for time-critical traffic safety applications in ad hoc vehicular networks.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bilstrup2008,
      author = {Katrin Bilstrup and Elisabeth Uhlemann and Erik G. Strom and Urban Bilstrup},
      title = {Evaluation of the IEEE 802.11p MAC method for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication},
      journal = {?},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://www2.hh.se/staff/bettan/Publications/BilUhlStrWiVeC08.pdf}
    }
    
    Blaney, H. MARITIME DOMAIN AWARENESS BUSINESS PLAN
    Commandant (CG-52); April 2006 to March 2007
    2007 word doc  misc URL 
    Abstract: Objective 2: Transition MDA Capability Projects
    Project 1: Nationwide Automatic Identification System (NAIS) (CG-522)
    Description: Serve as sponsor's representative for Nationwide AIS major system acquisition. Serve as focal point for all USCG AIS issues until a sponsor is identified.
    Desired Outcomes:
    *100% receive capability in all CONUS coastal areas
    *Transmit & receive in critical areas
    *Coherent, robust operational network and architecture
    *Track displays enhanced with vessel, cargo, personnel data
    Completion Date: 30 Sep 14
    Supporting Tasks:
    *Achieve Nationwide AIS KDP-2 (Qtr 3 06)
    *Achieve AIS on Low Earth Orbit Satellite (Sep 06)
    *Achieve NAIS Initial Operating Capability for Increment 1 (Dec 06)

    *Release Nationwide AIS RFP and Award Contracts (Contract Sensitive)
    *Achieve Nationwide AIS KDP-3 (Sep 07)
    *Achieve NAIS Full Operating Capability for Increment 1 (Sep 07)
    *Achieve NAIS Initial Operating Capability for Increment 2 (Sep 09)
    *Achieve NAIS Initial Operating Capability for Increment 3 (Dec 10)
    *Achieve NAIS Full Operating Capability for Increment 2 (Sep 13)
    *Achieve NAIS Full Operating Capability for Increment 3 (Sep 13)

    Project 4: Long Range Tracking (CG-522)
    Description: Coordinate establishment of USCG Long Range Tracking IT infrastructure as an enterprise capability with track information enhanced with commercial & govt open source data.
    Desired Outcomes:
    *Voluntary reporting portal at OSC Martinsburg capable of being transitioned for use to receive IMO global tracking system info.
    *Fusion of commercial & unclas govt info w/ tracks & display in COP
    Completion Date: Decl 07
    *Complete Phase I of fusion study (Mar 06)
    *Fund OSC Martinsburg for enterprise tracking capability study (Apr 06)
    *Develop SDLC plan for IMO LRIT implementation (Sep 06)
    *Identify funding for IMO LRIT implementation (Oct 06)
    * Implement voluntary reporting/tracking program (Dec 06)
    *SOW and funding for Phase II of fusion study (Oct 06)
    *Publish fusion plan (Jan 07)
    *Implement fusion solution (Apr 07)
    *Transition to steady state fusion responsibility per USCG CONOPs (Apr 07)
    *Implement LRIT implementation solution (Dec 07)

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Blaney2007,
      author = {Hank Blaney},
      title = {MARITIME DOMAIN AWARENESS BUSINESS PLAN 
    Commandant (CG-52); April 2006 to March 2007}, year = {2007}, note = {USCG planning document}, url = {http://www.uscg.mil/hq/cg5/docs/BusPlan-Master.1-update%202-07.doc} }
    Blevins, D. Sperry Marine
    VISIONMASTER FT Series
    2006 AIS 06  conference URL 
    Abstract: Market Trends
    Aviation Industry - Multi Function Display (MFD) utilization

    VISIONMASTER FT - TotalWatch
    Highlights

    Innovative multi-function workstation
    All watch keeping modes in a single workstation
    Task oriented configurability
    Upgradeable from VisionMaster FT Radar,
    Chart Radar or ECDIS
    Redundancy for all vital navigation
    functions
    Modular interfaces to shipboard
    system
    Console or electronics kit
    configurations

    VISIONMASTER FT Series -
    Radar / ARPA Highlights

    New innovative user interface with commonality VisionMaster products
    Operator selection of target views (ARPA only or combined ARPA/AIS)
    User savable settings and removal storage media (USB flash drive)
    Innovative context sensitive iHelp facility - Cursor, Standard and Advanced (browser) modes
    Advanced tracker performance in clutter
    Target tracking capability of 100 ARPA and 500 AIS targets
    Advanced target correlation with tracked ARPA and AIS targets
    Integrated voyage plan and radar maps
    Automatic transfer of target data and voyage plan to
    VisionMaster ECDIS and / or TotalWatch Workstation
    Interface for future remote diagnostics
    Built-in upgrade path to Chart Radar, ECDIS and TotalWatch Workstation
    Backwards compatibility with legacy BME & VMS products

    VISIONMASTER FT - ECDIS Highlights
    New innovative user interface with commonality VisionMaster products
    Operator movable system menu controls with hide facility
    Split screen (vertical & horizontal) and Picture in Picture display modes
    Enhanced Conning Information Display
    Improved chart portfolio management and voyage planning capability
    Fast chart loading capability
    Direct target tracking (built-in type-approved ARPA facility)
    Advanced target correlation
    Track keeping & autopilot control
    iHelp facility - Standard and Advanced
    Powerful options
    Integrated weather routing
    Electronic chart downloading
    Remote diagnostics (future)
    Central Alarm Management, Radar Overlay
    PocketBridge and TabletBridge applications

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Blevins2006,
      author = {David Blevins},
      title = {Sperry Marine
    VISIONMASTER FT Series}, booktitle = {AIS 06}, year = {2006}, url = {http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20070212095016/http://www.rhppublishing.com/Presentations%20Day%202/Blevins%20Presentation.pps} }
    Box, J. AIS Binary Messages - Adding Value 2006 AIS 06  conference URL 
    Abstract: For many marine software companies, AIS as a collision avoidance and traffic regulation tool is not that interesting.
    Fortunately, the AIS standard permits the use of binary messages that can be used to add value.
    This is the stuff that gets small business excited. We get paid to add value….to make something more safe, efficient etc..
    Creativity and hard work has driven us to add a great deal of value over the past two years.

    Message 25
    One slot addressed or broadcast message for example AIS AtoN control, Secure Communications

    Message 26
    Multiple slot message with self organizing capability (SOTDMA/ITDMA) for example Met/Hydro, Dredge Monitoring, Secure Communications etc.

    Two VHF Channels (typically AIS1 and AIS2)
    Capacity 2250 slots/minute per channel
    4500 one slot reports per minute
    Data rate of 9600 bits/s

    THUS…

    AIS is NOT intended to provide for Bulk Data Transmission
    or General Data Communication.
    It is for safety related text and data messages
    AND messages that contribute to the safety, security and efficiency of an organization PROVIDED that they do not compromise the performance of the data link.

    Experience with binary messages:
    Met/Hydro Reporting

    Lock Order

    Navigational Aid Monitoring

    Dredge Monitoring

    Secure Communications and Tracking

    Inland AIS Binary Messages

    Smart Bay

    Met/Hydro information reporting improves the overall safety and efficiency of marine traffic.
    Created a Proprietary Message
    Some systems in place since 2002.

    Navigational Aid Monitoring using has been used for the past few years and it is of increasing interest to Ports and other maritime administrations. AIS equipped Nav Aids:
    Increases availability by reducing time to respond to outages because of near real time monitoring.
    Improves 'visibility' of Nav Aid to AIS equipped vessels.
    Provides a means to relay other relevant information such as Notices to Mariners.

    Dredge monitoring is considered by
    many maritime administrations to be
    safety critical and thus the AIS link
    has been utilized to perform this
    added function.
    Permits automatic and continuous
    tracking of the dredges and the dumping
    status.
    Improves the efficiency of port
    operations.
    If we assume that 'accidental' dumping
    in the wrong location will be prevented.
    The system will improve safety.
    Reduce port dredging costs.

    Sentinel BFT System
    Developed an AIS based Blue Force Tracking system
    Used messages 6 and 8 to communicate
    Encrypted information
    Unique AIS target Display

    Inland AIS Messaging
    IMO has introduced the Automatic Identification System (AIS). All seagoing ships on international voyage falling under SOLAS convention Chapter 5 have been equipped with AIS since the end of 2004.

    The European Parliament and Council have adopted Directive 2002/59/EC establishing a community vessel traffic monitoring and information system for seagoing vessels carrying dangerous or polluting goods using AIS for Ship Reporting and Monitoring.

    AIS technology is considered as a suitable way that can also be used for automatic identification and vessel tracking and tracing in inland navigation. The real time performance of AIS and the availability of worldwide standards and guidelines are beneficial for safety related applications.

    To serve the specific requirements of inland navigation, AIS has to be further developed to the so called Inland AIS Standard while preserving full compatibility with IMOęs maritime AIS and already existing standards in inland navigation.
    Because Inland AIS is compatible to the IMO SOLAS AIS it enables a direct data exchange between seagoing and inland vessels navigating in mixed traffic areas.
    Weather Warnings EMMA (FI 23 - Shore to Ship)
    (European Multi-service Meteorological Awareness system)

    SmartBay - Placentia Bay: EiT, CCMC, amec, ICAN
    'Simple access by all stakeholders to data and
    information in support of effective management and
    sustainable development of coastal ocean areas and
    the safety and security of life at sea."

    Below Water;
    - Salinity - Sea surface temperature - Dissolved Oxygen - 7 channels of upwelling radiance data
    (ocean color) - Chlorophyll fluorescence - Turbidity - Surface ocean current speed and direction
    Above Water;
    - Wind Speed and Direction - Air temperature - Barometric pressure and relative humidity

    General weather synopsis
    High Resolution forecasts for areas of interest
    Prediction of wind, waves, air, sea temperature, precipitation, icing potential and ocean currents on smaller scale
    Spill Trajectory Modeling
    SAR Planning

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Box2006,
      author = {Joel Box},
      title = {AIS Binary Messages - Adding Value},
      booktitle = {AIS 06},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20090219050534/http://rhppublishing.com/Presentations%20Day%201/ICAN%20presentation.ppt}
    }
    
    Brax, C., Karlsson, A., Andler, S., Johansson, R. & Niklasson, L. Evaluating precise and imprecise State-Based Anomaly detectors for maritime surveillance 2011 Information Fusion (FUSION), 2010 13th Conference on  inproceedings URL 
    Abstract: We extend the State-Based Anomaly Detection approach by introducing precise and imprecise anomaly detectors using the Bayesian and credal combination operators, where evidences over time are combined into a joint evidence. We use imprecision in order to represent the sensitivity of the classification regarding an object being normal or anomalous. We evaluate the detectors on a real-world maritime dataset containing recorded AIS data and show that the anomaly detectors outperform previously proposed detectors based on Gaussian mixture models and kernel density estimators. We also show that our introduced anomaly detectors perform slightly better than the State-Based Anomaly Detection approach with a sliding window

    ... 4 Empirical Evaluation To evaluate the performance and feasibility of the precise and imprecise
    anomaly detectors we design two experiments using real-world maritime AIS (Automatic
    Identification System) [18] data where deliberate anomalies are introduced. 4.1 Datasets ...

    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Brax2011,
      author = {Brax, C. and Karlsson, A. and Andler, S.F. and Johansson, R. and Niklasson, L.fink},
      title = {Evaluating precise and imprecise State-Based Anomaly detectors for maritime surveillance},
      booktitle = {Information Fusion (FUSION), 2010 13th Conference on},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=5711997}
    }
    
    Breivik, Į., Allen, A.A., Maisondieu, C. & Roth, J.C. Wind-induced drift of objects at sea: The leeway field method 2011 Applied Ocean Research
    Vol. In Press, Corrected Proof, pp. -  
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: A method for conducting leeway field experiments to establish the drift properties of small objects (0.1-25 m) is described. The objective is to define a standardized and unambiguous procedure for condensing the drift properties down to a set of coefficients that may be incorporated into existing stochastic trajectory forecast models for drifting objects of concern to search and rescue operations and other activities involving vessels lost at sea such as containers with hazardous material. An operational definition of the slip or wind and wave-induced motion of a drifting object relative to the ambient current is proposed. This definition taken together with a strict adherence to a 10 m wind speed allows us to refer unambiguously to the leeway of a drifting object. We recommend that all objects if possible be studied using what we term the direct method, where the object's leeway is studied directly using an attached current meter. We establish a minimum set of parameters that should be estimated for a drifting object for it to be included in the operational forecast models used for prediction of search areas for drifting objects. We divide drifting objects into four categories, depending on their size. For the smaller objects (less than 0.5 m), an indirect method of measuring the object's motion relative to the ambient current must be used. For larger objects, direct measurement of the motion through the near-surface water masses is strongly recommended. Larger objects are categorized according to the ability to attach current meters and wind monitoring systems to them. The leeway field method proposed here is illustrated with results from field work where three objects were studied in their distress configuration; a 1:3.3 sized model of a 40-foot Shipping container, a World War II mine and a 220 l (55-gallon) oil drum.

    Extra:

    3.1.3. Tracking and recovering objects

    During this experiment, Class-B Automatic Identification System (AIS) transponders were used to track and recover the drift objects. The AIS consists of a very high frequency (VHF) transponder and receiver attached to a GPS, broadcasting a signal every 2-10 s depending on vessel speed. For the experiment, three Class-B AIS transponders were built as self-contained units consisting of an AIS unit, a 24 Ah battery, a GPS antenna, a VHF antenna and a data logger. The AIS transponder not only assisted in tracking and recovering the objects, but also helped make the objects more visible to traffic in the vicinity of the experiment.

    Argos, VHF, and strobe-flasher beacons were all used to aid in the tracking and recovery of the drift objects. GPS data loggers provide speed and course over ground. We have used pairs of mercury-switch Argos beacons, one oriented upright and one downward, to provide tracking while the object was upright and also in case it would capsize. Small VHF transmitter and flashers (Novatech beacons) were attached using tag lines, these provide tracking for both upright and capsized drift objects.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Breivik2011,
      author = {Įyvind Breivik and Arthur A. Allen and Christophe Maisondieu and Jens Christian Roth},
      title = {Wind-induced drift of objects at sea: The leeway field method},
      journal = {Applied Ocean Research},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {In Press, Corrected Proof},
      pages = { - },
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V1V-527FRXM-1/2/6e52ad85ca49e7efc9d37925632c3b05},
      doi = {DOI: 10.1016/j.apor.2011.01.005}
    }
    
    Brooke, S., Lim, T.Y. & Ardron, J. Surveillance and Enforcement of Remote Maritime Areas (SERMA), Surveillance Technical Options 2010   techreport URL 
    Abstract: Some of the most pristine marine ecosystems remaining on earth are in remote areas far from human population centers, both within national jurisdiction or beyond, on the high seas*. Unfortunately even these areas are under pressure from the effects of human activities. Recognizing this, many countries have begun to manage activities in remote maritime areas as well as seeking to conserve areas of high ecological value through the establishment of marine protected areas. In recent years some very large offshore protected areas have been established within national EEZs and in addition some are now also being established on the high seas, through the efforts of several international organizations. Without effective enforcement however, these remote managed areas will remain no more than paper management plans and paper parks.
    Surveillance and enforcement is more challenging in large, remote areas than for near-shore MPAs as they are often far from populated land, and therefore difficult to reach with traditional manned patrols, radar or other short-range monitoring tools. Advanced technologies have been used successfully for surveillance of large areas, and there is great potential for expansion; however an associated response by law enforcement personnel is still essential to confirm and prosecute violations. Combining surveillance technologies into a single enforcement package has considerable cost- saving potential and is emphasized throughout this report. Additionally, the obvious and targeted presence of law enforcement reduces attempted infractions since there is a perceived significant risk of being caught.
    This document reviews and evaluates a range of existing technological options for the surveillance of remote marine managed areas. Some of these technologies are currently in use by fisheries management agencies; some are currently the purview of groups like the military or security agencies; and others have hitherto been unexplored for such purposes. As commercial fishing (regulated or otherwise) is the single greatest pressure to most remote marine ecosystems, followed by vessel-based pollution, we pay particular attention to technologies for the monitoring of such activities. The paper initially discusses surveillance technologies for cooperative vessels; that is, those that are participating in a managed activity where monitoring systems are obligatory. The majority of the paper however describes the range of sensors and platforms that can be applied to the more challenging task of monitoring non- cooperative vessels.
    Surveillance technologies alone are insufficient to ensure compliance, but they are a necessary component. This first paper in the series does not look at questions of integrating surveillance technologies into an enforcement regime; neither does it consider issues improving compliance. These are clearly key issues, and we anticipate giving these issues the space they deserve in subsequent publications.
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Brooke2010,
      author = {Sandra Brooke and Tse Yang Lim and Jeff Ardron},
      title = {Surveillance and Enforcement of Remote Maritime Areas (SERMA), Surveillance Technical Options},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.mcbi.org/what/what_pdfs/SERMA.pdf}
    }
    
    Bryant, D. The Law of E-Navigation 2006 AIS 06  conference URL 
    Abstract: Just slightly more than 83 years ago, on September 8, 1923, fourteen new destroyers of the US Navy were steaming south from San Francisco to their homeport of San Diego. During the voyage, the ships engaged in drills, including tactical and gunnery exercises. Late in the day, the squadron engaged in a 20-knot speed run, simulating wartime conditions. Running at this speed meant that the fathomers became inoperable. The ships therefore were relying almost exclusively on dead reckoning.
    As the squadron approached Honda Point and the turn into the Santa Barbara Channel, the flagship (USS DELPHY) contacted the recently activated radio compass station at Point Arguello. A radio compass station receives a radio signal from the ship and then advises the ship via radio of the bearing from which the signal was received. The process, while better than nothing, was subject to a variety of faults, including calibration error, reciprocal bearing, transcription problems, and operator error. As a result, many experienced navigators of the day did not trust reports from these stations. The bearing received from the radio compass station was interpreted as placing the squadron further north than dead reckoning indicated. The squadron commander, Captain Edward H. Watson, placed his faith in dead reckoning and, at 2100, ordered the squadron to turn toward the southeast to enter the Santa Barbara Channel. The squadron immediately encountered a fog bank. Tragically, the order to commence the turn had been given about eight miles too early.
    The squadron flagship, USS DELPHY, struck the rocks at Honda Point at 2105, while traveling at 20 knots. As it grounded, the ship sounded its siren, alerting the other ships of danger. The USS S. P. LEE was following several hundred feet astern. When it observed the sudden stopping of the flagship, it turned to port and grounded. The USS YOUNG took no evasive action and tore its bottom open on submerged rocks. The USS WOODBURY turned to starboard, but ran into an offshore rock. The USS NICHOLAS turned to port and grounded. The USS FARRAGUT grounded, but was able to extricate itself. The USS FULLER grounded alongside the WOODBURY. The USS PERCIVAL and the USS SOMERS were lightly damaged. The USS CHAUNCEY attempted to rescue sailors from the capsized YOUNG and grounded itself. The remaining four destroyers at the rear of the squadron escaped without damage. Seven of the ships were total losses and left on the rocks (DELPHY, S. P. LEE, YOUNG, WOODBURY, NICHOLAS, FULLER, and CHAUNCEY). Twenty-three sailors died (20 in the YOUNG and 3 in the DELPHY). Captain Watson was court-martialed and accepted responsibility for the tragedy.
    The Honda Point grounding remains to this day the single greatest maritime casualty involving electronic navigation.
    Let me quote a passage from the Ninth Edition of Dutton's Navigation and Nautical Astronomy (1948):

    The expression electronic navigation has not appeared in previous editions of this text, nor in any but recent publications. Although radio equipment has been used by the navigator for many years, it was not until the development of radar, loran, and other such aids to navigation during World War II that electronic navigation was recognized as a separate division of navigation. Now it is considered a very important branch and may easily fulfill the predictions of those who confidently expect it to become the primary navigational method. However, even the most enthusiastic supporters of this newest form of navigation recognize that it has limitations and that it will probably never render other methods obsolete any more than the gyro compass, valuable as it is, has caused the magnetic compass to be discarded. Keep constantly in mind that the methods discussed in this chapter are navigational aids and that it is still important to know how to use other methods.

    Current practices
    We now have the global positioning system (GPS), the automatic identification system (AIS), and other technologies that weren't even considered possible in 1948. How much have we learned and how much have we put into practice? Some indications that the lessons of Honda Point have not yet been fully put into practice follow.
    On June 10, 1995, the cruise ship ROYAL MAJESTY grounded on Rose and Crown Shoal near Nantucket Island. The ship was fitted with GPS, LORAN-C, radar, fathometer, and other navigation equipment. It was returning to Boston from a voyage to Bermuda. At dinner that night, the master had commented to passengers dining at his table how safe the ship was with GPS due to its high level of accuracy. When the ship grounded at about 2225 that night, it was approximately 17 miles west of where the watch officers thought it was immediately prior to the grounding. The watch officers had been relying exclusively on the GPS readout to determine the position of the ship. The GPS receiver was located in the chartroom, but the readout was available on the bridge. Unfortunately, the antenna wire had come loose from the back of the GPS receiver. The device was designed to default to automatic dead-reckoning when it did not receive a signal from the GPS satellites. It was also designed to display a flashing light when it was utilizing dead-reckoning. The flashing light did not display on the remote readout on the bridge, but only on the receiver itself. The watch officers had become so confident in the GPS that they did not check the LORAN-C, the radar, or the fathometer, all of which would have alerted them that the ship was standing into danger. The grounding was due, in large part, to the complacency of the watch officers in relying exclusively on one electronic aid to navigation.

    Radio and radiotelephone
    Failure to equip a coastwise tug with radio receiving sets to receive storm warnings renders the tug unseaworthy, precluding limitation of liability by the owner.7A defective channel 13 transmitter on a ship renders such ship unseaworthy.8Failure to maintain a proper listening watch on the ship's bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone while underway constitutes negligence.9 Failure of ship that was anchored in a hazardous locale during conditions of heavy fog to issue

    additional security calls after giving one such call immediately after anchoring was a contributing cause to the subsequent collision.10
    Fathometer
    It is negligent of a master on a ship equipped with a fathometer to fail to utilize that device while navigating in a ship canal during a period of reduced visibility.11
    Radar
    Failure to properly utilize the ship's radar and to plot nearby contacts constitutes negligence.12Proper utilization of radar includes taking the bearings and distances of approaching vessels at regular intervals and carefully evaluating that information by plotting or by some equivalent systematic method.13Interference between two radars on a ship is a not uncommon occurrence and is a correctable condition. It is negligent of the owners to allow a ship to proceed to sea without correcting this problem if they knew of it or should have known of it.14 It is negligent of a ship owner to expect that a master will learn how to utilize the automatic radar plotting aids (ARPA) system merely by seeing that system used once on another ship and having the manufacturer's manual placed on the bridge of the ship.

    Conclusion
    Owners and operators of ships are expected to equip those ships not only with all the required electronic navigation devices, but also with those devices that are generally available, even if not required by law or regulation. If IMO standards have been developed for a navigation device, the owner or operator is expected to have selected a device that meets the applicable standard. The navigation device must be installed properly and placed in a location and a manner that is reasonably useful for the average mariner (ergonomics). The navigation device must be properly maintained and remain reasonably operable. The personnel who are expected to utilize the navigation device must be trained and reasonably proficient in its use. Finally, the owner and operator must regularly check to ensure that the navigation devices installed are actually being used by the personnel charged with properly navigating the ship.

    It is only appropriate that this survey of legal issues related to electronic navigation end where it began - with reference to the 1923 Honda Point disaster. The following is taken from the records of the US Navy court of inquiry, but has continuing validity:
    After considering carefully the testimony adduced the court finds nothing which reflects on the efficiency of the radio compass installation. A mass of confusing testimony has been brought forward to prove that bearings may not be relied upon, but out of this testimony shines the clear fact that it was not the compass bearings sent to the Delphy, which were wrong, but the judgment of the men who interpreted these bearings and used them wrongly.
    Dead reckoning alone can never be relied upon.
    In commenting upon the record of the court of inquiry, the Chief of the Bureau of Engineering said: 'The Bureau desires to emphasize the fact that such devices as radio compasses, sonic depth finders, etc., are reliable only to the extent that they are operated properly, and recommends that the attention of the forces afloat be directed to the necessity for continuous training in their use.' With this remark the Bureau of Navigation concurred.

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Bryant2006,
      author = {Dennis Bryant},
      title = {The Law of E-Navigation},
      booktitle = {AIS 06},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20090219050315/http://rhppublishing.com/Presentations%20Day%201/Bryant%20Presentation.pdf}
    }
    
    Buckles, J.E. USCG MISLE Web-Based GIS Application 2004 ESRI, pp. 2  article URL 
    Abstract: The Coast Guard has a need to use GIS technologies to serve as a dynamic visualization tool to display the location of search and rescue cases, oil spills, aids to navigation information, demographics data, readiness data, etc. to better aid CG decision makers and improve information services to the public. The Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement (MISLE) GIS application is an attempt at satisfying this need. MISLE GIS is a full featured web deployed application. It features a Clustered SDE Database on the back, ArcIMS and Web Service middle tier, and a thin rich client on the front end. This client is an ActiveX Control that runs inside Internet Explorer and emulates a desk top GIS application. This application displays base maps and charts, Coast Guard specific information on Facilities and waterways, as well as dynamic data relating to CG Cases and Activities.

    Stanley Associates, Inc. US Coast Guard Operations System Center 408 Coast Guard Drive Kearnysville, WV. 25430-3002
    jbuckles(at)osc.uscg.mil

    BibTeX:
    @article{Buckles2004,
      author = {Joseph Elliot Buckles},
      title = {USCG MISLE Web-Based GIS Application},
      journal = {ESRI},
      year = {2004},
      pages = {2},
      url = {http://proceedings.esri.com/library/userconf/proc04/docs/pap1958.pdf}
    }
    
    Bukaty, V.M. & Morozova, S.U. Possible Method of Clearing-up the Close-quarter Situation of Ships by Means of Automatic Identification System 2009 8th International Symposium on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, TransNav 2009  conference  
    Abstract: FIX: Need to get this paper
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Bukaty2009,
      author = {Vitaliy M Bukaty and Svetlana U. Morozova},
      title = {Possible Method of Clearing-up the Close-quarter Situation of Ships by Means of Automatic Identification System},
      booktitle = {8th International Symposium on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, TransNav 2009},
      year = {2009}
    }
    
    Burgess, D.A. OpenBTS 2011   article URL 
    Abstract: OpenBTS is an open-source Unix application that uses the Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) to present a GSM air interface ("Um") to standard GSM handset and uses the Asterisk software PBX to connect calls. The combination of the ubiquitous GSM air interface with VoIP backhaul could form the basis of a new type of cellular network that could be deployed and operated at substantially lower cost than existing technologies in greenfields in the developing world.

    In plain language, we are working on a new kind of cellular network that can be installed and operated at about 1/10 the cost of current technologies, but that will still be compatible with most of the handsets that are already in the market. This technology can also be used in private network applications (wireless PBX, rapid deployment, etc.) at much lower cost and complexity than conventional cellular.

    Review: For GSM cell coverage in areas that don't have normal infrastructure. Can it send data?
    BibTeX:
    @article{Burgess2011,
      author = {David A. Burgess},
      title = {OpenBTS},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://openbts.sourceforge.net/}
    }
    
    Burns, W., Johnson, G., Gonin, I. & Alexander, L. Testing of AIS Application-Specific Messages to Improve U.S. Coast Guard VTS Operations 2011 eNavgation Underway, pp. 49-  article URL 
    Abstract: The United States Coast Guard (USCG) Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) is using Automatic Identification System (AIS) Application-Specific Messages (ASM) to benefit mariners and VTS operators. This paper describes the message development, implementation process, uses, results from operational testing, future goals, and implications of AIS ASMs at USCG VTSs.
    Introduction
    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is an autonomous and continuous broadcast system that exchanges maritime safety/security information between participating vessels and shore stations. In addition to providing a means for maritime administrations to effectively track the movement of vessels in coastal and inland waters, AIS can be a means to transmit information to ships in port or underway that contributes to safety-of-navigation and protection of the environment. This includes meteorological and hydrographic data, carriage of dangerous cargos, safety and security zones, status of locks and aids-to-navigation, and other port/waterway safety information. As far back as 10 years ago, specific content was defined in locations of small closed communities. For instance, the Saint Lawrence Seaway and United States Coast Guard (USCG) Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) Saint Mary's River, Sault Saint Marie, Michigan are still broadcasting metrological and hydrological, vessel/lock scheduling, and Seaway specific information following ITU-R Recommendation 1371-1.
    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has had a major role in guiding the development of AIS internationally. In May 2004, IMO issued Safety of Navigation Circular (SN/Circ. 236), ?Guidance on the Application of AIS Binary Messages? [1] in which seven messages were specified and were to be used for a trial period of four (4) years with no change. In addition, four (4) additional system-related messages related to the operation of the system were identified in Recommendation ITU-R M.1371-2. More recently (on 2 June 2010) IMO issued two ASM related circulars: SN.1/Circ.290, ?Guidance for the Presentation and Display of AIS Application-Specific Messages Information? [2] and SN.1/Circ.289, ?Guidance on the Use of AIS Application-specific Messages[3]. The last circular will revoke SN/Circ.236 on 1 January 2013.
    While AIS is a highly effective means of providing information to a VTS Center about vessel position and identification, it can also be used as a VTS tool for communication by utilizing the transmit capability which includes both broadcasts to all users within range and addressed messages to specific users. The current AIS specification, ITU-1371-4 [4] defines 27 different AIS messages shown in Table 1. Some of these message types can be grouped into categories applicable to AIS transmit: message types 16, 20, 22, and 23 can be considered telecommands that can be used by a VTS for channel management; message types 12, 13, and 14 can be used for safety-related text messages; and message types 6, 7, 8, 21, 25, and 26 are all application-specific messages that can be used for information transfer. The messages listed in bold have been used in the testing discussed in this report. In the United States, it is intended when information is transmitted from shore-side AIS base stations that Application-Specific Messages (ASMs) be used as part of an expanded VTS provided by the USCG.

    Environmental Message (EM)
    The Environmental Message accommodates a wide variety of environmental data from throughout the U.S., including: current flow, water level, water temperature, visibility, and air gap. The message has the ability to provide both real-time and forecast data. The goal was to accommodate the information transfer requirements of all of the stakeholders: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS), the NOAA National Data Buoy Center (NDBC), and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). In order to maximize flexibility, this message can be used to transmit from 1 to 8 sensor reports (a 1 sensor report uses 1 slot while a message with 8 sensor reports requires
    5 slots). These sensor reports can be data from one location or from multiple locations. In addition, the data does not need to be sent at the same update rate allowing data that changes more rapidly to be sent more often than slowly changing data. Static data such as sensor position can be sent even less frequently. The flexible message structure allows a message to be created that transmits just the data elements that are available rather than having to always transmit the same data elements; even if most of them are null data. This flexibility in data composition of the message was not possible with the original met-hydro message in SN/Circ. 236.
    Area Notice (AN)
    The purpose of the AN is to transmit information that pertains to a region or area; for example, a security zone, an area of fog or dredging operations. The areas that are being defined can be circles, rectangles, polygons, or sectors. The AN can also be defined by the union of multiple subareas in order to create larger, more complex areas. The AN can also be defined as a simple point or series of points (polyline). The series of points can be used to create a closed area of arbitrary shape or to define a line.
    The intent with an AN is to broadcast dynamic information (i.e. information that is time dependent). These messages are to be used for a specific time period and will automatically timeout at the end of the period. If the AN must be in place longer, then a new AN must be transmitted with a new start and end time. An AN should only be used to convey pertinent time-critical navigation safety information to mariners or authorities, and not as a means to convey information already provided by official nautical charts or publications. This
    type of message was not included in the original SN/Circ. 236.
    Waterways Management Message (WMM)
    The WMM can be used to facilitate vessel traffic movement in confined waters. More ?directive? than advisory, this message can be broadcast (e.g., information for all ships or a group of ships) or addressed (e.g., information/direction to a single ship). Examples include: lock, gate, narrows, or single passage area. There are two sub-types of this message; 1) for providing a position/name of the waterway feature, and 2) for providing a list of vessels and their sequence order/times. Specific information for each vessel includes: sequence time, direction, and vessel Maritime Mobile Service Identity (MMSI). This type of message was not included in the original SN/Circ. 236; this message was not included in SN/Circ. 289 as it was not completed prior to the cut-off date.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Burns2011,
      author = {William Burns and Gregory Johnson and Irene Gonin and Lee Alexander},
      title = {Testing of AIS Application-Specific Messages to Improve U.S. Coast Guard VTS Operations},
      journal = {eNavgation Underway},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {49-},
      url = {http://www.efficiensea.org/files/conferenceproceedings.pdf#page=42}
    }
    
    Burrows, E. aislib 2010 GPL v2 licensed software  misc URL 
    Abstract: AISlib is a Java library, and set of Java executable classes that allow for manipulation of AIS data. Included in AISlib are:

    * nmea2udp: A program to connect to a serially-attached AIS receiver, and send the messages as UDP packets to an internet server, such as aishub, marinetraffic, etc.
    * udp2nmea: A program to accept UDP NMEA strings, and make them available to TCP clients.
    * nmea2mysql: A program to connect to a TCP socket providing AIS NMEA strings, such as GPSd, parse the messages into their respective AIS message types, and log the messages to a MySQL database.
    * serial2mysql: A program to connect to a serial port providing AIS NMEA strings, parse the messages into their respective AIS message types, and log the messages to a MySQL database.
    * Libraries: A set of Java libraries for doing all of the above. TCP client/server, UDP client/server and NMEA string parsing.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Burrows,
      author = {Eric Burrows},
      title = {aislib},
      year = {2010},
      note = {version 0.2},
      url = {http://www.erikburrows.com/index.php?node=AISlib}
    }
    
    Burrows, S. & McCabe, R. Interreg IIIA AIS for buoys of Primary Navigational Significance - final report 2006 (Project Reference Number 018411)  techreport URL 
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Burrows2006,
      author = {Steve Burrows and Robert McCabe},
      title = {Interreg IIIA AIS for buoys of Primary Navigational Significance - final report},
      year = {2006},
      number = {Project Reference Number 018411},
      url = {http://www.commissionersofirishlights.com/media/21403/interreg_iiia_ais%20report.pdf}
    }
    
    BURZIGOTTI, P. & GINESI, A. AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM RECEIVER AND SATELLITE PAYLOAD COMPRISING THE SAME 2011 (WO/2011/048502)  patent URL 
    Abstract: An Automatic Identification System - AIS - receiver comprising at least one processing section (PS1, PS2) for synchronizing, demodulating and detecting AIS messages contained in a received signal, said processing steps being carried out separately for a plurality of frequency sub-bands (SB1, SB2, SB3) spanning an AIS channel (CH1, CH2); the receiver being characterized in that: said sub-bands overlap with each others; and said or each processing section is adapted for synchronizing, demodulating and detecting said AIS messages within each sub- band on the basis of timing error and carrier frequency estimations obtained from filtered replicas of said received signal, propagating along respective auxiliary signal paths.
    Review: Seriously? Having different stagest to deal with different doppler shifts seems pretty basic.
    BibTeX:
    @patent{BURZIGOTTI2011,
      author = {BURZIGOTTI, Paolo and GINESI, Alberto},
      title = {AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM RECEIVER AND SATELLITE PAYLOAD COMPRISING THE SAME},
      year = {2011},
      number = {WO/2011/048502},
      url = {http://www.wipo.int/pctdb/en/wo.jsp?WO=2011048502}
    }
    
    C.N.S. Systems VDL 6000, Part I - Installation and Maintenance 2005   manual  
    Abstract: complies with recommendation ITU.R M.1371-1, IEC 61993-2, IEC 61162-2, IEC 60945.
    BibTeX:
    @manual{C.N.S.Systems2005,
      author = {C.N.S. Systems},
      title = {VDL 6000, Part I - Installation and Maintenance},
      year = {2005},
      edition = {CNSS-03-2113-F}
    }
    
    Cairns, B. e-Navigation: Revolution and evolution 2011 USCG Proceedings
    Vol. Spring, pp. 48-50 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The Office of Navigation Sys- tems in the U.S. Coast Guard Marine Transportation Man- agement Directorate is con- tinuing to help define and shape e-Navigation through its efforts at the International MaritimeOrganization (IMO) and the International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) e-Naviga- tion Committee. Domesti- cally, the office is the lead for developing a U.S. e-Naviga- tion strategy for the Commitee on the Marine Transportation System.

    The IALA e-Navigation Committee, formed from its Radionavigation and AIS Committees, is structured specifically to support the IMO. As such, IALA's e-Nav Position, Navigation, and Timing Working Group is working to identify and examine all technologies that may contribute to effective position, navigation, and timing, including radar and associated aids to naviga- tion, terrestrial positioning systems, global navigation satellite systems augmentation, visual and optical tech- niques, echo sounders, inertial navigation, and alter- native uses of existing systems.

    Additionally, the Portrayal Working Group will evalu- ate new proposals for displaying e-Navigation- related information, including AIS application-specific messages, virtual AtoN, and marine information over- lays. The users of e-Navigation services are repre- sented in the Operations Working Group and contribute to the IMO e-Navigation implementation plan by assessing operational issues pertinent to user needs, gap analysis, cost-benefit analysis, and associ- ated implementation issues.
    The Automatic Identification System Technical Work- ing Group is focusing on efforts including AIS aids tonavigation, satellite detection, terrestrial long-range AIS, and the next generation of AIS.
    Future data collection and exchange needs will provide the impetus for communications systems of broader ca- pabilities than VHF-based AIS. With this in mind, the e- Navigation Committee created the Communications Working Group to study operational and technical re- quirements for communications and information sys- tems in e-Navigation, including the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System and maritime information systems, and evaluate communication channels within other frequency bands.
    The committee's Architecture Technical Working Group is working to harmonize sensor and architec- ture integration. In addition to creating the conceptual and technical framework for a shore-based e-Naviga- tion system, the architects are developing a data model and an 'e-Navigation stack' analogous to the International Organization for Standardization open systems interconnection stack.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Cairns2011,
      author = {Bill Cairns},
      title = {e-Navigation: Revolution and evolution},
      journal = {USCG Proceedings},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {Spring},
      pages = {48-50},
      url = {http://www.uscg.mil/proceedings/Spring2011/Spring%202011.pdf}
    }
    
    Cairns, B. What e-Navigation is and what it is not 2007 eNavigation conference, pp. 30  article  
    Abstract: The IALA definition (as amended at NAV 53)
    "E-Navigation is the harmonised collection, integration, exchange, presentation and analysis of maritime information onboard and ashore by electronic means to enhance berth to berth navigation and related services, for safety and
    security at sea and protection of the marine environment"
    NAV 53 added "analysis" to the definition.

    The early discussions in IALA identified three fundamental elements that are needed for e-navigation to be successful.
    Robust, fail-safe, accurate positioning system is also another broadly agreed user requirement. If a GNSS is not available, the e-navigation presentation needs a back-up system to provide positioning information. One of the suggested back-up systems is Loran, or eLoran.
    The definition of e-navigation talks about harmonised collection, integration, exchange, presentation and analysis of maritime information onboard and ashore. The flow of information between ship and shore (and between ships, as well as between shore facilities) will require significant communications capabilities.
    This slide is about a year old and came out of the IMO e-Navigation Correspondence Group. You'll note that the Integrated Bridge System is at the heart of this model.
    The IALA e-NAV Committee developed this more functional look at e-navigation. Note that the e-navigation environment focuses on ship and shore with value adding information at both and considers the exchange of information between ship and shore as well as the presentation of that information. All of this, through appropriate procedures and training, and with good watchkeeping and a lookout (i.e., not "head-down") leads to the goal of e-navigation: safe navigation

    This descriptive view was developed at an Australian Maritime Safety Authority workshop on e-navigation. This model at the center focuses on the core parts of e-navigation: ship, shore, and communications. Because of the interaction of ship and shore in the e-navigation environment, the user requirements and the user communities, must be considered together. IMO, traditionally the focal point for shipboard equipment, cannot develop e-navigation requirements in isolation from the shoreside entities. Similarly, Aids to Navigation authorities, traditionally represented by IALA, cannot provide e-navigation services without considering the shipboard interface to receive those services.

    E-navigation is NOT
    Hardware
    INS/IBS
    New carriage requirement
    Limited to SOLAS
    Opportunity to reduce crew
    A priori opportunity to reduce visual AtoN

    BibTeX:
    @article{Cairns2007,
      author = {Bill Cairns},
      title = {What e-Navigation is and what it is not},
      journal = {eNavigation conference},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {30}
    }
    
    Cairns, B. Implementation of Long-Range Identification & Tracking - - LRIT - - 2006 AIS 06  conference URL 
    Abstract: I'll start with the LRIT concept and then cover the specifics of the IMO work on the regulation, performance standards, and engineering work, and then address domestic regulations for LRIT.
    This is the LRIT concept.
    Originally, LRIT was based solely on Inmarsat-C GMDSS sending automated reports to a central LRIT Data Management Centre.
    It is not quite that way anymore, but conceptually, LRIT still is ships reporting through mandated equipment to the LRIT system for access by contracting governments.
    Throughout its development at IMO, LRIT has had some common themes:
    It has always been a cooperative system. You could even call it dependent surveillance. But…this is NOT satellite reception of AIS signals.

    It applies to SOLAS class ships. Since it is in Chapter V (Safety of Navigation) that means 300 GT and up.
    Shipboard equipment must be capable of automatically transmitting (as well as being polled) position, ID, and time. This is what we call LRIT information. And IMO limited it to these items to keep communications costs to a minimum.
    Although coastal state access was tenuous until the very end, different contracting governments may have access to LRIT information depending on their status as a flag, port or coastal state.
    The LRIT system must be secure, so open broadcast communications are not permitted. However, encrypted HF for example has not been ruled out.
    Finally, the LRIT benefits to SAR have always been recognized and supported virtually without exception.
    At MSC 81 in May of this year, the Committee adopted SOLAS regulation V/19-1.
    It was characterized as a 'delicately balanced package' of regulations and performance standards.
    The first provision of this regulation states that nothing in it shall prejudice the rights, jurisdiction or obligations of states. Simply put, it means you get information under this regulation, but no more rights.
    Here are the limits of what you are entitled to as a contracting government.
    As a Flag, you can track your ships anywhere.
    As a port state, once a ship has indicated its intention to enter your port, you can gain access (but not in the internal waters of another contracting government.)
    Finally, as a coastal state, you have access to LRIT information up to 1000 nm off your coast - yes, that means ships on innocent passage or on the high seas - but not in the internal waters of another, and not in the territorial sea of the flag state.
    Carriage requirement for LRIT equipment
    A1 AIS exemption: Ships operating exclusively in Sea area A1 and fitted with AIS not required to comply with this regulation
    LRIT information (ID, position, time)
    Switched off onboard or otherwise prevent distribution of LRIT information 1) where int'l agreements provide for the protection of navigation information or the master feels its operation comprises the security of his ship.
    An Administration can exclude a Named Coastal State from receiving LRIT information it is otherwise entitled to.
    Contracting governments bear all costs fro LRIT information they are entitled to, request, and receive.
    No cost to ships
    Available to SAR services
    In conclusion, we now have a SOLAS LRIT regulation for security…AND safety, efficiency and environmental protection.
    There are performance standards and functional requirements approved which are leading to technical specifications for approval at MSC 82.
    Finally, the SOLAS regulation will be implemented in domestic regulations.

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Cairns2006,
      author = {Bill Cairns},
      title = {Implementation of Long-Range Identification & Tracking - - LRIT - -},
      booktitle = {AIS 06},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20090219050329/http://rhppublishing.com/Presentations%20Day%201/Cairns%20Presentation.ppt}
    }
    
    Cairns, W. AIS and long range identification & tracking 2005 The Journal of Navigation
    Vol. 58(02), pp. 181-189 
    article DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cairns2005,
      author = {Cairns, W.R.},
      title = {AIS and long range identification & tracking},
      journal = {The Journal of Navigation},
      publisher = {Cambridge Univ Press},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {58},
      number = {02},
      pages = {181--189},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0373463305003267}
    }
    
    Calder, B. & Schwehr, K. Traffic Analysis for the Calibration of Risk Assessment Methods 2009 US Hydro  article URL 
    Abstract: In order to provide some measure of the uncertainty in- herent in the sorts of charting data that are provided to the end-user, we have previously proposed risk mod- els that measure the magnitude of the uncertainty for a ship operating in a particular area. Calibration of these models is essential, but the complexity of the models means that we require detailed information on the sorts of ships, traffic patterns and density within the model area to make a reliable assessment. In the- ory, the ais system should provide this information for a suitably instrumented area. We consider the problem of converting, filtering and analysing the raw ais traffic to provide statistical characterizations of the traffic in a particular area, and illustrate the method with data from 2008-10-01 through 2008-11-30 around Norfolk, VA. We show that it is possible to automatically con- struct aggregate statistical characteristics of the port, resulting in distributions of transit location, termina- tion and duration by vessel category, as well as type of traffic, physical dimensions, and intensity of activity. We also observe that although 60 days give us suffi- cient data for our immediate purposes, a large propor- tion of it—up to 52% by message volume—must be considered dubious due to difficulties in configuration, maintenance and operation of ais transceivers.
    BibTeX:
    @article{calder2009,
      author = {Calder, B and Schwehr, K},
      title = {Traffic Analysis for the Calibration of Risk Assessment Methods},
      journal = {US Hydro},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://vislab-ccom.unh.edu/~schwehr/papers/2009ushydro-calder_schwehr_AIS_Traffic_Analysis.pdf}
    }
    
    Caldwell, S.L. Maritime Security: Responses to Questions for the Record 2010 (GAO-11-140R)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: As we reported in March 2009, the expansion of vessel tracking to all small vessels— through transponders or other methods—may be of limited utility because of the large number of small vessels, the difficulty identifying threatening actions, the challenges associated with getting resources on scene in time to prevent an attack once it has been identified, and the limitations of certain equipment.4 For vessels not required to carry automatic identification system (AIS)5 equipment, cameras may be utilized, though not all ports have cameras suited to overcome challenges posed by low lighting during operation at night or in bad weather. Even when vessels carrying transponders are tracked in ports, recognizing hostile intent is very difficult. During our reviews of maritime security efforts, we were provided evidence of vessels intruding into security zones where unauthorized access was prohibited. While no attacks occurred, such vessels were able to travel freely near potential targets. Coast Guard officials have told us that their ability to enforce security zones is constrained by their limited resources. Moreover, the Coast Guard has not been able to meet its own internal standards for the frequency of escorts of potential target vessels. The difficulty in recognizing potentially threatening activity and the limited response capability indicates that expanding tracking to all small vessels would not necessarily diminish the risk posed by small vessels. While such tracking would likely lead to increased observation of prohibited activities, such as intrusion into security zones, it would not necessarily help to differentiate between vessels that entered security zones with hostile intent and vessels that entered for other reasons, such as better fishing. In addition, with the increased number of vessels to observe, watch standers could be overwhelmed by the amount of information they must track or monitor. While the Coast Guard has research underway to automate its ability to detect threatening behavior by vessels, even if these efforts are successful they would not improve the agency’s ability to respond quickly. DHS’s Small Vessel Security Strategy also states that small-vessel risk reduction efforts should not impede the lawful use of the maritime domain or the free flow of legitimate commerce—making the need to decipher vessel behavior essential. As the strategy states, given the size and complexity of the maritime domain, risk-based decision making is the only feasible approach to prevention, protection, response and recovery related to small-vessel threats.
    Review: It's not a transponder!
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Caldwell2010,
      author = {Stephen L. Caldwell},
      title = {Maritime Security: Responses to Questions for the Record},
      year = {2010},
      number = {GAO-11-140R},
      url = {http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d11140r.pdf}
    }
    
    Caldwell, S.L., Canjar, R.E., Cuero, O., Henderson, E., Kaneshiro, D., Kostyla, S., Stenersen, S., Vogt, A. & Ormond, J. Maritime Security. Vessel Tracking Systems Provide Key Information, but the Need for Duplicate Data Should Be Reviewed 2009   techreport URL 
    Abstract: At sea or in U.S. coastal areas, inland waterways, and ports, the Coast Guard is currently relying on a diverse array of vessel tracking systems operated by various entities, but its attempts to develop systems to track vessels at sea are facing delays. For tracking vessels at sea, the Coast Guard uses existing national technical means—classified methods of tracking vessels—and plans to obtain vessel identification and tracking information from two more sources, long-range identification and tracking system (LRIT), and commercially provided long-range automatic identification system (AIS). However, one source of this information has just become available and the other has been delayed due to technical and operational difficulties. International LRIT requirements generally came into effect on January 1, 2009. The Coast Guard estimates that commercially provided long-range AIS will be operational in 2014. For tracking vessels in U.S. coastal areas, inland waterways, and ports, the Coast Guard operates a land-based AIS, and also either operates, or has access to, radar and cameras in some ports.

    The existing and planned sources of vessel tracking information may allow the Coast Guard to track larger vessels at sea, but systems and other equipment that track smaller and noncommercial vessels in coastal areas, inland waterways, and ports may prove ineffective in thwarting an attack without advance knowledge. The means of tracking vessels at sea—national technical means, LRIT, and commercially provided long-range AIS—are potentially effective, but each has features that could impede its effectiveness. The systems used in U.S. coastal areas, inland waterways, and ports—AIS, radar, and video cameras—have more difficulty tracking smaller and noncommercial vessels because they are not required to carry AIS equipment and because of the technical limitations of radar and cameras. In studies GAO reviewed and discussions with maritime stakeholders, there was widespread agreement that vessel tracking systems and equipment will be challenged to provide a warning if a small vessel is moving in a threatening manner.
    The Coast Guard has not coordinated its plans for obtaining vessel tracking information at sea, and is planning on obtaining potentially duplicative information, but in coastal areas, inland waterways, and ports, the various tracking methods complement each other. Once operational, the two new planned means for tracking vessels at sea—LRIT and commercially provided long-range AIS—will both provide vessel identification and position information for almost all the same vessels. Commercially provided long- range AIS provides additional information about each vessel and its voyage, but almost all of that information is available through reports filed by vessel operators. The primary need cited by the Coast Guard to develop both systems—to detect anomalies—can be met by the national technical means already operational, combined with information from the reports filed by vessel operators and LRIT. Furthermore, the Coast Guard has not coordinated or analyzed the information each source can provide and the need for information from both.

    The National Plan to Achieve Maritime Domain Awareness—a part of The National Strategy for Maritime Security—lays out the need for MDA. The plan states that the maritime domain provides an expansive pathway around the world that terrorist organizations have recognized. Such organizations realize the importance of exploiting the maritime domain for the movement of equipment and personnel, as well as a medium for launching attacks. The Coast Guard needs timely awareness of the maritime domain and knowledge of threats in order to detect, deter, interdict, and defeat adversaries.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Caldwell2009,
      author = {Stephen L Caldwell and R E Canjar and Odilon Cuero and Erin Henderson and Daniel Kaneshiro and Stanley Kostyla and Stan Stenersen and Adam Vogt and Josh Ormond},
      title = {Maritime Security. Vessel Tracking Systems Provide Key Information, but the Need for Duplicate Data Should Be Reviewed},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA497865}
    }
    
    Carter, J. COAST GUARD RECEIVES APPROVAL TO MOVE FORWARD WITH IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM 2007 Press Release  misc URL 
    Abstract: WASHINGTON - The U.S. Coast Guard announced today it received formal approval from the Department of Homeland Security to issue solicitations and award contracts to establish initial operating capability for the two-way, maritime data communications system known as the nationwide automatic identification system.

    "The nationwide automatic identification system will greatly aid the essential process of identifying, tracking, and communicating with vessels approaching our maritime borders and is a centerpiece in establishing effective maritime domain awareness," said Rear Adm. John P. Currier, the Coast Guard's assistant commandant for acquisitions.

    "This is an important milestone for the project as it marks the approval to begin contracting for the initial deployment of this powerful capability," said Capt. Kurtis Guth, automatic identification system project manager. "The nationwide automatic identification system will provide numerous key operational benefits to the Coast Guard, including improved maritime security, navigational safety, and vessel traffic planning. The speed, course and location data collected by this system from vessels carrying international automatic identification system equipment will be used to form an overarching view of maritime traffic within or near the U.S. and its territorial waters."

    The nationwide automatic identification system is being developed in three acquisition increments primarily to accelerate deployment of mission critical capabilities. The Coast Guard partnered with the Naval Sea Logistics Center under the first increment to establish receive-only automatic identification system coverage in approximately 60 critical U.S. ports and coastal areas during the current fiscal year. The second increment will involve a full and open competition contract for the design, supply and implementation of a fully integrated system to provide nationwide reception and transmission capabilities. The third and final increment will involve contracts to provide long-range automatic identification system coverage out to 2,000 nautical miles from U.S. shores.

    For more information on the project log on to: http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-a/ais/, and for more information on automatic identification system technology, standards and carriage requirements log on to: http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/enav/ais/

    BibTeX:
    @misc{uscg2007d,
      author = {Jeff Carter},
      title = {COAST GUARD RECEIVES APPROVAL TO MOVE FORWARD WITH IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM},
      year = {2007},
      url = {https://www.piersystem.com/go/doc/786/141744/}
    }
    
    Carvalho, R., Costa, P., Laskey, K. & Chang, K. PROGNOS: Predictive situational awareness with probabilistic ontologies 2011 Information Fusion (FUSION), 2010 13th Conference on  inproceedings URL 
    Abstract: Information in the battlefield comes from reports from diverse sources, in distinct syntax, and with different meanings. There are many kinds of uncertainty involved in this process, e.g., noise in sensors, incorrect, incomplete, or deceptive human intelligence, and others, which makes it essential to have a coherent, consistent, and principled means to represent such phenomena among the systems performing Predictive Situation Awareness (PSAW). PROGNOS is a PSAW system being developed to work within the operational context such as U.S. Navy's FORCENet. It employs probabilistic ontologies in a distributed system architecture as a means to provide semantic interoperability within an intrinsically complex and uncertain environment. This paper explores our current status in developing the system while addressing the major research challenges for making an effective PSAW system to support maritime operations.

    ... a. Verify if an electronic countermeasure (ECM) was identified by a navy ship; b. Verify
    if the ship has a responsive radar and automatic identification system (AIS). The primary
    hypothesis is shown in the ShipOf- Interest MFrag in Figure 8. ...

    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Carvalho2011,
      author = {Carvalho, R.N. and Costa, P.C.G. and Laskey, K.B. and Chang, K.C.},
      title = {PROGNOS: Predictive situational awareness with probabilistic ontologies},
      booktitle = {Information Fusion (FUSION), 2010 13th Conference on},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=5711970}
    }
    
    Ceolin, D., Groth, P. & van Hage, W.R. Calculating the Trust of Event Descriptions using Provenance 2010 , pp. 6  article URL 
    Abstract: Understanding real world events often calls for the integration of data from multiple often conflicting sources. Trusting the description of an event requires not only determining trust in the data sources but also in the integration process itself. In this work, we propose a trust algorithm for event data based on Subjective Logic that takes into account not only opinions about data sources but also how those sources were integrated. This algorithm is based on a mapping between a general event ontology, the Simple Event Model, and a model for describing provenance, the Open Provenance Model. We discuss the results of applying the algorithm to a use case from the maritime domain

    The trust algorithms presented here rely on the novel combination of two existing representations, the Simple Event Model (SEM) for event representations and the Open Provenance Model (OPM) for representing the data integration process itself. Based on a mapping of these models, we develop a trust algorithm using subjective logic. We apply our trust algorithm to a use case from maritime shipping.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Ceolin2010,
      author = {Davide Ceolin and Paul Groth and Willem Robert van Hage},
      title = {Calculating the Trust of Event Descriptions using Provenance},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {6},
      url = {http://www.few.vu.nl/~wrvhage/papers/event-trust-11.pdf}
    }
    
    Cervera, M. & Ginesi, A. On the performance analysis of a satellite-based AIS system 2008 Signal Processing for Space Communications, 2008. SPSC 2008. 10th International Workshop on, pp. 1-8  conference DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @conference{cervera2008performance,
      author = {Cervera, M.A. and Ginesi, A.},
      title = {On the performance analysis of a satellite-based AIS system},
      booktitle = {Signal Processing for Space Communications, 2008. SPSC 2008. 10th International Workshop on},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {1--8},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=4686715},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SPSC.2008.4686715}
    }
    
    Chailloux, C., Kinda, B., Gervaise, C., Bonnel, J., Stephan, Y., Mars, J. & Hermand, J. Modelling of ambient noise created by a shipping lane to prepare passive inversion, application to Ushant case 2011 UAM  article URL 
    Abstract: The Ushant thermal front is a seasonal phenomenon which occurs from May to October in a shallow water environment (100m) of the Iroise Sea (off the coast of the northwestern France). It corresponds to the boundary separating a well mixed inner shelf water from an open sea stratified water. To determine the dynamic of the front -or more basically the presence of a stratified or homogeneous water column- the possibility to use a shipping lane as a continuous acoustic source is studied. The originality of this work is to use a single receiver. Simulation results of sounds radiated by a shipping lane in a shallow water environment are presented, both for stratified and homogeneous water column. The corresponding pressure fields show a mean level difference in the frequency band 50-300 Hz. This feature will be used in the future as an observable to differentiate both environments, and thus passively detect the Ushant thermal front. One of the issue to get the mean level offset is to record the shipping lane noise without isolated ship interferences. As a consequence, an optimum mooring position to track the thermal front is suggested from the analysis of real acoustic data, acquired around the Ushant traffic lane during 2010, coupled with AIS (Automatic Identification System) data, and a MARS-3D oceanographic model output. Keywords: Passive acoustic inversion
    BibTeX:
    @article{CyrilChailloux2011,
      author = {Cyril Chailloux and Bazile Kinda and Cedric Gervaise and Julien Bonnel and Yann Stephan and Jerome Mars and J.P. Hermand},
      title = {Modelling of ambient noise created by a shipping lane to prepare passive inversion, application to Ushant case},
      journal = {UAM},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00576929/}
    }
    
    Chao, J.-J. Multiscale Timing Estimation for Ad Hoc Networks 2006 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology, pp. 735-738  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Because of the lack of a fixed infrastructure, ad hoc networks use a time synchronization mechanism to start and maintain synchronization. Estimation of time synchronization is one of the key issues in self-organized time division multiple access (SOTDMA) based automatic identification systems (AIS) transceivers. When the primary time source is lost, timing estimation must be performed to maintain system operation. All stations in the network then function as secondary time sources for the failed station. Measuring the time of arrival of a transmitted signal from another station can be treated as a sensor measurement with observation noise. The synchronization state of the station and the signal to noise ratio, related to the distance between two stations, determines the resolution of the measurement. Accordingly, we give the available stations a multiresolution label. By using the concept of multisensor data fusion and a multiresolution technique, we obtain a more accurate time estimate
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chao2006,
      author = {Jung-Jae Chao},
      title = {Multiscale Timing Estimation for Ad Hoc Networks},
      journal = {2006 IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {735-738},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4042337},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISSPIT.2006.270895}
    }
    
    Chen, J., Hu, Q., Zhao, R., Guojun, P. & Yang, C. Tracking a Vessel by Combining Video and AIS Reports 2008 Proceedings of the 2008 Second International Conference on Future Generation Communication and Networking - Volume 02, pp. 374-378  inproceedings DOI URL 
    Abstract: Video surveillance systems have been widely deployed in harbors or along coastlines. These systems provide a continuous surveillance of the transportation in a certain area, however, it's difficult for the users to position a specific vessel and keep tracking it on these systems in an automatic way. To satisfy this requirement, this paper put forward a method of tracking a vessel by combining video and ship-borne AIS reports, which can provide continual positions of the vessel. The vessel's current position is used to focus the camera on the vessel, and Kalman filtering model is applied to smooth the video images. Simulation results show the proposed method has a high tracking precision and a user-friendly characteristic. This research shall be helpful for tracking a specific vessel with video surveillance.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Chen2008,
      author = {Chen, Jinhai and Hu, Qinyou and Zhao, Renyu and Guojun, Peng and Yang, Chun},
      title = {Tracking a Vessel by Combining Video and AIS Reports},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2008 Second International Conference on Future Generation Communication and Networking - Volume 02},
      publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {374--378},
      url = {http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1488731.1489458},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/FGCN.2008.58}
    }
    
    Chen, Y. & Geng, H. Analyzing the Possibility of Signal Reception for Space?Based AIS System 2010 INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper presents the possibility that the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) microsatellite receives the shipborne Automatic Identification System (AIS) signal operating on the Very High Frequency (VHF) spectrum. The factors influencing the AIS signal transmission are investigated, including the atmospheric refraction, the free space loss, the ionospheric polarization mismatch, and the atmospheric attenuation. The result demonstrates that, under the given assumptions, around 48% of the AIS transmitting lobe is able to overcome both refractions of the tropospheric and the ionospheric, and propagate into the outer space. The signal power received increases with the angle of ship's elevation but decreases as the orbit altitude rises. The satellite below 800km has the possibility of receiving approximate 80% of the shipborne AIS signal with the system link margin more than 10 dBm.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chen2010,
      author = {Yuli Chen and Hejun Geng},
      title = {Analyzing the Possibility of Signal Reception for Space?Based AIS System},
      journal = {INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://ascelibrary.org/proceedings/resource/2/ascecp/382/41127/248_1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/41127(382)248}
    }
    
    Chesley, D.C. USCG-2009-0701-0005.1 2010 Regulations.gov  article URL 
    Abstract: GENERAL COMMENT: On the whole, the widest possible availability of both historical and real-time data, with the fewest restrictions on access, seems to be the best choice of policies, as determined by issues of practicality (i.e. impossibility of controlling access to local real-time data), and issues of benefit vs. risk, as elaborated below. 1. How might providing real-time, near real-time, or historical NAIS information to the public impact maritime commerce? RESPONSE: Maritime operations (noncommercial as well as commercial) benefit from improved safety, efficiency, and security. These in turn benefit from informed decisionmaking and improved communications, to which NAIS data (real-time and historical) can significantly contribute, though less so in proportion to greater restrictions on availability. Potential ways of misusing the data must be anticipated and countered, but not necessarily by restriction of access - often greater availability leads to more contributors of ideas and practices for good security and safety, and more thorough anticipation and interdiction of malicious uses. 2. What would be the impact of providing this information, if any, on the following? a. Safety of ships and passengers or crew: RESPONSE: Safe and efficient traffic flow benefits from knowledge of typical patterns (aided by analysis of historical NAIS data), and good communication (e.g. more effective VHF is aided by real-time knowledge of the identity of nearby vessels, available from real-time AIS). Known times and areas of heavy commercial traffic could be avoided by e.g. recreational boaters - the Harbor Ed subcommittee of the NY Harbor Ops committee is in fact looking into usage mapping of local waters to facilitate safer sharing of the mixed-use waterways. b. Security of ships and their cargo: RESPONSE: If availability of e.g. historical traffic pattern data, or of real-time positions provides opportunity for malicious action, it also provides opportunity for vigilance and interdiction, and in an open and motivated community should in balance favor the "good guys", improving security. DARPA has a project, called Deep ISR Processing by Crowds, to "harness the unique cognitive and creative abilities of large numbers of people to enhance dramatically the knowledge derived from ISR [Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance] systems", using the same methodology and philosophy. c. Economic advantage or disadvantage to commercial stakeholders: RESPONSE: Commercial marine operations are more profitable if more efficient, which AIS data can facilitate. Greater knowledge of competitor's movements and patterns would sharpen competition and (theoretically) make markets as a whole more efficient. Questionable practices seeking unfair advantage (e.g. pollution on the sly to cut costs) would be more subject to scrutiny and countermeasures, again improving the industry as a whole. As with security, wider availability of the data makes for greater positive involvement. d. Environmental impact on extractable resources or coastal activities: RESPONSE: Environmental protection has been greatly facilitated by the actions of informed citizens detecting and reporting violations of law or bad practices. AIS information would be an important resource in aiding the maritime community to interdict violations or correct harmful practices. 3. Is information collected by the NAIS considered sensitive? RESPONSE: The public broadcast nature of the protocol makes the data by nature nonsensitive; private data should be (and is) encrypted by concerned parties, without intervention of governmental agencies. a. Is real-time or near real-time information collected by the NAIS viewed differently than historical NAIS information, and if so, how? RESPONSE: The 2 types of data have different natural applications: historical data for analysis of trends and patterns, for e.g. safety education; real-time data for underway decisionmaking based on traffic and other reported conditions (e.g. hydrology, meteorology, emergency conditions). They also differ in a practical issue of control: local real-time unencrypted data can be collected and used (or shared) by anyone with an appropriate receiver, whereas an archive of historic data can't easily be retroactively constructed, and a possessor (e.g. USCG) of such an archive can control accessto at least some extent. There is, however, no guarantee that a similar archive is not available elsewhere, since anyone collecting local realtime data can accumulate it, and share it. b. Does the sharing of information collected by the NAIS generate concern about unfair commercial advantage? If so, for which segments of the industry is this a concern? RESPONSE: Any commercial advantage that is generated by unrestricted access would be equally available to all, and would seem by nature to be fair. Services that might wish to repackage and sell such information, or equipment and software to facilitate acquisition, analysis, and use of such information might resent a free competing service, much as some newspapers resent the Internet. Such is life. c. Is there a timeframe within which real-time or historical information collected by the NAIS is considered sensitive or is no longer considered sensitive? d. Given that ships last for decades and that their capabilities and capacities are relatively stable, is there a concern that historical NAIS information might be analyzed to derive a competitive advantage? RESPONSE: A competitive market should welcome such opportunities to become more efficient. 4. What controls on sharing real-time, near real-time, or historical information collected by the NAIS with the public are suitable? RESPONSE: Internet relaying of non-local real-time data, and provision of historical data, could in principle be controlled, but the resources needed would not be justified by the low level of access denial achieved. a. Who should receive each type of NAIS information? RESPONSE: AIS is currently a public broadcast, with no "expectation of privacy". Local information can be obtained by an appropriate tuner operated by anyone, hence strict control of any level (Level A, B, or C as proposed in this docket) is not really feasible. Hence, the data should be open to all. b. What are appropriate uses of information collected by the NAIS? RESPONSE: 1) Real-time traffic management 2) GIS component of hydrological surveys (vessels with sensors acting as continuous real-time collectors of scientific data) - see http://hudson.dl.stevens-tech.edu/maritimeforecast/MOBILE (GIS currently from non-AIS sources) 3) Education in safe navigation practices based on patterns in historical AIS data c. Do message types matter? RESPONSE: Encryption of confidential material would be sufficient protection of content, and would be the responsibility of the broadcaster. Therefore there is no reason the USCG should be burdened with filtering by message types. d. Should addressed messages be handled differently from broadcast messages? Do addressed messages contain information significant to understanding maritime activity? Should addressed messages be shared with the public? RESPONSE: see 4.c above
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chesley2010,
      author = {Donald Carey Chesley},
      title = {USCG-2009-0701-0005.1},
      journal = {Regulations.gov},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=USCG-2009-0701-0005.1}
    }
    
    Chew, K.M.D. Method and system for surveillance of vessels 2011 (7889232)  patent URL 
    Abstract: A surveillance system and method for vessels. The system comprises surveillance means for surveying a waterway; vessel detection means for determining the presence and location of a vessel in the waterway based on information from the surveillance means; camera means for capturing one or more images of the vessel; image processing means for processing the images captured by the camera means for deriving surveillance data; wherein the camera means captures the vessel images based on information from the vessel detection means, the surveillance data from the image processing means, or both. The images can be used to classify and identify the vessel by name and category, possibly also to compare the category with that previously registered for a vessel of this name. The vessel can be tracked, including by speed and direction until it leaves the surveyed waterway.

    Current surveillance systems for tracking ships are radar-based. An operator has a screen with a number of objects on it representing different ships. Either, the operator labels the object having identified the ship through verbal communication with the crew or else ships may be labelled automatically after having been identified by transponders on board the ships (e.g. the Automatic Identification System (AIS)). However, such existing systems tend to have blind spots, inability to measure vessel height inability to accurately classify the vessel and resolution limitations.

    SUMMARY

    In accordance with a first aspect of the present invention there is provided a surveillance system for vessels, the system comprising surveillance means for surveying a waterway; vessel detection means for determining the presence and location of a vessel in the waterway based on information from the surveillance means; camera means for capturing one or more images of the vessel; image processing means for processing the images captured by the camera means for deriving surveillance data; wherein the camera means captures the images based on information from the vessel detection means, the surveillance data from the image processing means, or both.

    The system may further comprise tracking means for tracking a vessel's movement through the waterways based on the surveillance data derived by the image processing means.

    The surveillance data may comprise a vessel name extracted from the images of the vessel captured by the camera means.

    The surveillance data may comprise a vessel shape and/or other vessel characteristics extracted from the images of the vessel captured by the camera means.

    The surveillance data may comprise a vessel type/category determined from said vessel shape, height, length and/or other vessel characteristics extracted from the images of the vessel captured by the camera means.

    The surveillance data may comprises one or more of a group consisting of a speed, a course, and a trajectory of the vessel extracted from the images of the vessel captured by the camera means.

    The surveillance data may comprise behaviour data indicative of a behaviour of a vessel including abnormal behaviour.

    The system may further comprise checking means for checking the surveillance data derived by the image processing means against reference data in a database of the system.

    The surveillance means may comprise one or more scanning cameras and the vessel detection means is operable to determine the presence and location of the vessel based on image processing of images captured by the scanning cameras.

    The camera means may comprise one or more zoom cameras.

    In accordance with a second aspect of the present invention there is provided a surveillance system for vessels, the system comprising a surveillance device for surveying a waterway; a detector for determining the presence and location of a vessel in the waterway based on information from the surveillance means; a camera for capturing one or more images of the vessel; an image processor for processing the images captured by the camera means for deriving surveillance data; wherein the system processes information from the detector, information from the surveillance device, surveillance data from the image processor or any combinations of these information/data.

    In accordance with a third aspect of the present invention there is provided a method of surveillance vessels, the method comprising surveying a waterway; determining the presence and location of a vessel in the waterway based on information from the surveillance of the waterway; capturing one or more images of the vessel; processing the images captured for deriving surveillance data; wherein the images are captured based on the determined presence and location, the surveillance data, or both.

    BibTeX:
    @patent{Chew2011,
      author = {Chew, Khien Meow David},
      title = {Method and system for surveillance of vessels},
      year = {2011},
      number = {7889232},
      url = {http://www.freepatentsonline.com/7889232.html}
    }
    
    Claramunt, C., Devogele, T., Fournier, S., Noyon, V., Petit, M. & Ray, C. Maritime GIS: From Monitoring to Simulation Systems 2007 Information Fusion and Geographic Information Systems, pp. 34-44  incollection DOI URL 
    Abstract: Combined research in the fields of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and maritime systems has finally reached the point where paths should overlap and continue in better unison. This paper introduces methodological and experimental results of several marine-related GIS projects whose objectives are to develop spatial data models and computing architectures that favour the development of monitoring and decision-aid systems. The computing architectures developed integrate agent-based reasoning and distributed systems for the real-time monitoring, manipulation and simulation of maritime transportation systems.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{Claramunt2007,
      author = {Claramunt, C. and Devogele, T. and Fournier, S. and Noyon, V. and Petit, M. and Ray, C.},
      title = {Maritime GIS: From Monitoring to Simulation Systems},
      booktitle = {Information Fusion and Geographic Information Systems},
      publisher = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {34-44},
      note = {10.1007/978-3-540-37629-3_3},
      url = {http://www.aromate.org/papers/IF_GIS%2707.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-37629-3_3}
    }
    
    Clark, B.G., Nincic, D.J. & Fidler, N. Protecting America's Ports:
    Are We There Yet?
    A SUMMARY HISTORY of TERRORISM AND PORT SECURITY IN THE UNITED STATES
    2007 U.S. Maritime Administration Report, pp. 252  article URL 
    Abstract: The USCG defines MDA in the National Plan to Achieve Maritime Domain Awareness as:
    "The effective understanding of anything associated with the global maritime domain that could impact the security, safety, economy, or environment of the United States."
    This concept, plus the addition of enhanced capabilities for Global Maritime Intelligence and Global Maritime Situational Awareness, supports four major MDA objectives:
    1.A Joint/Interagency effort to improve knowledge of activities and events in the Maritime Domain
    2.Increased benefits accrued to all maritime interests across Security, Safety, Stewardship and Defense
    3.Achieving an Awareness Partnership across Industry and Government Agencies at the local, state and federal levels and with international allies to the maximum extent
    4.Integration and cooperative utilization of several USCG programs - Command 2010, Deepwater, Rescue 21, Nationwide AIS, and the User Defined Operational Picture

    The USCG defines MDA in the National Plan to Achieve Maritime Domain Awareness as:
    "The effective understanding of anything associated with the global maritime domain that could impact the security, safety, economy, or environment of the United States."
    This concept, plus the addition of enhanced capabilities for Global Maritime Intelligence and Global Maritime Situational Awareness, supports four major MDA objectives:
    1.A Joint/Interagency effort to improve knowledge of activities and events in the Maritime Domain
    2.Increased benefits accrued to all maritime interests across Security, Safety, Stewardship and Defense
    3.Achieving an Awareness Partnership across Industry and Government Agencies at the local, state and federal levels and with international allies to the maximum extent
    4.Integration and cooperative utilization of several USCG programs - Command 2010, Deepwater, Rescue 21, Nationwide AIS, and the User Defined Operational Picture

    These essential tasks have been further refined by the USCG MDA Director in January 2007 to reflect priorities established for the Atlantic and Pacific operational areas. According to the Directorate Newsletter (January 2007), the USCG has compiled a list of 2,200 proposed requirements that impact upon or support attainment of operational MDA. Specific priorities for MDA include the capability of the USCG to simultaneously Detect/Classify/Identify/ and Track:

    All BLUE FORCE (US and Allied Flagged defense force) vessels and aircraft

    Any vessel or aircraft signaling distress, under all conditions and in all locations
    All vessels GREATER than 20FT in a "Tiered Port" (based upon assessed risk priorities); or
    transiting through a tiered port waterway out to 24 NM in all conditions.

    All vessels GREATER than 100 GT (gross tons) en route the US, and all US Flag vessels
    GREATER than 100 GT any where in the world.
    All vessels, cargo, crew, and passengers identified as threats to Homeland Security (HLS),
    Homeland Defense (HLD), or our allies
    As shown in the detail below, the USCG envisions the eventual, sophisticated deployment of a sensor grid that will include ships, manned and unmanned aircraft, satellites, RFID communication tracking systems, subsurface motion and sonar sensors, and DOD as well as DHS asset resources.

    To date there is no well defined tactical policy that outlines an effective and official interoperability plan between the two maritime armed forces of the United States. There is a formal doctrinal plan called the Maritime Operations Terrorism Response Plan (MOTR) - required by HSPD 13 (which is discussed in more detail on Page 119 of this report) -- that outlines the operational doctrine to be employed between the USCG and all other federal agencies (including the DOD, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, etc.) however this document is largely restricted at the For Official Use Only (FOUO) level (some operational aspects are controlled at the classified level) and therefore the document is not readily available for review by the general public.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Clark2007,
      author = {Bruce G. Clark and Donna J. Nincic and Nevin Fidler},
      title = {Protecting America's Ports:
    Are We There Yet?
    A SUMMARY HISTORY of TERRORISM AND PORT SECURITY IN THE UNITED STATES}, journal = {U.S. Maritime Administration Report}, year = {2007}, pages = {252}, url = {http://www.hsdl.org/?view&doc=122589&coll=limited} }
    Cloe, F. AIS Data Sharing, A tool of diplomacy. 2010 The Coast Guard Journal of Safety & Security at Sea
    Vol. 67(2) 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Since publishing "A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Cen- tury Seapower," in which the Commandant of the Coast Guard, the Chief of Naval Operations, and the Commandant of the Marine Corps came together to create the first unified maritime strategy, all three sea- going forces have prioritized international engagement at a level unseen in recent decades.
    One of the primary means of engagement with other nations, especially as the United States has increased its focus on maritime domain awareness (MDA), is maritime data sharing. While a variety of efforts exist, from the U.S. Maritime Safety and Security Informa- tion System (MSSIS) to Italy's Virtual Regional Mar- itime Traffic Center, unclassified data sharing has brought the world's maritime states closer to the goal of achieving global MDA.
    Bringing together politically, culturally, and financially disparate maritime nations to share maritime data re- quires a technology that is both flexible and universal, a simple tool that will help build trust and cooperation among all maritime nations. The Automatic Identifica- tion System (AIS) is such a tool. AIS is a shipboard sys- tem that transmits information such as vessel name, registration number, call sign, Maritime Mobile Service Identity (MMSI), position, course, speed, and other navigational information via VHF.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cloe2010,
      author = {Fran Cloe},
      title = {AIS Data Sharing, A tool of diplomacy.},
      journal = {The Coast Guard Journal of Safety & Security at Sea},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {67},
      number = {2},
      url = {http://www.uscg.mil/proceedings/summer2010/articles/34_Cloe.pdf}
    }
    
    Collins, R., Lipton, A., Kanade, T., Fujiyoshi, H., Duggins, D., Tsin, Y., Tolliver, D., Enomoto, N. & Hasegawa, O. A System for Video Surveillance and Monitoring 2000 (CMU-RI-TR-00-12)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: Prior art to patent 7889232

    Under the three-year Video Surveillance and Monitoring (VSAM) project (1997-1999), the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and the Sarnoff Corporation developed a system for autonomous Video Surveillance and Monitoring. The technical approach uses multiple, cooperative video sensors to provide continuous coverage of people and vehicles in a cluttered environment. This final report presents an overview of the system, and of the technical accomplishments that have been achieved.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Collins2000,
      author = {Robert Collins and Alan Lipton and Takeo Kanade and Hironobu Fujiyoshi and David Duggins and Yanghai Tsin and David Tolliver and Nobuyoshi Enomoto and Osamu Hasegawa},
      title = {A System for Video Surveillance and Monitoring},
      year = {2000},
      number = {CMU-RI-TR-00-12},
      url = {http://www.ri.cmu.edu/publication_view.html?pub_id=3325}
    }
    
    Conrad, J. AIS SART - New Technology And The Sharing Critical Information 2010 blog  misc URL 
    Abstract: AIS has been a revolutionary product and, regardless of your opinion on its use, has changed the way mates handle heavy traffic situations. Jotron, makers of various SOLAS compliant marine safety electronics, is looking to bring this revolution to Search And Rescue operations with the introduction of an AIS enabled Search And Rescue Transponder (SART).

    The device will work similar to traditional SARTs but, rather than show the position of a lifeboat on your 3cm radar, will transmit the exact GPS coordinates to all AIS enabled devices within VHF range.

    We are excited not only by the product itself but the advancement of new ideas for sharing of data among the AIS network. gCaptain recently discussed the topic with the Coast Guard's office for marine safety and is working with them to outline ideas to take AIS and data sharing from a point-to-point system to a web of collaborative sharing. Here is a basic summary of our question to marine safety:

    AIS is a great system but it's linear and data is stuck in predefined categories. Can a system be developed that facilitates discussion and information sharing between ship captain, pilots and VTS? We would be very interested in a system that facilitates discussion and allows collaboration between all parties.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Conrad2010,
      author = {John Conrad},
      title = {AIS SART - New Technology And The Sharing Critical Information},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://gcaptain.com/ais-sart-new-technology-and-the-sharing-critical-information}
    }
    
    Creech, J. & Ryan, J. AIS; The Cornerstone of National Security? 2003 Journal of Navigation
    Vol. 56, pp. 31-44 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The International Maritime Organization has mandated carriage requirements for VHF Automatic Identification System (AIS) on vessels over 300 tons by 2007 (IMO SOLAS: 1974 and IMO Resolution MSC.99(73)). The AIS will transmit a vessel's position and voyage data to other AIS-equipped vessels and shore-based authorities. It was envisioned that AIS data could enhance the safety of navigation by allowing vessels to quickly identify each other and use Digital Select Calling (DSC) to arrange maneuvers. We will discuss the history and the development of AIS, the technical issues surrounding its use by the marine r as a navigation tool and the pros and cons of the proposal by the US Coast Guard (USCG) to use AIS as a means of surveillance for Maritime Domain Awareness.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Creech2003,
      author = {Jay Creech and Joseph Ryan},
      title = {AIS; The Cornerstone of National Security?},
      journal = {Journal of Navigation},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {56},
      pages = {31-44},
      url = {http://www.theskipr.com/AIS.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0373463302002072}
    }
    
    CRRC Coastal Response Research Center, 2007 Annual Report, GETTING THE PICTURE:
    A new project promises to change the way information can be accessed by oil response teams in the field
    2008   techreport URL 
    Abstract: Faster. Faster. Faster. The word has been on Michele Jacobi's mind for months especially since the San Francisco Bay oil spill last fall: If only the clean-up team could get the information they needed faster. Jacobi is an environmental scientist with NOAA's Assessment and Restoration Division (ARD) and she's seen her share of contaminated shorelines. She knows that at a spill site, timing is critical. 'You need everything 10 minutes ago,' she says. That's why she's so excited about a project developed and funded by the Coastal Response Research Center to make access to spill informa- tion faster and easier with seamless integration of spatial data.
    The pilot project Jacobi is spearheading, the Environmental Response Management Application (ERMATM), focuses on Portsmouth Harbor and the Great Bay Estuary, NH, just a few miles from UNH. But once the pilot is finished, the goal is to roll ERMATM out in other areas across the country where oil is big business and spills are a regular occurrence. The prototype will be useful not only for response situations, but for planning and preparedness before a spill even happens. 'This project is really a cornerstone of our partnership with UNH,' says Amy Merten, NOAA Co-Director of the Center. 'It could spread to major ports all over the US.'
    So what is ERMA, exactly? 'The idea is that we're taking mapping and data management and putting everything on a web site,' says Rob Braswell, a research assistant profes- sor at UNH's Earth Systems Data Collaborative and one
    of the team members on the project. He pauses. 'We're basically trying to do some magic,' he says. 'That's the way programming is, in a way: You imagine what you'd like to have if you could just press a button and learn some- thing and then you make it happen.'
    What the team is making is a tool Jacobi knows, from her years in the field, is desperately needed: 'A platform where diverse data sets can be interlaced into a single map to better visualize the complex nature of a problem. In other words,' she says, 'a picture is worth a thousand words.' The ERMATM team
    is creating an inte- grated web-based data management platform capable of showing real-time and static data sets for a site to help answer all sorts of questions: 'What types of fish are out there? Where are the buoys? What are the water and air temperatures? What's the weather forecast? What's the wave height and wind speed? What are the habitat types? Where should response equip- ment be deployed? Where are the access points? How deep is the harbor? What does the bottom look like? Where did marine debris wash up on shore?' The potential information is almost overwhelming.
    While much of this information already exists, it is currently scattered all over the internet or buried on someone else's computer hard drive. In the hands of the ERMATM team, the data are getting linked together all in one place the ERMATM site. 'There are lots of big expensive tools out there already,' says Kurt Schwehr, a research assistant professor of ocean engineering and the project's self-described behind- the-scenes guy. Schwehr explains that even as a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professional, it can take him awhile to get up to speed. 'These tools are super powerful, and with that comes a lot of complexity. I want ERMATM to be something anybody can use, where you can come to the site and sit down and get to work in 30 seconds.' There it is again the idea of making data set delivery faster, easier and more integrated.
    ERMATM users can, with a few strokes of the keys, find out where spilled oil is most likely to come ashore using the latest trajectory model. They can upload photos from the spill site to share with other responders. 'You can even add features,' says Braswell. 'You can make an arrow, circle a section on the map, or write a note and post it and others can see your message and respond.' The platform provides a common operational picture for everyone involved in a re- sponse, improves communication and coordination among responders and stakeholders, and provides resource manag- ers with the information necessary to make better informed decisions.
    The Great Bay Coastal Buoy, located near Portsmouth, NH, records air and water temperatures, wind speed and direction, salinity, dissolved oxygen chlorophyll, and turbidity. This real-time data set is integrated into the ERMATM prototype.
    7
    The platform, in short, is user-friendly. And that, Jacobi stresses, is the critical difference. Not only will the prod- uct help responders working on a clean-up site, it will make the restoration process more accessible for local citizens. 'When we do restoration, we're dealing with a lot of community groups who want to know what's go- ing on in their back yard,' says Nancy Kinner, the Center's UNH Co-Director. 'The more transparent the data sets are, the more you can interest the public. And they may have information that agencies might not be aware of.' The information sharing goes both ways.
    Before it is even put into action for an oil spill, the ERMATM prototype will play a key role in planning and preparedness. In June 2008, in Portsmouth Harbor, the prototype will be used in the annual spill drill, a simu- lation event that involves all the stakeholders and the complex coordination required in a real response situa- tion. Elsewhere, the prototype will be adjusted to fit the specifics of a particular harbor, helping responders across the country determine, before a spill happens, how they can response.
    Before long, Jacobi hopes, ERMATM, with its new method of portraying and characterizing a response site, will be ready to roll in ports around the country, ensuring that everybody involved in the effort gets the picture the same integrated, information-rich picture!
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{CRRC2008,
      author = {CRRC},
      title = {Coastal Response Research Center, 2007 Annual Report, GETTING THE PICTURE:
    A new project promises to change the way information can be accessed by oil response teams in the field}, year = {2008}, url = {http://www.crrc.unh.edu/annual_report_07.pdf} }
    D'Souza, I. & Mabson, P. exactEarth - AIS From Space 2009 TEXAS III, pp. 16  article URL 
    Abstract: High Performance Space AIS
    COM DEV - a global leader in satellite technology $$1Billion of supplied space systems
    5 Years of focused AIS-S Development

    System Design goals:
    Full global coverage
    Refresh rate < 90 minutes with rapid acquisition
    Single pass detection >90%

    Achievements
    NTS demonstrates a detection rate far beyond anything achieved in known unclassified systems (14 messages/s = 1.2M per day)

    Constellation service commences Q1 2010
    exactEarth subsidiary established to operate this service

    As part of the AIS from space evaluation studies, COM DEV Ltd has gone through various exercises in developing its AIS solution.

    *Extensive high-fidelity simulations that model the signal data and propagation characteristics. Also includes ship density distributions, AIS protocol, transmit/receive antenna patterns, multi-path scattering and depolarization, ionospheric interacation with VHF signals as well as accounting for orbit effects for the satellite.

    *Developed an AIS signal detection algorithm.

    *Tested in ground (harbour) trials, airborne trials (29,000ft) and finally a nano-satellite trial. Data from the nano-satellite is presented here.

    NTS characteristics and limitations. How it operates. What it was intended to do. It is not an operational satellite. AND it has limited functionality compared to exactEarth satellites (less capable detection performance)

    Conclusions:
    This slide will be difficult to interpret without me talking. But here is a VERY brief summary.

    The S. Pacific shows what a low traffic area scenario looks like. This is followed by the Baltic, a very dense area. Then the N. Atlantic is shown as an area of moderate density. Finally the Mediterranean is shown.

    The 90 second data from the Mediterranean is displayed. The signal data is very similar to the data in the Baltic region, and is also accompanied with interference. If no attempt is made to de-collide messages, then virtually no AIS messages can be detected. In this example, two commercial receivers, with sub-band filtering only produced 5 ship identifications compared to the 206 ships identified with de-collision. These same receivers produced only 7 messages compared to 321 messages decoded with the de-collision technique.

    The ability to detect ships rapidly is key to Data Fusion, Vessel Traffic management and Tracking
    The Helen Hurdle. Why rapid detection and multiple detections are necessary for operations.
    Performance numbers to expect from exactEarth satellites.
    90 second world view. This view is equivalent to / is as if NTS had a flyover time of only 90 seconds. This diagram represents one single 90 second coverage of the earth's surface. 16,700 ships.

    The other is the polar view.
    NTS AIS Detection Characteristics
    At TEXAS II, comparison was made between NTS and a simple COTS AIS receiver.
    In this presentation a more capable AIS receiver is compared to NTS: A sophisticated filter-bank that performs sub-channel filtering is employed ahead of the COTS AIS receivers.
    Each sub-channel is shifted to the AIS channel center frequency for GMSK demodulation.
    Doppler compensation for COTS receivers.
    We created the equivalent of a more sophisticated set of receivers. We did this for 2 different kinds of AIS receiver commercially available.

    Each channel split into 7 subchannels etc- so 14 receivers.
    Input data is raw NTS data from 15 different regions around the world.

    We repeated this for 2 different types of receivers. So = 14 x 15 x 2 = 420 data sets were evaluated.
    Results of the comparison.

    NTS in Green
    Commercial rx 1 in blue
    Commercial rx 2 in red

    The last animation fade is a projection of the NTS performance to the exactEarth capability. The Green bars become much longer. I only used a factor of 2 improvement. We expect a factor of 2 to 3 in reality.
    AIS Message Extraction Technology
    exactEarth satellites will be more powerful than NTS
    This has been verified by extensive simulations using both NTS data as well as hi-fidelity simulated data.
    Differences are due to proprietary technology additions.
    4 patents pending on COM DEV AIS technology.

    exactAIS - Operational AIS-S Service
    NTS high performance DEMVAL
    Global coverage (includes polar regions)
    High detection rate

    Operational system being deployed
    Phase 1: 3-satellite constellation, ground network and data center
    Phase 2: 6-satellite constellation

    Unprecedented Capability
    Implements proven COM DEV Advanced AIS-S technology
    Each satellite 100x more powerful than NTS

    Major Capital Investment
    Full service commences Q1 2010
    Flat subscription fee service
    Highly secure system
    Service trials available
    Complete global coverage with rapid refresh
    Phase 1 (2011) < 6 hour refresh
    Phase 2 (2013) < 2 hour refresh
    Much better at higher latitudes
    High Detection rate capability
    Phase 1 system expected to detect > 11M messages/day
    Rapid ship detection capability > 1,000 ships/minute, per satellite

    BibTeX:
    @article{D'Souza2009,
      author = {Ian D'Souza and Peter Mabson},
      title = {exactEarth - AIS From Space},
      journal = {TEXAS III},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {16},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/twiki/pub/Main/TexasIII/exactEarth_AISFromSpace_TEXAS_III.ppt}
    }
    
    Daae Lampe, O. & Hauser, H. Interactive visualization of streaming data with Kernel Density Estimation 2011 Pacific Visualization Symposium (PacificVis), 2011 IEEE, pp. 171 -178  inproceedings DOI URL 
    Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the extension and integration of the statistical concept of Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) in a scatterplot-like visualization for dynamic data at interactive rates. We present a line kernel for representing streaming data, we discuss how the concept of KDE can be adapted to enable a continuous representation of the distribution of a dependent variable of a 2D domain. We propose to automatically adapt the kernel bandwith of KDE to the viewport settings, in an interactive visualization environment that allows zooming and panning. We also present a GPU-based realization of KDE that leads to interactive frame rates, even for comparably large datasets. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of our approach in the context of three application scenarios - one studying streaming ship traffic data, another one from the oil amp; gas domain, where process data from the operation of an oil rig is streaming in to an on-shore operational center, and a third one studying commercial air traffic in the US spanning 1987 to 2008.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{DaaeLampe2011,
      author = {Daae Lampe, Ove and Hauser, Helwig},
      title = {Interactive visualization of streaming data with Kernel Density Estimation},
      booktitle = {Pacific Visualization Symposium (PacificVis), 2011 IEEE},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {171 -178},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5742387},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PACIFICVIS.2011.5742387}
    }
    
    Dahl, O. Space-Based AIS Receiver for Maritime Traffic Monitoring Using Interference Cancellation 2006 NTNU, MSc in Communication Technology  article URL 
    Abstract: Masters thesis

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a maritime safety and vessel traffic ship- and shore- based system imposed by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). FFI is developing a space-based system for detecting AIS messages in the large maritime zones out of range of the existing shore-based system, and for distribution of the messages to the existing infrastructure.
    Analysis of the signal environment from Low Earth Orbit shows that reporting of vessels can be made with close to 100% detection probability for up to 1000 vessels. When large areas of Europe (or other densely trafficked areas) are within the field of view the detection probability decreases due to interference between messages from different ships. If one or more signals are "cancelled" in the receiver, the detection probability will increase significantly.
    The task of this Master Thesis is to examine receiver solutions to reduce the interference problem by utilizing antenna diversity. The signal environment should be analyzed and the potential for interference cancellation should be discussed. Implementation issues including antenna theory and signal processing should be taken into account. A recommendation for a space-based AIS receiver dealing with the interference problem should be given.

    BibTeX:
    @article{dahl2006space,
      author = {Dahl, O.F.H.},
      title = {Space-Based AIS Receiver for Maritime Traffic Monitoring Using Interference Cancellation},
      journal = {NTNU, MSc in Communication Technology},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://daim.idi.ntnu.no/masteroppgaver/IME/IET/2006/1199/masteroppgave.pdf}
    }
    
    Davis, D.A. Modeling the Impact of Blue Force Tracking on the Automatic Identification System Very High Frequency Data Link 2008 School: USCG Academy  mastersthesis URL 
    Abstract: This report assesses the impact of using the Automatic Identification System (AIS) Very High Frequency Data Link (VDL) to support Blue Force Tracking (BFT) for United States Coast Guard (USCG) afloat assets in the port and near-coastal operating environment. BFT is a general term used to define the next generation command and control data communications between CG shore units, CG boats and cutters, and port partner resources. First generation BFT prototypes leveraged the AIS VDL because the network is widely used, cost-free, and readily available. Prior to deploying an enterprise-wide BFT solution, program managers at USCG Headquarters requested additional information on any potential impacts the system might have on the AIS VDL, noting that current prototypes failed to follow necessary protocols for ensuring that CG operations do not consume too much of the AIS VDL and disrupt the transmissions of commercial users. This report summarizes the findings of a simulation for the port of New York. Results show that although BFT has a noticeable impact on the AIS VDL, it does not overload the channel's capacity. Moreover, preliminary findings suggest that the AIS VDL could support additional data communications necessary to facilitate enhancements to BFT.
    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Davis2008,
      author = {DeCarol A. Davis},
      title = {Modeling the Impact of Blue Force Tracking on the Automatic Identification System Very High Frequency Data Link},
      school = {USCG Academy},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://www.uscga.edu/uploadedFiles/Academics/Departments/Engineering/Electrical_and_Computer_Engineering/Electrical_and_Computer_subpages/2008/Davis_Title_Paper.pdf}
    }
    
    Davis, G.B. Unsupervised Models for Spatial, Temporal and Relational Systems Thesis Proposal  misc URL 
    Abstract: Social processes can be strongly influenced by their spatial and temporal environment, as well as relational structures specific to the process itself. While it has traditionally been expedient to study one or two of these dimensions at a time, it is increasingly feasible to collect data necessary to investigate how, and in what combinations and proportions spatial, temporal and relational (STR) factors govern a process. This proposal is concerned with enabling the early stages of such an analysis, in which the researcher has a hypothesis regarding what relationships exist between STR variables, but not the details and relative strengths of these relationships. Can we express this generalized hypothesis, and algorithmically use available data to recommend a more specific one?
    I adopt probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) as a flexible framework for representing structural hypotheses, and introduce a templating system for generating regular PGM structures appropriate STR data. In fitting these models to data, I argue against both supervised training and Bayesian unsupervised methods, suggesting a focus on fast, useful inference over (even approximate) optimality. To this end, I introduce Expectation Maximizing belief propagation (EMBP) algorithms, which perform fast unsuper- vised learning in graphical models with spatial, temporal and relational structure, leading to a variety of applications analyzing human systems.
    To demonstrate the usefulness of these algorithms I will conduct four inference tasks relating to two datasets. The first dataset, AIS data, consists of geospatial traces of international shipping traffic. The second, B2B data, is a dynamic network of publicly declared supply relations between US companies. One pair of tasks, deviation detection in the AIS data and community detection in B2B data, is inherently unsupervised in that they require inference of unobservable variables. The other pair, path prediction in the AIS data and prediction of link breakages in the B2B data, could be approached in a supervised fashion, but might benefit from a model that includes latent variables. In the course of giving solutions to these these problems, I develop theoretical and empirical results regarding my learning algorithms intended to make them easily applicable to other domains.

    The two threads converge in experiments validating my methods in two primary application areas. In my first application, maritime security, I analyze several datasets that track movements of thousands of merchant marine vessels between international ports. I will conduct the following inference tasks in this domain:
    • Path prediction. Based on a ship's recent behavior and an STR behavior model trained on all ships, I will predict the location of a ship's next landfall.
    • Deviation detection. Based on a model of 'normal' ship behavior, I will detect outliers whose activities suggest an exceptional situation.
    For my second data domain, I will analyze a time-changing relational network in which US companies are connected based on publicly declared supply contracts. I will build unsupervised models addressing the following queries.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Davis,
      author = {George B. Davis},
      title = {Unsupervised Models for Spatial, Temporal and Relational Systems},
      url = {http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~gbd/papers/davis09proposal.pdf}
    }
    
    Davis, G.B. & Carley, K.M. Computational Analysis of Merchant Marine GPS Data 2006 (CMU-ISRI-07-109)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: A series of quantitative and structural analyses are applied to geospatial data regarding the movement of Merchant Marine vessels in the English Channel.

    Ships exceeding a certain size or carrying certain cargo types are required in US Coastal waters and many international ports to operate a piece of equipment known as an Automated Identification System (AIS). The AIS is a transponder which implements a communication protocol whereby authorities on land and other ships can query local ships for identification and navigation information. In general, the AIS is directly connected to a Global Positioning System (GPS) and other ship navigational computers, allowing it to automatically generate an accurate report of the vessel's current condition.Table 1 lists fields that were included in the reports analyzed in this study. Note that AIS is a general purpose ocean traffic monitoring protocol, and includes many capabilities not discussed in this paper.

    We treated this as a clustering problem, applying the widely used k-Means algorithm. K-Means is a supervised clustering technique, meaning that machine clustering is preceded by a human analyst selecting a number of clusters and 'priming' by specifying initial cluster centers for the algorithm to refine. There exist methods for automating both of these human inputs, but they are beyond the scope of this paper. CASOS is currently working on adapting a more robust and fully automated clustering algorithm, the Conditional Random Field model of Liao et al. (2005). We compared the results of k-Means to an 'expert' dataset consisting of known ports and refueling stations. We were interested both in the ability of the algorithms to reproduce the known locations of interest and in their identification of previously unknown points, so we examined in detail each point which did not have a match in the database.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Davis2006,
      author = {George B. Davis and Kathleen M. Carley},
      title = {Computational Analysis of Merchant Marine GPS Data},
      year = {2006},
      number = {CMU-ISRI-07-109},
      url = {http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~gbd/papers/davis07mmv.pdf}
    }
    
    Davis, G.B., Olson, J. & Carley, K.M. OraGIS and Loom: Spatial and temporal extensions to the ORA Analysis Platform 2008 (CMU-ISR-08-121)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: Increasingly, data available to network analysts includes not only relationships between actors but measurements of entity attributes and relations through time and space. Integrating this information with existing dynamic network analysis techniques demands new models and tools. This paper introduces two extensions to the ORA dynamic network analysis platform intended to meet this need. The first, OraGIS, provides geospatial visualization and clustering algorithms. The second, Loom, assists in the analysis of agent movements through a discrete state space (such as a set of named locations) over time. We discuss the capabilities of both tools and their integration with the traditional analytics in the ORA platform.

    DyNetML Extensions for OraGIS and Loom

    So far we have discussed Loom and OraGIS in isolation. In this section, we will demonstrate that they can be integrated with each other and with the rest of ORA into a comprehensive analysis workflow. The dataset we will be using is a log of AIS transmissions containing the identity and locations of merchant marine vessels in the English Channel over a five day period. Figure 12 shows the trails in geographic context.
    Although our AIS data is easily representable as a trailset, it is not easily analyzed within Loom. This is because ships report their locations as continuous GPS coordinates. Since every coordinate is interpreted as a distinct location, the trails are degenerate in the sense that no two ships visit the same location or revisit their own path. To gain insight from a Loom analysis, we must merge nearby points into a smaller set of interesting locations which will be revisited and shared between ships. Figure 13 shows the results of a clustering of points based on geospatial density. The regions identified correspond to major ports and shipping lanes in the dataset.
    We can generate a new trailset in which the old trails are projected onto these clustered locations byselectingFile->Save->As TrailsetinOraGIS.Figure12showsseveraltrailsfromthis new set visualized by Loom. These trails now demonstrate the patterns we identified in the previous section. For example, two ships clearly colocate at region 9.

    Loom and OraGIS store data through extensions of the DyNetML file format. OraGIS requires geospatial attributes for 'Location' nodes, while Loom requires additional temporal information. Both Loom and OraGIS provide graphical user interfaces for the visualization of data. OraGIS emphasizes spatial relations presents network information overlaid on a world map. Loom focuses on temporal information, displaying a waterfall diagram of subjects and their locations. These two tools can be combined to analyze complex real world data, such as AIS records of ship locations.
    Future work includes path analysis and prediction through a unified probabilistic framework. This would allow for inference that leverages the interactions between space and time rather treat- ing each factor independently. Proposed work also includes better integration of the information loss metric into the analysis and visualization tools.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Davis2008a,
      author = {George B. Davis and Jamie Olson and and Kathleen M. Carley},
      title = {OraGIS and Loom: Spatial and temporal extensions to the ORA Analysis Platform},
      year = {2008},
      number = {CMU-ISR-08-121},
      url = {http://www.casos.cs.cmu.edu/publications/papers/CMU-ISR-08-121.pdf}
    }
    
    Debnath, A.K. & Chin, H.C. Navigational Traffic Conflict Technique: A Proactive Approach to Quantitative Measurement of Collision Risks in Port Waters 2010 The Journal of Navigation
    Vol. 63(01), pp. 137-152 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: ABSTRACT Navigational safety analysis relying on collision statistics is often hampered because of the low number of observations. A promising alternative approach that overcomes this problem is proposed in this paper. By analyzing critical vessel interactions this approach proactively measures collision risk in port waters. The proposed method is illustrated for quantitative measurement of collision risks in Singapore port fairways, and validated by examining correlations between the measured risks with those perceived by pilots. This method is an ethically appealing alternative to the collision-based analysis for fast, reliable and effective safety assessment, thus possessing great potential for managing collision risks in port waters.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Debnath2010,
      author = {Debnath,Ashim Kumar and Chin,Hoong Chor},
      title = {Navigational Traffic Conflict Technique: A Proactive Approach to Quantitative Measurement of Collision Risks in Port Waters},
      journal = {The Journal of Navigation},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {63},
      number = {01},
      pages = {137-152},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0373463309990233},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0373463309990233}
    }
    
    Demsar, U. & Virrantaus, K. Space-time density of trajectories: exploring spatio-temporal patterns in movement data 2011 International Journal of Geographical Information Science
    Vol. 24(10), pp. 1527 - 1542 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Modern positioning and identification technologies enable tracking of almost any type of moving object. A remarkable amount of new trajectory data is thus available for the analysis of various phenomena. In cartography, a typical way to visualise and explore such data is to use a space-time cube, where trajectories are shown as 3D polylines through space and time. With increasingly large movement datasets becoming available, this type of display quickly becomes cluttered and unclear. In this article, we introduce the concept of 3D space-time density of trajectories to solve the problem of cluttering in the space-time cube. The space-time density is a generalisation of standard 2D kernel density around 2D point data into 3D density around 3D polyline data (i.e. trajectories). We present the algorithm for space-time density, test it on simulated data, show some basic visualisations of the resulting density volume and observe particular types of spatio-temporal patterns in the density that are specific to trajectory data. We also present an application to real-time movement data, that is, vessel movement trajectories acquired using the Automatic Identification System (AIS) equipment on ships in the Gulf of Finland. Finally, we consider the wider ramifications to spatial analysis of using this novel type of spatio-temporal visualisation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Demsar2011,
      author = {Demsar, Urska and Virrantaus, Kirsi},
      title = {Space-time density of trajectories: exploring spatio-temporal patterns in movement data},
      journal = {International Journal of Geographical Information Science},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {24},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1527 - 1542},
      url = {http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/13658816.2010.511223},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13658816.2010.511223}
    }
    
    DHS DHS 4300A Sensitive Systems Handbook 2007   manual URL 
    Abstract: This handbook serves as a foundation for Components within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to develop and implement their information technology (IT) security programs. The purpose of this document is to provide specific techniques and procedures for implementing the requirements of the DHS IT Security Program for Sensitive Systems. These baseline security requirements (BLSRs) are generated by the DHS IT security policies published in DHS Sensitive Systems Policy Directive 4300A. The BLSRs included in this handbook (see Attachment A, Requirements Traceability Matrix) must be addressed in the IT security documents prepared by each Component.
    This handbook incorporates many of the procedures in use by security personnel from the various organizations from which the DHS was formed. Therefore, it is a compilation of the best practices used by DHS Components. In addition, it implements as requirements many of the guidelines contained in various National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) publications, Office of Management and Budget (OMB) direction, and Congressional as well as Executive Branch mandates.
    The scope and contents of this handbook will change over time as new capabilities are added to DHS systems, as security standards are upgraded, and as a result of user experience and comment. As the DHS IT Security Program matures, individual attachments to the handbook addressing specific security areas of interest, such as password management, contingency planning, and certification and accreditation, will be developed and published. Several have already been developed and are included as attachments to this handbook.
    This handbook is issued as implementation guidance under the authority of the Chief Information Officer through the Office of the Chief Information Security Officer. As such, it supersedes directives of the Departments to which the Components formerly reported. This handbook addresses IT security only. Documents addressing personnel, physical, information, and industrial security; investigations; emergency preparedness; and domestic counterterrorism will be issued separately by the agencies responsible for these programs. However, those aspects of personnel, physical, information and industrial security; investigations; emergency preparedness; and counterterrorism that relate to IT security are addressed in this handbook.
    See Section 7.0 for information on requesting clarification of DHS IT security policies and procedures.

    The DHS IT Security Program provides a set of BLSRs for use by DHS Components. This handbook provides procedures and techniques necessary to implement those BLSRs relating to management, operational, and technical controls that provide the foundation necessary to ensure confidentiality, integrity, availability, authenticity, and nonrepudiation within the DHS IT infrastructure and operations.
    This handbook addresses the procedures necessary for implementing security requirements for sensitive IT systems. DHS policy mandates that all DHS computing resources be individually accounted for as part of an IT system. IT systems encompass major applications and general support systems.

    Review: From the NAIS program office
    BibTeX:
    @manual{DHS2007,
      author = {DHS},
      title = {DHS 4300A Sensitive Systems Handbook},
      year = {2007},
      edition = {Version 5.5},
      url = {http://www.uscg.mil/acquisition/nais/RFP/SectionJ/dhs-4300A-handbook.pdf}
    }
    
    DHS The National Strategy for Maritime Security 2004 (13)  standard URL 
    Abstract: The safety and economic security of the United States depends upon the secure use of the world's oceans. Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, the Federal government has reviewed and strengthened all of its strategies to combat the evolving threat in the War on Terrorism. Various departments have each carried out maritime security strategies which have provided an effective layer of security since 2001. In December 2004, the President directed the Secretaries of the Department of Defense and Homeland Security to lead the Federal effort to develop a comprehensive National Strategy for Maritime Security, to better integrate and synchronize the existing Department-level strategies and ensure their effective and efficient implementation.
    Maritime security is best achieved by blending public and private maritime security activities on a global scale into an integrated effort that addresses all maritime threats. The new National Strategy for Maritime Security aligns all Federal government maritime security programs and initiatives into a comprehensive and cohesive national effort involving appropriate Federal, State, local, and private sector entities.
    In addition to this Strategy, the Departments have developed eight supporting plans to address the specific threats and challenges of the maritime environment. While the plans address different aspects of maritime security, they are mutually linked and reinforce each other. The supporting plans include:
    National Plan to Achieve Domain Awareness
    Global Maritime Intelligence Integration Plan
    Interim Maritime Operational Threat Response Plan
    International Outreach and Coordination Strategy
    Maritime Infrastructure Recovery Plan
    Maritime Transportation System Security Plan Maritime Commerce Security Plan
    Domestic Outreach Plan
    Development of these plans was guided by the security principles outlined in this National Strategy for Maritime Security. These plans will be updated on a periodic basis in response to changes in the maritime threat, the world environment, and national security policies.
    Together, the National Strategy for Maritime Security and its eight supporting plans present a comprehensive national effort to promote global economic stability and protect legitimate activities while preventing hostile or illegal acts within the maritime domain.
    BibTeX:
    @standard{hspd13,
      author = {DHS},
      title = {The National Strategy for Maritime Security},
      year = {2004},
      number = {13},
      url = {http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/HSPD13_MaritimeSecurityStrategy.pdf}
    }
    
    Drozd, W., Dziewicki, M., Waraksa, M. & Bibik, L. Operational Status of Polish AIS Network 2007 Trans Nav, pp. 4  article URL 
    Abstract: This paper is the report on operational and legal status of the Polish AIS network established by Polish Maritime Administration. Existing structure of base stations, telecommunication network as well as current radio coverage within a Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) area is described [2]. Authors present the current status and practical operational applications of the AIS-PL to control a marine traffic within the area of responsibility of Maritime Safety Centre in Gdynia and/or VTS Gulf of Gdansk.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Drozd2007,
      author = {Wojciech Drozd and Marek Dziewicki and Marcin Waraksa and Lukasz Bibik},
      title = {Operational Status of Polish AIS Network},
      journal = {Trans Nav},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {4},
      url = {http://transnav.am.gdynia.pl/transnav2007/proceedings/pdfs/95.pdf}
    }
    
    Dujardin, P. A Coast Guard and Navy vessel tracking initiative that
    began in Hampton Roads in 2001 is going national.
    2006 The Daily Press  article URL 
    Abstract: The Joint Harbor Operations Center, which monitors ships on local
    waterways through a combination of radar systems, cameras and vessel
    tracking devices, is now being implemented in San Diego.

    "This center is about maintaining awareness," said Capt. Robert
    O'Brien, the Coast Guard's captain of the port in Hampton Roads. "And
    that awareness is key to the safety of our port."

    The JHOC, as it's called, has evolved greatly from its early days
    operating with only a handful of people out of the old watchtower on
    the Elizabeth River at Norfolk Naval Station. Since the summer of
    2004, the center has been headquartered at the Coast Guard base in
    Portsmouth, with millions of dollars worth of computers, software and
    equipment.

    The idea for such a center is the brainchild of Capt. Joseph Bouchard,
    the former commanding officer at the Norfolk Naval Station.

    Starting out with walkie-talkies and binoculars, the center soon had many high-tech tracking systems. By the summer of 2004, the center outgrew the increasingly cramped watchtower at the Navy base.

    It no longer physically overlooks the water as it did at the base, but operates with numerous cameras, radar and tracking devices.

    About 50 people -- about 12 Navy sailors and 38 Coast Guard personnel -- operate the center out of a 2,500-square-foot space. Plans are to double its size in the next several years, adding space for personnel from other federal agencies, such as the FBI, Customs and Immigration, said Lt. Cmdr. Robert Nelson, the Coast Guard's supervisor for the center.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Dujardin2006,
      author = {Peter Dujardin},
      title = {A Coast Guard and Navy vessel tracking initiative that
    began in Hampton Roads in 2001 is going national.}, journal = {The Daily Press}, year = {2006}, url = {http://www.redorbit.com/news/business/445918/local_initiative_to_track_vessels_at_port_of_hampton_roads/} }
    Effa, L. MARVIEW - Marine Transportation System 2010 TEXAS IV  inproceedings  
    Abstract: Marine View (MarView) is a web-based tool that tracks, monitors and analyzes real-time information related to the Marine Transportation System (MTS) including vessels, ports, intermodal infrastructure serving ports, inland waterways, cargo, passengers and maritime trade information.

    "Deepwater Horizon Gulf Oil Spill – provides real-time information on vessels involved in oil spill cleanup"

    Stakeholders:

    Government
    United States Department of Transportation
    United States Department of Homeland Security
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    Department of Defense
    Industry
    United States Ports
    Marine Exchanges of North America
    Maritime industry (local & International)
    Public
    Academia
    Marine Transportation Related Organizations
    General Public

    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Effa2010,
      author = {Louis Effa},
      title = {MARVIEW - Marine Transportation System},
      booktitle = {TEXAS IV},
      publisher = {Nationa Maritime Domain Awareness Coordination Office (NMCO)},
      year = {2010}
    }
    
    Ellison, B. AIS MOB: Kannad SafeLink R10 & McMurdo SmartFind S10 2011 blog  misc URL 
    Abstract: In fact, the two "personal AIS beacons" -- or PABs if you like McMurdo's terminology, and I do -- contain exactly the same core technology, which is to say that they are small versions of the AIS SARTs that were discussed here a bit last year. The difference is that the Kannad model can be fitted to a lifejacket so that it is automatically activated when the jacket inflates, while the McMurdo model is rated to 60 meter depths (instead of 5) so that it can carried by serious divers. As I understand it those differences reflect how Kannad will be positioned as a recreational marine brand while McMurdo gets a more commercial orientation. Though I should note that you can't buy either one of these PABs in the U.S. until they're approved by the FCC, and then they will retail for $$350.
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Ellison2011,
      author = {Ben Ellison},
      title = {AIS MOB: Kannad SafeLink R10 & McMurdo SmartFind S10},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www.panbo.com/archives/2011/03/ais_mob_kannad_safelink_r10_mcmurdo_smartfind_s10.html}
    }
    
    Ellison, B. AIS: Global SART detection, ASM info, & a bummer 2011 Blog  misc URL 
    Abstract: While exciting things are happening on the frontiers of AIS, there's still some tragic ignorance about what the technology can do right now for marine safety, even from folks who should know better. But let's start with the good stuff, right? After a recent entry about using compact AIS SARTS as crew overboard devices, USCG analyst Jorge Arroyo bombed me with documents about this and other AIS developments. I was aware that AIS SARTS have done well in testing with ships, planes, and helicopters, and I also knew that certain satellites were able to receive AIS signals, but -- Holy Sardine, Batman! -- who knew that there were "microsatellites" that can pick up a 1 Watt SART attached to a floating life vest from 1,100 miles away?...

    But I did take the opportunity at the end to ask if there was any news about the expanded AIS carriage requirements that have been in the works for almost two years, and include over 5,000 fishing boats over 65'. First one USCG presenter told me that fishing vessels were exempt from AIS with no changes planned. Then someone in the audience who had apparently represented Maine fishermen in AIS talks sometime in the past told me that the industry stance was that vessels which already had Vessel Monitoring Systems should not be required to install a duplicate identity system. When I said -- nicely, I think -- that VMS didn't do any good for collision avoidance, the other USCG representative said in no uncertain terms that "AIS is more of a Homeland Security instrument than a navigation safety instrument." When I brought up the IMO and all those ships going around the world with AIS -- still nicely, I think -- he boomed out "I don't care what people have told you, AIS is the result of Homeland Security." Yike!

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Ellison2011a,
      author = {Ben Ellison},
      title = {AIS: Global SART detection, ASM info, & a bummer},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www.panbo.com/archives/2011/03/ais_global_sart_detection_asm_info_a_bummer.html}
    }
    
    Ellison, B. AIS, a threat to our liberty? 2011 Panbo  article URL 
    Abstract: Response to "Is AIS Chipping Away at Our Freedoms?" by Ralph Naranjo

    I remember a few years ago when some boaters worried about "Big Brother" style AIS surveillance while the IMO fretted about hobbyists using shore receivers to display real time coastal AIS info on the Web. But all that seemed to go away, because -- I think -- people realized that AIS is indeed a public information network and that there is nothing especially threatening about its use by agencies or amateurs. But today I was struck by a "fatcat1111" comment stating that "I absolutely do not want to update the Fed with my location every 30 seconds" and that he or she hadn't felt that way until they read the Practical Sailor article above by marine safety expert Ralph Naranjo. Well, maybe I'm completely blind about "personal freedom" but I've read Ralph's article a few times now, and I just don't get it...

    This is tricky, as I know Ralph as a nice man with tons of experience and valuable writing in his wake and yet I feel obliged to both paraphrase and debate him. That's because many of you probably don't have the Practical Sailor online access that comes with a subscription (though it's worth considering), and the idea that not participating in AIS is somehow an expression of liberty deserves challenge, I think. So here goes.
    Ralph's opening premise is that magazine writers and AIS manufacturers have not been forthcoming about the role of AIS in international security, especially regarding America's Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) program and its associated NAIS system, which is now monitoring some 6,000 vessels a day along our coasts. But isn't that because the primary collision-avoidance aspect of AIS is complicated enough already? I know I'm hard pressed to keep within a reasonable magazine word count just trying to sort out the available types of AIS gear and confusion around them, as seen in my last Cruising World piece on the subject. And, frankly, if I did have room to get into NAIS it would be as a valuable search and rescue resource, something I started noticing here on Panbo back in 2008, and just mentioned again during another AIS argument.
    But Ralph hears Orwellian tones in the NAIS stated goal -- "Armed with a comprehensive view of our nation's waters, decision-makers will be better positioned to respond to safety and security risks." -- and wonders if those decision-makers might include "agencies for which you need a top-secret clearance to find their phone number." Heck yes, Ralph! After the sinking of the USS Cole and the horror of 9/11, how could the national security folks not recognize that our harbors are very vulnerable? Ideally, the USCG would like foolproof ID technology on every vessel coming into, say, New York Harbor, so that suspicious ones would stand out.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Ellison2011b,
      author = {Ben Ellison},
      title = {AIS, a threat to our liberty?},
      journal = {Panbo},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www.panbo.com/archives/2011/03/ais_a_threat_to_our_liberty.html}
    }
    
    Ellison, B. easyRescue personal AIS SART, hands-on 1 2011 blog  misc URL 
    Abstract: It turns out that the easyAIS -- and maybe this is true of all AIS SARTs -- is essentially designed for one-time use, like an EPIRB or PLB. That spring-loaded clear plastic button protector seen above is designed so that you can easily access the "Test" button, but to turn the unit "On" you have to push the protector up hard enough to break off that little red stopper seen in the photo below. The idea is to prevent false alarms, and also that you'll send the unit in for a new lithium battery after actually using it.

    Most just saw the signal as a target without a name (but with an MMSI starting with "970", which is exclusive to SARTs). On many boats that would set off a possible collision alarm if it suddenly appeared close astern, but the Lowrance HDS and Simrad NSE also threw up a useful message alarm

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Ellison2011c,
      author = {Ben Ellison},
      title = {easyRescue personal AIS SART, hands-on 1},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www.panbo.com/archives/2011/05/easyrescue_personal_ais_sart_hands-on_1.html}
    }
    
    Ellison, B. USCG AIS mandates, get'er done, please! 2010 blog  misc URL 
    Abstract: I've been wondering what happened to the Coast Guard's plan to require AIS on lots more commercial vessels plying U.S. waters, first discussed here in December '08. Unfortunately the legalese around federal rulemaking means that the normally very informative Jorge Arroyo -- project manager in the CG's Office of Navigation Systems -- can only say that the comments collected in early 2009 are being analyzed. I hope the Final Rule comes out soon, because looking at that slide above I see that compliance after the rule will take about half a year and, man-o-man, I'd like see those particular 17,442 vessels transmitting AIS ASAP...

    That's also where I found the table below, which shows how many feet a vessel will move between AIS transmissions, depending on its speed and which type of AIS it's carrying. I've been nattering about this situation for years, but these numbers cast it in a new way. A Class A vessel going 30 knots transmits every 2 seconds, or 100 feet, while a Class B is still transmitting at 30 seconds, which equals 1,500 feet, which equals a quarter mile, which equals close-in plotting that's pretty darn "jumpy". (And never mind the inexpensive "multiplexing" AIS receivers that flip flop from one channel to other, and thus will probably only see that fast Class B once per half mile; if you own one, consider an uprade.) As discussed in that original entry, and in Arroyo's presentations, the USCG went into this rulemaking process unsure which commercial vessels would be allowed to carry Class B and which might be made to install Class A.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Ellison2010,
      author = {Ben Ellison},
      title = {USCG AIS mandates, get'er done, please!},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.panbo.com/archives/2010/03/uscg_ais_mandates_geter_done_please.html}
    }
    
    Ellison, B. MIBS, AIS edition 2010 blog  misc URL 
    Abstract: It seemed fairly easy to input Class A voyage data (like destination, ETA, etc.) on the X3 transponder, but might be even easier on Digital Yacht's new SmarterTrack PC software, whose 'Lite' version is designed to be a full transponder interface as well as an AIS plotting program that will ship free with DY's various AIS products. The screen below, though, shows the full $$400 navigation version which supports Navionics chart cards of all formats. Click on the screen and check out the immense control a user gets over how targets are displayed. Note too that the program saves static data on every MMSI it sees, so the vessel name, etc. pop up instantly instead of having to wait minutes for the static data transmission. But don't be fooled by that "Show Class B" check mark on the top bar; you can't make them all disappear, just the ones that are not "threats" as defined by your CPA/TCPA settings. It all looks smart, and close to how the IMO envisions efficient AIS plotting, and I look forward to trying the program. (DY was also showing a beta version of its little C-Map plotter/AISrx, and still has lots more interesting product ideas left.)
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Ellison2010a,
      author = {Ben Ellison},
      title = {MIBS, AIS edition},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.panbo.com/archives/2010/02/mibs_ais_edition.html}
    }
    
    Ellison, B. AIS SOLAS-style, Class B is NOT ignorable! 2009 blog  misc URL 
    Abstract: Thanks to an angelic Panbot, I've now read pertinent sections of IEC 62388, a.k.a. "Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Shipborne radar - Performance requirements, methods of testing and required test results." It's a hundred pages (preview PDF here) laying out in great detail the minimum requirements for how all new radars going on SOLAS ships will perform and present data. Perhaps most important among many mandated enhancements is the treatment of AIS targets, Class B included, putting them on essentially the same level of safety value as radar targets. I think these standards are good news not only for the bridge teams on big ships, but also us little guys who sometimes travel amongst them (despite the consternation that came up yesterday)...

    To appreciate IEC 62388, it's important to understand the state of AIS plotting on ships now. When the IMO mandated Class A AIS on SOLAS vessels the only display requirement was a simple MKD, and a lot of those vessels still have just an MKD

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Ellison2009,
      author = {Ben Ellison},
      title = {AIS SOLAS-style, Class B is NOT ignorable!},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://www.panbo.com/archives/2009/04/ais_solas-style_class_b_is_not_ignorable.html}
    }
    
    Ellison, B. AIS mandates in the USA, the Coast Guard speaketh 2008 blog  misc URL 
    Abstract: Just online this morning is the USCG's latest proposed rulemaking regarding the use of AIS by commercial vessels (and also expansion of the Notice of Arrival and Departure requirements). While the PDF weighs in at 94 pages and contains some required bureaucratic folderol (that must drive writers nuts) the suggested regulations make a lot of sense and will significantly improve marine safety, I think. Once refined and enacted the USCG is hoping for 2010 mandates the new rules will also be a boon for the manufacturers and installers of Class A or Class B AIS transponders, or both. You see, while the CG has a very specific idea about which formerly-exempt vessels should be made to carry AIS 17,442 more tugs, fishing boats, dredges, passenger vessels and others, to be exact and endorses Class B technology with vigor, it also recognizes the superior performance of Class A, and is asking all parties involved to help decide which gear should be required on which new classes of mandated vessels…

    "after extensive testing by the Coast Guard Research and Development Center, we deem AIS Class B devices can operate properly and safely amongst Class A devices and offer similar AIS benefits."

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Ellison2008,
      author = {Ben Ellison},
      title = {AIS mandates in the USA, the Coast Guard speaketh},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://www.panbo.com/archives/2008/12/ais_mandates_in_the_usa_the_coast_guard_speaketh.html}
    }
    
    Ellison, B. Capt. Joe crew rescued, AIS helped 2008 blog  misc URL 
    Abstract: According to APP.com, 'The fishermen had an ‘automated identification system transponder' aboard their boat. While that transponder system sunk with the Captain Joe, the signals it gave out before the vessel went down helped the rescue crews find the boat's last position.' We don't normally think of AIS being used that way, and I don't know the details, but I can easily imagine how the rescue center could use some sort of Internet based AIS tracking system, or maybe their own receivers, to get good position data before the fishermen even fired off their EPIRB.
    For me, this news was ironic on several levels. Just last week I learned that Class B AIS isn't even on the FCC's March 19 agenda, meaning that this Capt. Joe type rescue aid remains unavailable for most boaters. (However, I also heard that at least one commissioner has already signed the ruling a meeting isn't even necessary so maybe this FCC travesty will actually end soon.) Second, before hearing about Capt. Joe (thanks, Jim!), I was already into an amazing book called Dead Men Tapping, and hardly slept last night plowing towards it inevitable conclusion. The book is not only an excellent profile of New England fishermen and salvors, but also a wrenching tale of what can happen out there, and hence why Class B AIS could be such a valuable collision avoidance tool. (One reason the USCG wants reasonable-cost Class B expedited is so that it can mandate them on commercial fishing boats.) But the book is also a stinging indictment of the Coast Guard's failure to perform well in this and several other somewhat unusual rescue situations.
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Ellison2008a,
      author = {Ben Ellison},
      title = {Capt. Joe crew rescued, AIS helped},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://www.panbo.com/archives/2008/03/capt_joe_crew_rescued_ais_helped.html}
    }
    
    Ellison, B. RFIDs for DHS, AIS later? 2008 Panbo  article URL 
    Abstract: 'The nation's 18 million recreational boaters may need to register their crafts in a national database and place radio frequency identification tags RFID on their vessels under plans put forth by a stakeholders group convened by the Homeland Security Department DHS.' So says an article in WashingtonTechnology. The idea, um, doesn't sit well with the editor of Sailing Anarchy, who described it today as, 'an example of what the some of the jackals at ‘Homeland Security' think fighting the ‘war on terror' is about…This is a pathetic joke, a national embarrassment and an outrage that this is what the Bush government is up to.'

    I have a different take. Last year at the Miami Boat Show I heard a USCG Rear Admiral speak very convincingly about how dangerously 'soft' and vulnerable our ports are, and how the Guard wanted all parties including recreational boaters to help figure out better ways to secure the waterways. His talk was a prelude to the National Small Vessel Security Summit (NSVSS), which issued a full report just recently. Here's an IBI synopsis, and you can download the whole 122 page PDF from the NSVSS home page (it's 2.6 Megs, not 8 as stated). The RFID story came from this report, and it relates to AIS. I know some skeptics think that DHS wants AIS so it can watch us all 'big brother' style, but that didn't seem important to the Rear Admiral, nor is it high on the report's suggestion list:

    Domain Awareness: AIS technologies should not be required for vessels under 65 feet in length until the technology is perfected, the cost of such technology significantly reduced, and until law enforcement has the ability to track and respond to all vessels in the maritime domain. Until these problems are resolved, an interim step may be for small vessels to install some type of RFID technology or install relatively inexpensive vehicle recovery and monitoring systems similar to LoJack or OnStar… Whatever tracking system is adopted it must be simple, effective, inexpensive, and multipurpose.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Ellison2008b,
      author = {Ben Ellison},
      title = {RFIDs for DHS, AIS later?},
      journal = {Panbo},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://www.panbo.com/archives/2008/02/rfids_for_dhs_ais_later.html}
    }
    
    Ellison, B. One-channel-at-a-time receivers, another Class B problem? 2006 blog  misc URL 
    Abstract: Well, whereas I stirred up a bit of a Class B AIS hornet's nest yesterday, I may as well keep at it! It seems to me that another repercussion of Class B's 30 second (at best) dynamic data rate is that the inexpensive 'single frequency' receivers are only going to see Class B targets once a minute (at best). I put 'single frequency' in quotes because I'm realizing that the nomenclature for these receivers has gotten pretty confused.
    For instance, when I characterized the EasyAIS receiver as 'dual frequency' back in April, I meant that it could listen to both AIS frequencies simultaneously. Now I realize that I was probably wrong about that, though EasyAIS is not exactly forthright about its receiver's specs. The company site calls it a 'real 2 channel receiver', which, when you think about it, does not mean that it listens to both channels simultaneously, and an English install manual I found (PDF here) doesn't mention reception modes at all.
    Meanwhile one retailer, YachtBits, also calls it a 'double superheterodyne receiver' which sort of sounds like parallel reception on both channels, but another notes that 'every few minutes it switches automatically between both channels' (Busse Yachtshop).
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Ellison2006,
      author = {Ben Ellison},
      title = {One-channel-at-a-time receivers, another Class B problem?},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://www.panbo.com/archives/2006/12/one-channel-at-a-time_receivers_another_class_b_problem.html}
    }
    
    Emery, B., Whelan, C., Barrick, D. & Washburn, L. Ocean Current Radar Calibration with Ships of Opportunity and the Automatic Identification System:
    Phase I Final Report
    2011 (WC133R10CN0212 NRMC0009-10-13054 13-450)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: We investigate the feasibility of calibrating HF radar systems using HF backscatter from ships along with Automatic Identification System (AIS) broadcasts. We obtained data from 4 SeaSondes, located in the vicinity of the Santa Barbara Channel, with coincident AIS data recorded over 70 days. Using the ship position information from AIS, we identify corresponding ship echoes in SeaSonde HF radar cross spectra, and use this information to reproduce receive antenna patterns over a wide range of bearings.
    We meet the proposed Phase I objectives as follows: 1) When matched with backscattered signal in cross spectra, the ship positions can be used to accurately reproduce the receive antenna pattern as a function of bearing; 2) Results indicate that accurate antenna patterns can be obtained from as few as 8 individual ships, suggesting that proximity to high volume shipping lanes is not essential; 3) The global scope of the AIS system would allow this method to be used on any of the approximately 350 HF radars in operation world-wide, including all of the IOOS national network sites.
    The methods presented here are a cost effective way to frequently calibrate HF radar systems. We envision a commercial software product operating on HF radar site computers that integrates data from AIS receivers into the HF radar data processing, producing receive antenna patterns in real time.

    We thank Megan McKenna (Scripps Institution of Oceanography) for use of the AIS data.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Emery2011,
      author = {Brian Emery and Chad Whelan and Don Barrick and Libe Washburn},
      title = {Ocean Current Radar Calibration with Ships of Opportunity and the Automatic Identification System:
    Phase I Final Report}, year = {2011}, number = {WC133R10CN0212 NRMC0009-10-13054 13-450}, url = {http://www.ioos.gov/library/hfr_final_report_sbir.pdf} }
    Ershen, W., Shufang, Z., Qing, H. & Lifang, L. Design of information display and control instrument based on SoC for AIS and GPRS monitoring system 2008 Industrial Electronics and Applications, 2008. ICIEA 2008. 3rd IEEE Conference on  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a system that enables ships to exchange static and dynamic information about ships and navigation, such as position, course, name etc., automatically by VHF radio. GPRS monitoring system can trace, dispatch and navigate ships by GPRS network. They are the two main ways of monitoring the ships. However, the two systems are independent of each other with the result of the unrealized information sharing. In addition, AIS equipments used on ships are mostly imported owing to the absence of domestic products in China. This paper analyzes the communication protocol between the foreign AIS transponder and its monitoring terminal, and basing on the practical requirement, it also discusses the design of information display and control instrument in detail. The whole design accords with the request of AIS. Additionally, the paper researches data fusion from AIS and GPRS monitoring system to share information. The information display and control instrument realizes identifying surrounding ships and displaying the shipspsila information from GPRS monitoring system. During the hardware design of the instrument, great attention is paid to electromagnetic compatibility technology and optimizing the design to guarantee the reliability of the instrumentpsilas electrical characteristics.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ershen2008,
      author = {Wang Ershen and Zhang Shufang and Hu Qing and Liang Lifang},
      title = {Design of information display and control instrument based on SoC for AIS and GPRS monitoring system},
      journal = {Industrial Electronics and Applications, 2008. ICIEA 2008. 3rd IEEE Conference on},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=4582475},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICIEA.2008.4582475}
    }
    
    Ervik, J.L. New opportunities with AIS information from satellite. Experience from the Norwegian AIS satellite project. 2011 EfficienSea E-NAVIGATION UNDERWAY, pp. 59-  article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ervik2011,
      author = {Jon Leon Ervik},
      title = {New opportunities with AIS information from satellite. Experience from the Norwegian AIS satellite project.},
      journal = {EfficienSea E-NAVIGATION UNDERWAY},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {59-},
      url = {http://www.efficiensea.org/files/conferenceproceedings.pdf}
    }
    
    European Commission / Joint Research Centre Ispra, Italy INTEGRATED MARITIME POLICY FOR THE EU
    WORKING DOCUMENT III
    ON MARITIME SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS
    2008   techreport URL 
    Abstract: One of the elements of the integrated Maritime Policy for the European Union1 that the Commission is pursuing is enhanced interoperability and integration between existing maritime surveillance and monitoring systems, across the different maritime sectors. As a first step it is necessary to have better awareness of the present situation. This report tries to summarise some information on existing maritime surveillance systems that has recently been gathered at a European level, and aims to focus on data sharing aspects. Information from four main sources is analysed: on fisheries monitoring from Directorate General for Fisheries and Maritime Affairs; on vessel traffic management from EMSA; on southern maritime border security from Frontex based on the BORTEC study; and on vessel reporting systems mandated by IMO. This does certainly not give a complete picture of the maritime surveillance data sharing practices in the EU, but it provides a basis from which to formulate further questions that can in particular be directed to the Member States.
    The individual systems discussed include VMS, AIS, VTS, LRIT, several special reporting regimes, GMDSS and SSAS. For each it is discussed what information is transmitted, when and to whom.
    Considering integration, it is concluded that VMS is relatively far advanced in operational data sharing between countries, but at the same time quite restricted in any sharing outside the fisheries sector. National and regional sharing of AIS data is developing fast, and Europe-wide sharing of vessel traffic data is progressing under SafeSeaNet based on the Community vessel traffic monitoring and information system directive of 2002. Concerning integration and cooperation between surveillance systems and authorities in the southern EU countries in the framework of border security, the picture varies widely between almost non-existent cooperation in some countries, via different authorities using the same surveillance system, to relatively advanced integrated systems to which several authorities contribute. All countries have plans to start or further develop the integration.
    The annexes summarise detailed information on the maritime surveillance systems in use for vessel traffic management in the entire EEA, and for maritime border control in the southern EU countries.
    Review: One of the elements of the integrated Maritime Policy for the European Union1 that the Commission is pursuing is enhanced interoperability and integration between existing maritime surveillance and monitoring systems, across the different maritime sectors. As a first step it is necessary to have better awareness of the present situation. This report tries to summarise some information on existing maritime surveillance systems that has recently been gathered at a European level, and aims to focus on data sharing aspects. Information from four main sources is analysed: on fisheries monitoring from Directorate General for Fisheries and Maritime Affairs; on vessel traffic management from EMSA; on southern maritime border security from Frontex based on the BORTEC study; and on vessel reporting systems mandated by IMO. This does certainly not give a complete picture of the maritime surveillance data sharing practices in the EU, but it provides a basis from which to formulate further questions that can in particular be directed to the Member States.
    The individual systems discussed include VMS, AIS, VTS, LRIT, several special reporting regimes, GMDSS and SSAS. For each it is discussed what information is transmitted, when and to whom.
    Considering integration, it is concluded that VMS is relatively far advanced in operational data sharing between countries, but at the same time quite restricted in any sharing outside the fisheries sector. National and regional sharing of AIS data is developing fast, and Europe-wide sharing of vessel traffic data is progressing under SafeSeaNet based on the Community vessel traffic monitoring and information system directive of 20022. Concerning integration and cooperation between surveillance systems and authorities in the southern EU countries in the framework of border security, the picture varies widely between almost non-existent cooperation in some countries, via different authorities using the same surveillance system, to relatively advanced integrated systems to which several authorities contribute. All countries have plans to start or further develop the integration.
    The annexes summarise detailed information on the maritime surveillance systems in use for vessel traffic management in the entire EEA, and for maritime border control in the southern EU countries.

    West European Tanker Reporting System (WETREP)

    GMDSS (Global Maritime Distress and Safety System)
    HF Narrow Band Direct Printing (NBDP)
    Ship Security Alert System (SSAS)

    VMS
    VMS data of a fishing vessel that is in the waters of another country are sent to that (Coastal State) FMC. There seems to be a small loss of accuracy in the data so transferred (fewer digits in the geographic position). These transmissions occur between FMCs via X.25 link, currently migrating to https, and are routine and automatic. VMS data are also forwarded to Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMOs) by Flag States whose vessels are active in the waters controlled by the RFMO. This typically happens at longer intervals, e.g. 6-hourly.

    5.2 Regional AIS networks
    Many national authorities, no doubt in part motivated by the directive 2002/59/EC2, have recognised the value of combining the data of all local AIS receiving stations on their coast into a centralised national network. Moreover, in several regions, neighbouring countries are collaborating to maintain a regional AIS network, in which the AIS data are in real time combined. This is the case for the Baltic Sea where the regional network is managed by HELCOM and for the North Sea where the network is managed by the North Sea Safety at Sea Working Group. There is a similar initiative in the Mediterranean whereby 10 Member States (Portugal, Spain, France, Slovenia, Italy, Malta, Greece, Cyprus, Bulgaria and Romania) work together, led by EMSA, to set up a common AIS Mediterranean network by the end of 2008. Finally, there are a number of military initiatives for AIS networks, mostly in the state of being built up. NATO operates MSSIS (Maritime Safety & Security Information System); the Italian Navy hosts the Regional Virtual Maritime Traffic Centre (V-RMTC) that covers the Mediterranean; and the Turkish Defence manage the Black Sea Harmony network.

    SafeSeaNet V1
    SSN V1 is a system to exchange information between MS maritime authorities to help prevent pollution and accidents at sea. Norway and Iceland also cooperate. It should use telematics, be 24/7 available and respect confidentiality. It handles messages with static info (on ships) and dynamic info (on ship traffic). The way it works is that all data about vessels and traffic are stored in MS databases,
    14
    with index information stored in the European Index Server (EIS).

    STMID, Shore-based Traffic Monitoring and Information Database

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{EuropeanCommission2008,
      author = {European Commission / Joint Research Centre Ispra, Italy},
      title = {INTEGRATED MARITIME POLICY FOR THE EU
    WORKING DOCUMENT III
    ON MARITIME SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS}, year = {2008}, url = {http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/pdf/maritime_policy_action/maritime-surveillance_en.pdf} }
    exactEarth exactAIS Service and Capabilities 2010 TEXAS IV  inproceedings URL 
    Abstract: 5 to 10X detection rate of other commercial comparative technologies
    exactEarth welcomes SpaceQuest Ltd as key data provider
    3 Satellites in operation, 7 Satellites by 2011
    Provides best-in-class on-board decoding plus digitized raw spectrum enabling ground based processing for highest detection performance

    exactEarth Ltd. Launches exactAIS™ Phase 1 service
    Global Satellite AIS message feed service
    Service made possible via agreement with SpaceQuest Ltd.
    exactEarth decollision technology modified for compatibility with AprizeSat-3/4
    Provides Best-in-class On Board Processing (OBP) over other S-AIS providers (low-dense areas)
    Enables up to 10X detection performance when using exactEarth ground based decollision technology in high density areas
    Revisit rate average of 4-10 times per day (depending on latitude)

    Service Availability - August, 2010

    Global Vessel Traffic Density - July 2010 - 56,400 vessels detected

    July 16, 2010 Capture

    Capture duration: 10m 22s

    # of messages: 8,077

    Unique ships: 2,113
    Channel A: 1,518
    Channel B: 1,620

    Using AprizeSat-4 with exactAIS Ground Based Decollision technology

    AIS Search & Rescue Sea Trials

    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{exactEarth2010a,
      author = {exactEarth},
      title = {exactAIS Service and Capabilities},
      booktitle = {TEXAS IV},
      publisher = {Nationa Maritime Domain Awareness Coordination Office (NMCO)},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/TEXAS/briefs/Texas%20IV%20Presentation.pptx}
    }
    
    exactEarth, USCG, IALA & WSV Germany Report on satellite detection of AIS-SART-EPIRB sea trials in HAWAII, 20-21 January 2010 2010 (ICAO/IMO JWG-SAR/17-WP.18)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: SATELLITE DETECTION OF AIS-SART-EPIRB SIGNALS
    1In January 2010, exactEarth Ltd, and its parent company COM DEV International Ltd, participated in sea trials by using its Satellite-AIS system to detect and decode signals from prototype AIS-SARTs and AIS-EPIRBs deployed in Hawaii. These sea trials were organized by: the USCG (United States Coast Guard), IALA (International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities) and WSV (German Federal Waterways and Shipping Administration).
    2The satellite was a small demonstration satellite, called NTS - Nanosatellite for Tracking of Ships, in a polar orbit at an altitude of about 630 km. The satellite received and stored the signals in its onboard memory, and later downloaded the signals as it passed over an earth station in Canada, where they were then forwarded to a sophisticated data processing centre in Toronto which extracted the AIS data.
    3Several prototype AIS test units were deployed and were transmitting while the satellite passed over the Hawaii area, as illustrated in the satellite footprint in Figure 1. In addition to these test signals, AIS transmissions from about 270 different ships in that region of the Pacific Ocean were also detected and decoded by the satellite during each test, as illustrated in Figure 4. Multiple bursts from all five AIS test units were successfully received and decoded, comprising:

    1 AIS-EPIRB transmitting at 1 Watt (i.e. AIS-SART electronics installed inside an EPIRB case) 3 AIS-SARTs transmitting at 1 Watt 1 AIS Class A transmitting at 12.5 Watt (incrementing its MMSI number every 2 sec)

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{exactEarth2010,
      author = {exactEarth and USCG and IALA and WSV Germany},
      title = {Report on satellite detection of AIS-SART-EPIRB sea trials in HAWAII, 20-21 January 2010},
      year = {2010},
      number = {ICAO/IMO JWG-SAR/17-WP.18},
      url = {http://www.icao.int/icaoimojwg/meetings/jwg17/docs/JWGSAR17_wp18.pdf}
    }
    
    Ferebee, J.M. MAXIMIZING SITUATION AWARENESS: IMPROVING SITUATIONAL AWARENESS WITH GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM DATA IN THE MARITIME ENVIRONMENT 2009 School: NPS  mastersthesis URL 
    Abstract: The U.S. Coast Guard mission is to daily conduct law enforcement in the dynamic and challenging maritime environment. Rapid advances in technology have the potential to dramatically improve the organization’s capacity to conduct this mission. The ability to track and monitor suspect vessels, as well as the law enforcement personnel that board them, is a critical next step in the evolution of Maritime Interdiction. With the development of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and downward trend of GPS receiver costs and their form size, it is now possible to integrate positioning technology with software collaborative tools and wireless networking. The power of collaboration tools and real time positioning data offers the potential to deliver an entirely new and unique level of situational awareness to the law enforcement teams on the water as well as the command and control structure shore side. No longer does VHF radio need to be the sole form of communication between operational personnel and their commands. This thesis discusses the specific methods available for tagging and tracking individuals and vessels and explores the challenges and feasibility of deploying these technologies in the maritime environment.
    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Ferebee2009,
      author = {J. Michel Ferebee},
      title = {MAXIMIZING SITUATION AWARENESS: IMPROVING SITUATIONAL AWARENESS WITH GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM DATA IN THE MARITIME ENVIRONMENT},
      school = {NPS},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://edocs.nps.edu/npspubs/scholarly/theses/2009/Mar/09Mar_Ferebee.pdf}
    }
    
    Ferraro, G., Bernardini, A., David, M., Meyer-Roux, S., Muellenhoff, O., Perkovic, M., Tarchi, D. & Topouzelis, K. Towards an operational use of space imagery for oil pollution monitoring in the Mediterranean basin: A demonstration in the Adriatic Sea 2007 Marine pollution bulletin
    Vol. 54(4), pp. 403-422 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Studies of operational pollution carried out by European commission - Joint Research Centre in the Mediterranean Sea for the years 1999-2004 are briefly introduced. The specific analysis of the Adriatic Sea for the same period demonstrates that this area has been characterized by a relevant number of illegal discharges from ships.

    After setting the historical background of the project AESOP (aerial and satellite surveillance of operational pollution in the Adriatic Sea), the content, partners and aim of the project are presented.

    Finally, the results of the first phase of the AESOP project are presented. The results seem very encouraging. For the first time in the Adriatic, real time detection of oil spills in satellite images and an immediate verification by the Coast Guard has been undertaken. An exploratory activity has also been carried out in collaboration with the University of Ljubljana to use automatic information system (AIS) to identify the ships detected in the satellite images.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Ferraro2007,
      author = {Ferraro, G. and Bernardini, A. and David, M. and Meyer-Roux, S. and Muellenhoff, O. and Perkovic, M. and Tarchi, D. and Topouzelis, K.},
      title = {Towards an operational use of space imagery for oil pollution monitoring in the Mediterranean basin: A demonstration in the Adriatic Sea},
      journal = {Marine pollution bulletin},
      publisher = {Elsevier},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {54},
      number = {4},
      pages = {403--422},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com.libproxy.unh.edu/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V6N-4MWPYNK-1&_user=1967573&_coverDate=04%2F30%2F2007&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=gateway&_origin=gateway&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1660730305&_rerunOrigin=scholar.google&_acct=C000053403&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=1967573&md5=3a413e7decd2dfeee771b5346680df39&searchtype=a},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2006.11.022}
    }
    
    Ferraro, G., Greidanus, H., Posada, M. & Vespe, M. EU-level requirements and
    considerations for Sat-AIS
    2010 TEXAS IV  inproceedings URL 
    Abstract: Introducing the European context
    Maritime surveillance R&D at JRC
    Satellite AIS: EU-level requirements
    Who are the users communities?
    Possible EU users scenario
    Conclusions
    …if time available…. Work in progress of the project PASTAMARE

    Acknowledgments: Iain Shepherd (EC-MARE); Marten Koopmans and Jean-Bernard Erhardt (EC – MOVE); Lawrence Sciberras (EMSA);
    For PASTAMARE: Jochen Harms and Gerd Eiden

    The identification of User needs is the first essential element for the definition, design and development of a space-based AIS system

    The European Commission (in collaboration with its agency, the European Maritime Safety Agency - EMSA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have undertaken a number of joint actions for investigating space-based AIS capabilities

    The provision of SAT-AIS data to Member States and Institutional users should be established through the SSN (SafeSeaNet) platform as an additional European maritime surveillance tool that will further enhance the current coverage possibilities by terrestrial AIS

    NB the European Space Agency (ESA) is not a EU institution

    727 AIS shore stations Coastal coverage in all MS , Courtesy of EMSA

    Customs
    Border control
    Pollution response
    Fisheries control
    Maritime safety
    Maritime security
    Vessel traffic management
    Accident and disaster response
    Search and rescue
    Law enforcement

    10 activities x 23 EU Member States = approximately 230 authorities
    + Norway and Iceland

    1. EU Working document on offshore activities of coastal EU Member States and cross-border cooperation. November 2007. http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/pdf/maritime_policy_action/offshore-activities-cross-border-cooperation_en.pdf

    Oil Spill Detection
    guido.ferraro@ jrc.ec.europa.eu
    European Commission
    Joint Research Centre
    21027 Ispra, Italy
    http://ipsc.jrc.ec.europa.eu
    http://maritimeaffairs.jrc.ec.europa.eu

    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Ferraro2010,
      author = {Guido Ferraro and Harm Greidanus and
    Monica Posada and Michele Vespe}, title = {EU-level requirements and
    considerations for Sat-AIS}, booktitle = {TEXAS IV}, publisher = {Nationa Maritime Domain Awareness Coordination Office (NMCO)}, year = {2010}, url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/TEXAS/briefs/Guido_presentation_TexasIV_06.ppt} }
    Flannery, J. Satellite-Based AIS: One Giant Leap for Vessel Tracking; Giving AIS a satellite platform will greatly expand its range - from the coasts out onto the oceans 2010 web  misc URL 
    Abstract: When shuttle astronauts Michael Foreman and Randolph Bresnik flew to the International Space Station during Thanksgiving last year, they attached an Automatic Identification System antenna to the Columbus laboratory so the European Space Agency could begin testing a pair of AIS receivers for use in tracking global maritime traffic from space.
    Designed to pick up signals from standard shipboard AIS transponders, satellite-based AIS promises to add a new dimension to maritime security and vessel tracking by extending ship-to-shore AIS coverage from the coast to the oceans.
    "I think this is a great case study of a technology and system being established for one reason and then finding multiple other applications," says Dana Goward, director of the Coast Guard's assessment, integration and risk management office, and the man who oversees the agency's vessel-tracking capabilities.
    Goward says his agency uses information from terrestrial- and space-based AIS along with reports from ships' Long Range Identification and Tracking systems, which send their position and identification every six hours via satellite; the Vessel Monitoring System, which requires fishing vessels to report in via satellite while they fish; port radars; and a variety of intelligence sources to get a picture of what's going on in and around U.S. waters.
    He says his department's charge is to "see, understand and share" that information and report any suspicious anomalies. Satellite-based AIS helps put the picture together.
    Satellite AIS faces some political challenges. The General Accounting Office released a March 2009 report that said satellite AIS duplicates information that will be available as more LRIT systems come online, but Arroyo says the difference between receiving a continuous stream of real-time information about ships and information every six hours is huge. He is excited about putting satellite AIS to work in search and rescue once the service is available on a real-time basis.

    "That opens the door to a whole new set of possibilities," he says.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Flannery2010,
      author = {Jim Flannery},
      title = {Satellite-Based AIS: One Giant Leap for Vessel Tracking; Giving AIS a satellite platform will greatly expand its range - from the coasts out onto the oceans},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://features.boats.com/boat-content/2010/06/satellite-based-ais-one-giant-leap-for-vessel-tracking/}
    }
    
    Fletcher, J. Fifth Meeting of the JCOMM Ship Observations Team (SOT) : OPA_SOT_meeting_SOT05_Doc03/4.4, SOT-V-Doc-III-4.4, Technology Challenges 2009 web  misc URL 
    Abstract: http://www.jcomm.info/index.php?option=com_oe&task=viewEventAgenda&eventID=320

    http://www.jcomm.info/index.php?option=com_oe&task=viewDocumentRecord&docID=3550

    III-4.4.1Julie Fletcher, Chairperson of the VOS Panel, reported on some technology challenges for the VOS, including the SOT's participation in the IMO Correspondence Group on AIS (Automatic Identification System) Binary Messages, Long Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT), the implications of the European Union's restrictions on the use and transportation of Mercury (replacing Mercury-in-glass thermometers), and solutions to address the lack of floppy drive facilities in some PCs and Inmarsat terminals.
    Automatic Identification System (AIS)
    III-4.4.2Ms Fletcher recalled that the Automatic Identification System (AIS) was a system used by ships and Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) principally for identification and locating vessels. The AIS provides a means for ships to exchange ship data electronically including identification, position, course, and speed, with other nearby ships and VTS stations.
    III-4.4.3In addition to the ship details routinely sent ashore in binary AIS messages; investigations are now underway to determine whether additional variables, such as weather data, could be included in the AIS message. Sarah North (UK MetOffice) has been appointed as SOT representative to the AIS Correspondence Group on the AIS Binary Messages. The Panel will continue to monitor the AIS situation with respect to using it to send meteorological data in the future (action, Sarah North, SOT- VI).

    2.
    2.1
    Automatic Identification System (AIS) Background The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a system used by ships and Vessel Traffic
    SOT-V/Doc. III-4.4, p. 3
    1.Background
    1.1The application of new and developing technologies, have implications for VOS, as they must be applied in ways that are workable, and globally consistent with regard to the national and international regulations. This document addresses some of these technology issues.
    2.1.1 Services (VTS) principally for identification and locating vessels. The AIS provide a means for ships to exchange ship data electronically, including identification, position, course, and speed, with other nearby ships and VTS stations. The AIS is intended to assist the vessel's watch keeping officers and allow maritime authorities to track and monitor vessel movements. It works by integrating a standardized VHF transceiver system with an electronic navigation system, such as a LORAN-C (LOng RAnge Navigation Version C) or GPS receiver, and other navigational sensors on board ship ( eg gyrocompass, rate of turn indicator, etc).
    2.1.2The International Maritime Organization's (IMO) International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) requires the AIS to be fitted aboard international voyaging ships with gross tonnage (GT) of 300 or more tons, and on all passenger ships regardless of size. It is estimated that more than 40,000 ships currently carry the AIS class A equipment.
    2.1.3For long range tracking system on ships, less frequent transmission can be achieved by the use of Long-Range Identification and Tracking System (LRIT) for ship trading outside the coastal AIS (VHF or A1) Radio range.
    2.2AIS Application
    2.2.1The AIS transponders automatically broadcast information from ships, such as their position, speed, and navigational status, at regular intervals via a VHF transmitter built into the transponder. The information originates from the ship's navigational sensors, typically its global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver and gyrocompass. Other information, such as the vessel name and VHF call sign, is programmed when installing the equipment and is transmitted regularly. The signals are received by the AIS transponders fitted on other ships or on land based systems, such as the VTS systems.
    2.2.2In addition to the ship details that are routinely sent ashore in binary AIS messages, investigations are now underway to determine whether additional variables, such as weather data, could be included in the AIS message. Sarah North (UK MetOffice) was appointed as SOT representative to the AIS Correspondence Group on the AIS Binary Messages. In the initial communication with the Chair of the IMI Correspondence Group on the AIS Binary Messages, Sarah explained the VOS Scheme, and the data collected, and expressed interest in receiving more information about how the binary AIS messaging system might be used or expanded to collect and report meteorological parameters in the future.
    2.2.3The VOS panel will follow these developments with interest, and thanks Sarah for the work she is doing on the AIS.
    Action:
    To monitor the AIS situation with respect to using it, to send meteorological data in the future

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Fletcher2009,
      author = {Julie Fletcher},
      title = {Fifth Meeting of the JCOMM Ship Observations Team (SOT) : OPA_SOT_meeting_SOT05_Doc03/4.4, SOT-V-Doc-III-4.4, Technology Challenges},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://www.jcomm.info/components/com_oe/oe.php?task=download&id=6327&version=1.0&lang=1&format=1}
    }
    
    Flohberger, M.L. Suggested Improvements For Ship-Installation Collision Risk Models To Reflect Current
    Collision Avoidance Systems
    2010 School: University of Stavanger  mastersthesis URL 
    Abstract: Accurate quantification of risks for vessel-to-platform collisions has been a goal of the petroleum industry for many years; however, technological advances in collision avoidance systems have not been reflected in current models. Additionally, new modeling theories have been developed which capture the complexities of modern socio-technical systems. This paper recommends that a new collision model be developed to reflect current collision avoidance systems.
    Today' s navigation tools
    Current models for collision probability between platforms and passing vessels were developed prior to the rapid expansion of GPS, electronic charts and AIS.
    Causal factors of ship- platform collisions
    Accidents are often the result of multiple factors. Causal factors considered by current models are still very relevant today; but, because voyage planning procedures have changed in response to new technology, causal factors may have changed as well.
    Barriers to prevent collisions with platforms
    Technological advances have enhanced detection and communication barriers to prevent collisions. GPS and electronic charts offer the vessel's navigator improved situational awareness. With AIS, both the vessel and the platform are able to detect each other faster at a distance of approximately 40 nautical miles, compared to the 12 nautical mile radius offered by conventional radar.
    Alternative modeling theories
    Today's accident models are based on fault trees and event trees. They provide a sequence of events that must occur prior to a collision. As technology improves and the complexity of socio-technical systems increases, these models will become less relevant.
    Suggested structure for a revised collision risk model
    Flexible simulation software is available and should be utilized to model the complexity behind a vessel-platform collision. The suggested structure presented in this paper starts with four main systems: the vessel, the platform, VTS, and external conditions.

    Conclusions
    During the last two decades, the situational awareness for large vessels has greatly improved as a result of GPS, AIS, and electronic charts. Advances will continue to be made and the factors leading to a passing vessel colliding with an platform will continue to evolve. With this progression, socio-technical systems have become more complex and the current models and methodology shall become outdated.
    Updating the existing models or simply applying correction factors to reflect changes in technology is not an adequate solution. The current collision models are based on fault trees and event trees, which focus primarily on human errors or equipment failure. A systemic modeling approach would take into account the socio-technical system that shaped the human and equipment performance. This offers a better understanding of what could cause a passing a vessel collision, and more importantly the opportunity to learn how such collisions could be averted.
    Developing a passing vessel-platform collision risk model using a Monte Carlo simulation tool is achievable and would provide the most realistic representation of the system. The most significant challenge would be obtaining good statistical data for the input variables due to the low number of large scale accidents. However, with proper planning data collection could be carried out in conjunction with model development.
    In conclusion, the current models are based on the modeling approaches and assumptions from the late 1980's. At this time, they offered the best available estimate of collision risk and are still adequate today. But, just as it would be irresponsible for merchant vessels not to incorporate the technological improvements, it would be imprudent not to develop a new collision model to reflect advances in theories and simulation.

    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Flohberger2010,
      author = {Margaret Loudon Flohberger},
      title = {Suggested Improvements For Ship-Installation Collision Risk Models To Reflect Current
    Collision Avoidance Systems}, school = {University of Stavanger}, year = {2010}, url = {http://brage.bibsys.no/uis/bitstream/URN:NBN:no-bibsys_brage_14061/1/Flohberger,%20Margaret%20Loudon.pdf} }
    Foster, N. GNU Radio AIS module software  misc URL 
    Abstract: This module implements an AIS receiver for GnuRadio?. AIS is the Automatic Identification System, a protocol designed to facilitate safety at sea by broadcasting ship data such as speed, heading, rate of turn, tonnage, draft, ship name, destination, etc. Ships of more than 65 feet in length or 150 tons in weight are required by Federal law to utilize an AIS transceiver, so in densely-populated ports you will receive quite a bit of traffic.

    The module outputs processed NMEA 0183 frames, designed to interface with any standard NMEA receiver. For a free Linux implementation, see ESR's gpsd program ( http://gpsd.berlios.de/), specifically the program ais.py included with the gpsd distribution. The output of ais.py can be further parsed, to KML for instance, for a map implementation. If I had the first idea how to work the Google Maps API, I might try it myself. If you're into that sort of thing, please, pick up the baton, I'd really like to have a map interface.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Foster,
      author = {Nick Foster},
      title = {GNU Radio AIS module},
      note = {gr-ais},
      url = {https://www.cgran.org/wiki/AIS}
    }
    
    Gaidos, J. & Doyle, R. Key Generation for Sensitive But Unclassified Communications 2008   mastersthesis URL 
    Abstract: The Office of Command, Control, Communications, Computers & Information
    Technology (CG-6) at Coast Guard Headquarters identified a need for a program to secure Sensitive But Unclassified (SBU) Data Communications between Coast Guard assets. Through meeting with the project sponsor from CG-6, it was determined that the best solution to meet the needs specified by CG-6 was to create a software program capable of generating a random number. Since the program would be used by the Coast Guard and the federal government, it would have to meet the federal standards established by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The program was designed and built with the random number generator in the CryptoSysTM API, designed to pass NIST certification. The program generated a user- interface that accepted limited input and sent the output to the screen with the option to store the data in a separate text file. The program was delivered to CG-6 for submittal to the NIST certification process and the outcome of the certification is pending.
    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Gaidos2008,
      author = {Joshua Gaidos and Rebecca Doyle},
      title = {Key Generation for Sensitive But Unclassified Communications},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://www.uscga.edu/uploadedFiles/Academics/Departments/Engineering/Electrical_and_Computer_Engineering/Electrical_and_Computer_subpages/2008/Key_Final_Paper.pdf}
    }
    
    GAO COAST GUARD:
    Observations on Agency Performance, Operations, and Future Challenges
    2006 (GAO-06-448T)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: What GAO Found
    According to the Coast Guard, the agency’s fiscal year 2005 performance, as self-measured by its ability to meet program goals, was the highest since the terrorist attacks in September 2001. Even with the need to sustain new homeland security duties, respond to particularly destructive hurricanes, and cope with aging assets, the Coast Guard reported meeting or exceeding performance targets for 7 of 11 mission programs, and it anticipates meeting the target for 1 more program once final results for the year are available. In particular, based on our discussions with Coast Guard and other officials, as well as our review of pertinent documents, the Coast Guard’s response to Hurricane Katrina highlighted three elements key to its mission performance: a priority on training and contingency planning, a flexible organizational structure, and the agency’s operational principles.
    Three organizational changes appear to be helping the Coast Guard adjust to added responsibilities. First, according to agency officials, a realigned field structure will allow local commanders to manage resources more efficiently. Second, according to the Coast Guard, a new response team for maritime security is expected to provide greater counterterrorism capability. Finally, new and expanded partnerships inside and outside the federal government have the potential to improve operational effectiveness and efficiency.
    While some progress in acquisition management has been made, continued attention is warranted. Within the Deepwater program, additional action is needed before certain past recommendations can be considered as fully implemented. Also, the program recently had difficulties in acquiring Fast Response Cutters to replace aging patrol boats. For the Rescue 21 program, deficiencies in management and oversight appear similar to those that plagued the Deepwater program, leading to delays and cost overruns, and demonstrating that the Coast Guard has not translated past lessons learned into improved acquisition practices. Two additional future challenges also bear close attention: deteriorating buoy tenders and icebreakers that may need additional resources to sustain or replace them, and maintaining mission balance while taking on a new homeland security mission outside the agency’s traditional focus on the maritime environment.

    Coast Guard in Early Phase of Developing the Nationwide Automatic Identification System

    The Coast Guard is at an early phase in developing the Nationwide Automatic Identification System (NAIS)—an important step in the overall effort to increase port safety and security by collecting, integrating, and analyzing information on vessels operating within or bound for U.S. waters—and is pursuing partnership opportunities that could potentially accomplish NAIS installation goals more quickly and reduce installation costs to the federal government. According to the Coast Guard, NAIS will allow the Coast Guard to both receive and transmit information to vessels entering and leaving U.S. waters, supporting both MTSA and the National Plan to Achieve Maritime Domain Awareness.21 In July 2004, we recommended that the Coast Guard seek and take advantage of opportunities to partner with organizations willing to develop systems at their own expense as part of the acquisition process.22 In response, according to Coast Guard officials, the agency has begun to develop partnerships. However, officials noted that because the project and technology are still in the early stages of development, these partnerships remain limited. For example, Coast Guard officials said that because the Coast Guard still does not know all of the specific technical system requirements, they do not yet know of all the potential partners that could enable the Coast Guard to leverage resources. In addition, system requirements may change as the technology is further developed, and as a result, some current partnerships may be short-term.

    The Coast Guard intends to use the fiscal year 2007 budget request of $11.2 million, along with past unobligated project funding, to award a NAIS contract in fiscal year 2007 for initial design, logistics, and deployment in strategic ports and critical coastal areas of the country. According to the Coast Guard, officials are performing market research as part of the development phase of the Coast Guard and DHS major acquisition processes, and the project office is analyzing this information to determine capabilities within the market to satisfy NAIS requirements and to establish an optimal acquisition strategy. Coast Guard officials we spoke with noted that NAIS is currently in the initial stage of a major acquisition project. As such, the acquisition project plans for costs, schedule, and performance have not yet been established. The Coast Guard expects these project plans to be determined later this year and stated that both the baseline costs and current completion schedule are early estimates and subject to revision as final requirements mature.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{GAO2006,
      author = {GAO},
      title = {COAST GUARD:
    Observations on Agency Performance, Operations, and Future Challenges}, year = {2006}, number = {GAO-06-448T}, url = {http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d06448t.pdf} }
    Garcia, C.R., Lehner, A., Strang, T. & Rockl, M. Comparison of Collision Avoidance Systems and Applicability to Rail Transport 2007 article URL 
    Abstract: The paper presents an overview of the state of the art in collision avoidance related with transportation systems like the Automatic Identification System (AIS) for maritime transportation, Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System / Automatic Dependent Surveillance- Broadcast (TCAS/ADS-B) for aircraft, and the Car-2-Car communication system (C2C) for road transportation. The examined systems rely on position detection and direct communication among vehicles. Alike a collision avoidance system for railway transportation "RCAS" is introduced. Focussing on the communication aspects, possible applicability of the examined state of the art systems to RCAS is studied. The analysis are performed at different communication system layers, namely application (APP) layer, media access control (MAC) layer and physical layer (PHY), which are the most relevant for a single hop network broadcast system as favorized in RCAS. Since multihop and addressed communication are not foreseen in a first RCAS approach, the network layer is not taken into account.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CristinaRicoGarcia2007,
      author = {Cristina Rico Garcia and Andreas Lehner and Thomas Strang and Matthias Rockl},
      title = {Comparison of Collision Avoidance Systems and Applicability to Rail Transport},
      journal = {?},
      year = {2007},
      url = {http://elib.dlr.de/48880/1/Rico07Comparison.pdf}
    }
    
    Garcia, J., Molina, J., Singh, T., Crassidis, J. & Llinas, J. Research Opportunities in Contextualized Fusion Systems. The Harbor Surveillance Case 2011
    Vol. 6692Advances in Computational Intelligence, pp. 621-628 
    incollection URL 
    Abstract: The design of modern Information Fusion (IF) systems involves a complex process to achieve the requirements in the selected applications, especially in domains with a high degree of customization. In general, an advanced fusion system is required to show robust, context-sensitive behavior and efficient performance in real time. It is necessary to exploit all potentially relevant sensor and contextual information in the most appropriate way. Among modern applications for IF technology is the case of surveillance of complex harbor environments that are comprised of large numbers of surface vessels, high-value and dangerous facilities, and many people. The particular conditions and open needs in the harbor scenario are reviewed in this paper, highlighting research opportunities to explore in the development of fusion systems in this area.

    There are varied technologies for detection and location (coastal radar, video cam- eras, IR, automatic identification system, etc), but none of them alone are able to ensure reliable surveillance for handling complex scenarios. For example, high reso- lution coastal radar technology is effective with high accuracy and availability, but usually presents difficulties which make it necessary to supplement with cooperative location technologies. Radar can have problems such as occlusions, shadows, clutter, etc., and difficulty detecting small boats, because they are very small with low detect- ablity (for instance small inflatable boats in trafficking activities or skiffs in piracy, both with poor radar returns). Automatic Identification System (AIS) technology can provide situational awareness with positive identification of approaching vessels, but they are obviously insufficient on their own, because of needed cooperation, and occasional presence of anomalous data, losses in coverage etc. Therefore it is a usual situation to seek help of additional sensor sources such as computer vision systems to improve the detectability of all type of targets. The fusion system must take into ac- count the characteristics of all data sources. Research of appropriate architectures and algorithms for multi-sensor fusion in this environment is needed, especially with large and heterogeneous areas and high density spaces with large numbers of very diverse tracked objects (tankers, ferries, sailboats, inflatable boats, etc.).

    BibTeX:
    @incollection{Garcia2011,
      author = {Garcia, Jesus and Molina, José and Singh, Tarunraj and Crassidis, John and Llinas, James},
      title = {Research Opportunities in Contextualized Fusion Systems. The Harbor Surveillance Case},
      booktitle = {Advances in Computational Intelligence},
      publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {6692},
      pages = {621-628},
      note = {10.1007/978-3-642-21498-1_78},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-21498-1_78}
    }
    
    Garrison, L. Applying a spatial model to evaluate the risk of interactions between vessels and Right Whales in the southeast United States critical habitat. 2005 NOAA  article URL 
    Abstract: The nearshore continental shelf waters off of Georgia and Florida are the only know calving habitat for the endangered North Atlantic Right Whale. This region is also an area with a high amount of large vessel traffic including both military vessels associated with Mayport in northern Florida and commercial traffic associated with the ports of Jacksonville, FL, Fernandina, FL, and Brunswick, GA. Vessel strikes account for the majority of known mortalities of North Atlantic Right Whales. Given the necessity of successful calving for the survival and recovery of this species, it is important to explore strategies to reduce the risk of interactions between right whales and large vessel traffic in the calving area.
    In a previous analysis (Garrison, 2002), a conceptual model was developed describing the vessel strike process, associated spatial scales, and the implications of whale and vessel behavior for strategies used to reduce the risk of interactions. In that study, a preliminary analysis was conducted examining the potential benefits of establishing vessel routes to reduce vessel-whale interactions. The approach focused on avoiding the close approach between vessels and whales at scales of approximately 1 km. Using a surface describing the spatial distribution of right whales within the area, this analysis compared potential approaches from the outer edge of the habitat to the pilot buoy for each port by calculating the cumulative likelihood of encountering a whale along the vessel track. This cumulative likelihood is estimated by summing the whale densities encountered across each vessel track. Limiting ship traffic to lanes where the cumulative density of animals is lowest will minimize the probability of interactions (Garrison, 2002).
    There were several limitations noted in this earlier analysis. First, the surface of right whale densities was developed using effort corrected sightings data from aerial surveys, described as sightings per unit effort (SPUE). Both the spatial extent (i.e., offshore extent) and much of the spatial structure (i.e., patchiness) evident in the map was limited by the uneven distribution of survey data. The relative densities and the presence of "hot spots" in right whale densities may have been an artifact of limited or variable survey data. Second, a static, time averaged map of the SPUE was used for the previous analysis. Both within season and interannual variability in spatial distribution may have an important impact on the relative reduction in vessel strikes for a given vessel approach. Finally, the SPUE surface did not include an estimate of the variability in spatial distribution, therefore it was not possible to incorporate the underlying variability in both process and estimation into the analysis of strike risk.
    This analysis addresses these limitations by including a surface of predicted right whale densities derived from a statistical model of spatial distribution based upon habitat characteristics. The resulting predicted surface is resolved temporally in two-week intervals between December and the end of March and includes an estimation of the variability in predicted densities. Further, the predicted surface has a coarser spatial resolution and is not limited by the spatial distribution of available survey data, thereby reducing the artificial patchiness of the empirical SPUE surface. Based upon this surface, approaches to each pilot buoy in the Southeast United States (SEUS) right whale habitat are evaluated to determine those approaches that result in a reduced probability of encountering right whales.

    Vessel Traffic Data
    Information on the spatial distribution and amount of commercial shipping traffic was derived from the Mandatory Ship Reporting System (MSRS) implemented for the SEUS right whale habitat area starting in November of 1999. These data are described in detail in Ward-Geiger et al. (2005). Commercial vessels with gross weights greater than 300 tons are required to report their entry position, destination, and speed upon entry into the "WHALESOUTH" reporting area.
    Vessel tracks may be reported as "simple tracks" showing only the point of entry and the pilot buoy for the respective port or by "complex tracks" indicating one or more waypoints as they transit the area.Vessel traffic data reported between December 1999 - March 2000 and December 2000 - March 2001 were used in the current analysis.
    Vessel traffic data was summarized temporally into the number of reports, representing vessels entering the system, for each biweekly interval for each port (Jacksonville, Fernandina, and Brunswick). Vessel track data was summarized spatially by summing the total reported vessel trackline in each 4x4 km spatial cell used in the habitat analysis.

    Review: Need to get Ward-Geiger, L.I, Silber G.K., Baumstark, R.D., and Pulfer T.L. 2005. Characterization of Ship Traffic in Right Whale Critical Habitat. Coastal Management 33: 263-278
    BibTeX:
    @article{Garrison2005,
      author = {Lance Garrison},
      title = {Applying a spatial model to evaluate the risk of interactions between vessels and Right Whales in the southeast United States critical habitat.},
      journal = {NOAA},
      year = {2005},
      url = {http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/shipstrike/spatial_model.pdf}
    }
    
    GateHouse GAD - GateHouse Ais Displays software  misc URL 
    Abstract: GateHouse offers a wide range of AIS products that benefit from the advantages provided by shore-based collection of AIS data. Our solutions provide maritime administrators, ports and shipping operators with perfect tools for identifying, monitoring and tracking maritime traffic. Our system can easily be integrated with existing administrative systems.
    Our field-proven and user-friendly solutions are scalable from a single user to numerous users making it ideal for all sizes of ports. Port administrators can offer accurate and reliable information.

    Features
    GateHouse AIS Port Solutions focus on the following main features:
    - Actual Time of Arrival (ATA) notification - Actual Time of Departure (ATD) notification - Calculated Estimated Time of Arrival (ETAcal) - Integration with the administrative system of the port - Visualisation of berth allocations - Traffic monitoring and alerts - Database storage for replay and statistics - PDA GAD - Radar integration
    Port Management
    GateHouse AIS Port Solutions provide optimal tools for port management. The WatchDog module provides noti- fications and alerts on relevant events, such as vessel ar- rival (ATA) or departure (ATD) - sending the events to the port administrative system for invoicing and/or planning purposes. WatchDogs can be configured using the Gate- house AIS Display system. Operator can be notified by the Display System, by email, by SMS or through an interface to an external administrative system. An example of how to setup berthing areas in a port is shown below. Each berthing area is assigned a name. When a vessel enters or leaves the berth area, operators receive a notification including the time, vessel call sign and berth name.
    The display system can be configured to read events aloud using a synthesised voice. Calculated Estimated Time of Arrival (ETAcal) can be visualised in GAD (Gate- House AIS Display) or automatically generated and sent to a Port Community System via the Systems Integrations Module. Based on known sea ways and historical vessel movements, the system will predict the most likely route for the destination and use the actual SOG (Speed Over Ground) to calculate an estimated time of arrival.
    System Architecture
    GateHouse AIS Port Solutions can be easily integrated with pre-existing Port Community Systems and AIS solu- tions, or installed stand-alone at the Port Master's office, for example. The AIS data can either be collected by the port itself, through locally installed AIS receivers or pro- vided by a 3rd party such as the local competent authority. Our Standard AIS Module accepts standard AIS data from almost any source. An example of a typical system set up is shown below.

    Normally a single server is installed at the port. This server will be equipped with the software modules appro- priate for the particular port.
    The hardware required by the GateHouse AIS Port Solution is dependent on the customer's requirements for the system (e.g. the number of users and their projected activity).

    GateHouse has developled a large range of modules offer- ing the customer an economic way of fulfilling the need for a unique tailored AIS solution:
    Standard Module. IALA compliant system. Manages all incoming AIS data, user rights, distribution of data etc. Traffic Statistics Module Analyses the AIS data traffic flow.
    External Clients Module. Secures distribution of real-time data.
    Database Module. Stores integrated AIS and port specific data for later replay and stores user defined events
    AIS Watchdog Module. Automatic detection of predefined events from AIS data. ( ATA, ATD, ETAcal).
    System Integration Module. Provides an open interface to exchange data with third party systems (e.g. port ad- ministrative systems like Axapta, Navision, SAP or similar).
    GAD. GateHouse AIS Display - real time AIS data. For users or administrators including AtoN handling.
    Web Server Module (WEB GAD). Web based AIS display system with numerous possibilities .
    AIS Statistics Module (WEB STAT). Used for analysing AIS data Database Integration to external databases, e.g. Lloyds Module or other databases.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{gatehouse,
      author = {GateHouse},
      title = {GAD - GateHouse Ais Displays},
      url = {http://www.gatehouse.dk/}
    }
    
    GeoEye Vessel Monitoring System for Republic of Maldives 2011 Hydro International  article URL 
    Abstract: GeoEye has entered into a contract from the Republic of the Maldives for a vessel monitoring system that is being developed for fisheries management and safety. This information services project expands GeoEye's expertise and presence in location-based information products and services.

    As part of this contract, GeoEye will build the secure infrastructure for a countrywide vessel monitoring system and supply ten Osprey Personal Tracker terminals for a trial deployment.

    GeoEye's vessel monitoring system will display vessel positions and consolidate fish catch reports from the Osprey terminals in near-real-time for review by fisheries management personnel at the Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture. The vessel monitoring system also provides the customer with two-way text communication by satellite for both routine and emergency purposes. An integrated "panic button" on each Osprey unit will alert Maldives emergency services to vessels in distress. Vessel positions and messaging will be tracked securely through a comprehensive Web-based control system and database that will include satellite-derived oceanographic charts that GeoEye will update daily.

    The Osprey Personal Tracker terminals are manufactured by EMS Global Tracking and sold by GeoEye within the commercial and government fisheries sectors. These terminals report latitude/longitude (GPS) positions on a pre-programmed frequency using the Inmarsat global satellite constellation.

    BibTeX:
    @article{GeoEye2011,
      author = {GeoEye},
      title = {Vessel Monitoring System for Republic of Maldives},
      journal = {Hydro International},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www.hydro-international.com/news/id4427-Vessel_Monitoring_System_for_Republic_of_Maldives.html}
    }
    
    Germany & Sweden Use of AIS Binary Messages 2007 (NAV 53/INF.12)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: This document describes the technical limitations for the use of AIS binary messages and presents the results of a study of the existing usage of the AIS VFH Data Link. Further work to develop guidelines for the use of AIS Binary Messages is proposed

    1The AIS system has since its introduction proven to be quite useful for its main purposes although there are some technical limitations. The occurrence of inferior installations and incorrect/incomplete handling has also been frequently observed.
    2IMO has given guidance on the application of AIS binary messages in SN/Circ.236, developed by the Sub-Committee on Safety of Navigation at its forty-ninth session (30 June to 4 July 2003). SN/Circ.236 states that after a four year trial period 'all SOLAS ships and a large number of non-SOLAS vessels are expected to be equipped with AIS, allowing IMO to evaluate the benefit and practicability of AIS binary messages, as well as the loading of the AIS frequencies'. For vessels where SOLAS don't require AIS have the implementation been delayed because of delayed standards but is now starting.

    5The increasing number of shipborne AIS units and the establishment of shorebased AIS infrastructure have in some areas lead to a high utilization of the limited capacity of the AIS Data Link (VDL) and a further increase can be expected. Therefore, it is important that IMO gives guidance for the use of AIS binary messages so that the main functions of AIS will not be impaired.

    8The resulting effect is that there is a high probability of successful reception of an AIS message from ships close to own ship and that the probability decreases with increasing distance and load on the VDL. The throughput, the percentage of messages that are succefully received, will vary. Three throughput zones can be identified:
    .1 .2 .3
    the Aloha Zone, the Discrimination Zone, and the Protected Zone.

    10The Aloha Zone stretches from r to r/2. Any time stations within this zone attempts to reuse the same time slot, garbling will occur at R. With an increase in required capacity, the time slot reuse is increased. Since this results in garble, the net throughput is decreased proportionally.
    11The Discrimination Zone stretches from r/2 to r/3. Within this zone, transmissions, in reused time slots, may result in garble or discrimination. The net throughput is increased, at R, as a transmitting station moves from r/2 towards r/3. Stations within the Discrimination Zone are able to receive each other, and are thus STDMA organized. Slot reuse then only occurs in time slots used by stations in the Aloha Zone
    12The Protected Zone stretches from r/3 to 0 (zero). Within this zone, all stations are STDMA organized. Slot reuse will occur in slots used by stations in the Aloha Zone. Each time slot reuse occurs, it will result in discrimination, thus allowing closer stations to have 100% net throughput. The protected zone ensures good throughput between stations which are close to each other.

    The average load in the AIS system measured (2007-03-10) from the ferry Stena Germanica at the approach to Gothenburg was approximately 10 % with load peaks up to 40 %. The receptions from a few vessels which were studied in detail vary from 86% to 100%.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Germany2007,
      author = {Germany and Sweden},
      title = {Use of AIS Binary Messages},
      year = {2007},
      number = {NAV 53/INF.12},
      url = {http://rtcm.info/146-2007-GEN-DIST.pdf}
    }
    
    Goldman, B. AIS and Vessel Traffic Services 2006 AIS 06  conference URL 
    Abstract: Archive.org did not archive this presentation. This might be the one the same as in the URL.

    Port of London
    2004 upgrade. Sofrelog (Digital Charting and AIS)
    AIS Symbology and Presentation combined with radar
    Tracking Algorithm
    Examples of AIS non-compliance. Super long ship, heading offset, fixed x,y offset,
    Marchioness 1990 loss of life - number of persons on board ais message
    Windfarms

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Goldman2006,
      author = {B. Goldman},
      title = {AIS and Vessel Traffic Services},
      booktitle = {AIS 06},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://www.powershow.com/view/3485f-NjA1Z/AIS_and_Vessel_Traffic_Services}
    }
    
    Gomi, J. JAXA’s activities and International cooperation 2010 TEXAS IV  inproceedings URL 
    Abstract: Using SAR/Optical sensors, S-AIS, AIS, In-situ data
    Starting from satellite techonology demonstration
    of S-AIS and SAR [JAXA’s role]

    Marine Cadastre
    -Scientific data
    Bathymetry, Geology, Maritime meteorology, Ocean current,
    Surface wind, Biology, Marine resources
    -Social Information
    Harbor limit, Marine Protected Area, Fishing rights areas

    S-AIS and SAR images
    -S-AIS: AIS satellites are increasing. Global awareness would
    be possible by international cooperation.
    Data policy ?
    Balance of Governmernt use and Commercial one
    -SAR : Number of SAR satellites are limited.
    High resolution images are needed.
    Data policy : Depending on each ageny Earth obeservation
    data policy (ex. JAXA ALOS-2 data policy)

    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Gomi2010,
      author = {Jun Gomi},
      title = {JAXA’s activities  andInternational cooperation},
      booktitle = {TEXAS IV},
      publisher = {Nationa Maritime Domain Awareness Coordination Office (NMCO)},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/TEXAS/briefs/final%20JAXA%27s%20activities%20and%20international%20cooperation.ppt}
    }
    
    Gonin, I. AIS Communications 2007 eNavigation conference, pp. 31  article  
    Abstract: Improve safety of navigation through:
    Ship to ship Collision Avoidance capability
    Providing information about ships to littoral states
    As a VTS tool
    The focus of this presentation will be on the third point - AIS as a VTS tool.

    Primary means - voice over VHF
    Traffic advisory - other vessel locations
    Navigation hazards
    Hydro and meteorological info
    Traffic organization information - lock order, procession through one-way channel
    Status of aids to navigation

    AIS as a VTS Tool for Vessel Tracking
    Assists VTS in identification of radar targets and tracking of vessel in non-radar coverage
    Confirmation of identity and position of vessels

    Types of AIS transmit* messages available
    Telecommands
    Channel Management - Message 22
    Slot Management - Message 20
    Group Assignment Commands - Message 23
    Binary
    ATON Reports - Message 21
    Safety Messages - Messages 12 & 14
    Binary Messages - Messages 6, 8, 24, 25
    Transmit = broadcast and/or addressed

    Reduce workload on ship bridges
    less VHF
    important information available when needed for decision making
    Reduce VTS workload
    less VHF
    more automation

    So what's the Problem? Why aren't we using AIS Communications?
    What information should be transmitted?
    What standard format should be use?
    What schedule (i.e. queuing or prioritization) should be use?
    What reader and interpreter should be used to translate the message aboard ship for interpretation and presentation to the mariner?

    How are we going to get there?
    USCG AIS Transmit (Broadcast and Address) Capability Effort
    Perform a Requirements Study
    Establish and chair an AIS transmit working group
    Perform AIS transmit field testing

    Identify and Contact information providers, disseminators, users, and equipment manufacturers
    Focus (for now) on regular users within VTS areas and what information is available that would be beneficial to them
    Goal is to identify
    who has information that could be transmitted,
    that the users want,
    That would improve Safety and Efficiency in the VTS area,
    And that can be displayed on an ECDIS or ECS

    Data Providers
    NOAA, ACE, and USCG
    Data Disseminators
    VTS - NY, Louisville, San Francisco, Sault Ste Marie, & Houston - Marine Comms & Traffic Services (MCTS) Sarnia, and St. Lawrence Seaway Corp
    Data Users
    Overseas Shipping Group, Bouchard Towing, Moran Towing, Sandy Hook Pilots, Interports, NY DOT, Horizon Lines, Reohrig Maritime, Ingrahm Barge, American Commercial Lines, Houston Pilots, Florida Marine Transport
    Shipboard display manufacturers
    ICAN, Transas, Furuno, RosePoint, Cap'n

    Over 20 various data types were reviewed by each of the groups (providers, disseminators, users and manufactures)
    The following categories were developed to weigh the various types of data to help facilitate prioritization.
    User need
    VTS need (i.e. transmit desires)
    Suitability for AIS transmit
    Suitability for manufacturers to present to mariner

    Preliminary Prioritized List of eNav Information:
    Water levels
    Tides and currents
    Lock order
    Emergency Messages
    Aton outages/ changes
    Fog
    Security Zone locations/ information
    Dredging locations/ information
    Anchorage management

    RTCM SC121 Working Group "Expanded use of AIS within VTS" (First Meeting - Oct 1, 2007) TOR
    Review the current capability of AIS within VTS in US waters.
    Review the potential uses of AIS transmit (broadcast/addressed) messages as part of an expanded VTS in US waters. Identify both the challenges and opportunities.
    Recommend new/revised AIS transmit/broadcast messages suitable for regional and international implementation.
    Identify changes needed for AIS equipment to support new/expanded capabilities.

    Selection Criteria
    Port, VTS type, user group, location, data availability, etc.
    Design Criteria
    Software and Hardware Selection
    Installation and Integration
    Test
    concepts, draft standards, etc.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Gonin2007,
      author = {Irene Gonin},
      title = {AIS Communications},
      journal = {eNavigation conference},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {31}
    }
    
    Gonin, I., Johnson, G., Wiggins, M. & Shalaev, R. Alternatives Report for Transition of Prototype AIS Transmit Capability to VTS Operations 2010 (CG-D-02-10)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is an autonomous and continuous broadcast system that exchanges maritime safety/security information between participating vessels and shore stations. Three new binary type AIS messages have been developed for transmission from Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) ports to improve vessel traffic safety and reduce VHF voice communications. These new messages are Environmental, Area Notice, and Waterways Management messages. The equipment and software to transmit these messages were successfully tested in various locations. The next step is to transition the AIS transmit from a research effort into an operational system that is implemented at all VTS ports. The purpose of this report is to present various options for transitioning the enhanced AIS capability developed by the United States Coast Guard (USCG) Research and Development Center (RDC) from a proof-of-concept to an operational system. The report will first discuss the status of the ongoing research and address the attainment of the project's goals. A snapshot of the as-is state of all of the test beds and demonstration areas is presented as the starting point for the transition discussion. Since the plans for transitioning the VTS and non-VTS areas are different, they are treated separately in this report. Various transition options and the costs of each option are detailed for the implementation of the enhanced AIS capability at all 12 VTS ports. Separate plans are presented for moving responsibility for the demonstration projects to other government agencies.

    Several test beds were established to test the new proposed binary messages. The primary test bed for this effort was established in Tampa, FL. Secondary demonstrations were established in the Stellwagen Bank (as an early demonstration of the use of Area Notice Messages) and Columbia River (as a test bed for an area with multiple AIS base stations).

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Gonin2010,
      author = {Gonin, Irene and Johnson, Gregory and Wiggins, Mark and Shalaev, Ruslan},
      title = {Alternatives Report for Transition of Prototype AIS Transmit Capability to VTS Operations},
      year = {2010},
      number = {CG-D-02-10},
      url = {http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA529151}
    }
    
    Gonin, I., Tetreault, G.J.J.R.S. & Alexander, L. USCG Development, Test and Evaluation of AIS Binary Messages for Enhanced VTS Operations 2009 Proceedings of the 2009 International Technical Meeting of Institute of Navigation, pp. 961-969  inproceedings URL 
    Abstract: Automatic Identification System (AIS) is an autonomous and continuous communications system that exchanges maritime safety/security information between participating vessels and shore stations. In addition to providing a means for maritime administrations to effectively track the movement of vessels in coastal waters, AIS can also be a means to transmit information to ships inport or underway that contributes to safety-ofnavigation and protection of the environment. This paper discusses the development, test, and evaluation being carried out by the United States Coast Guard (USCG) to examine the use of AIS Binary Messages for Enhanced Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) Operations. The AIS provides the mariner with two very import autonomous capabilities: 1) a collision avoidance tool providing other ship information and location and 2) a navigation tool providing important safety and security information. This effort focuses on the latter capability. The main approach to developing an AIS transmit capability was to perform a Requirements Study to determine the needs of the key stakeholders involved with this effort:
    * information providers,
    * VTS operators,
    * mariners and
    * shipboard system display manufacturers. The effort also includes government and industry working closely together through the Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services (RTCM) to develop standards to transmit the binary messages. Finally, a test bed has been developed and implemented to provide the means to test and evaluate standards, operational requirements, and whether the system offers improvements to safety and efficiency of navigation within VTS areas.
    Review: AIS improves "ship-to-ship collision avoidance"
    VTS is a service implmented by a Competent Authority providing:
    monitoring, inform, and much less often advise/recommend and direct trafficAIS in VTS has been utilized by VTS to identify radar targets and for tracking of vessels in non-radar coverage areas
    Background functional requirements
    - ACOE'e Real Time Current and Velocity Program (RTCV)
    - Talked to the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG)
    What is a VTS AORs: Area Of Responsibility
    FIX: get "Liaison Note to eNav Committee: Binary Messages for use in VTS," IALA VTS26, VTS26-output-9, Sept 2007
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Gonin2009,
      author = {Irene Gonin and Gregory Johnson Johnson Ruslan Shalaevand Tetreault and Lee Alexander},
      title = {USCG Development, Test and Evaluation of AIS Binary Messages for Enhanced VTS Operations},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2009 International Technical Meeting of Institute of Navigation},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {961-969},
      url = {http://www.ion.org/search/view_abstract.cfm?jp=p&idno=8380}
    }
    
    Gonin, I.M. & Johnson, G.W. Report on AIS Transmit Project (Environmental Message), Phase 1 2009 (CG-D-07-09)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is an autonomous and continuous broadcast system that exchanges maritime safety/security information between participating vessels and shore stations. United States Coast Guard (USCG) Shore Forces Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) Division requested the USCG Research and Development Center’s (RDC) to identify and develop requirements for marine information that could be broadcast by USCG VTS Centers using the AIS binary message feature. A test bed, at the Cooperative VTS (CVTS) in Tampa, FL, has been established to test concepts, ideas, and draft standards.
    A requirements study was performed concluding that: data rather than voice was preferred; flexibility in type and frequency of information is very important; information needs to be based on area of operation; all users want information displayed in a way that is user-friendly, clear, uncluttered; mariners do not want to be overwhelmed with too much or useless information; and equipment manufacturers and users should decide how best to display information on existing shipboard systems.
    Phase 1 of the test bed began on September 12, 2008 with the Tampa Bay Pilots as the test user group using the new Environmental binary message. So far, feedback from the pilots has been predominantly positive and no negative impacts on the Very High Frequency (VHF) Data Link (VDL) loading have been experienced.
    The test bed has enabled RDC to develop and test new message formats for national and international adoption, better understand operational procedures for transmit of binary messages, and start to study the impact of these messages on the VDL. The experience gained (lessons learned) will help in the implementation of the operational system as part of the USCG Nationwide AIS Program. Phase 2 of this test bed consists of implementing Area Notices and Phase 3 consists of implementing Waterways Management Messages.
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Gonin2009a,
      author = {Gonin, Irene M and Johnson, Gregory W.},
      title = {Report on AIS Transmit Project (Environmental Message), Phase 1},
      year = {2009},
      number = {CG-D-07-09},
      url = {http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA504755&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf}
    }
    
    Grabowski, M. & Dhami, H. Early Adoption Technology Performance Impact: AIS on the St. Lawrence Seaway 2005 The Journal of Navigation
    Vol. 58(01), pp. 17-30 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: An Automatic Identification System (AIS) was implemented in the St. Lawrence Seaway during 2003. This paper reports the results of a trial conducted pre- and post-AIS implementation to examine the impact of AIS adoption in a safety-critical system. Analysis of the impact on three types of operators, ship&apos;s masters, mates and shore-based traffic management system operators showed that overall AIS significantly improved voyage plan monitoring, contributed to improved monitoring vigilance and offered significant aid to decision making. Recommendations include follow-on studies to include a steady state evaluation of the technology impact once the system is mature and a broadening of the pool of subjects to include a less experienced, more international and less well educated group of operators.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Grabowski2005,
      author = {Grabowski,Martha and Dhami,Hemil},
      title = {Early Adoption Technology Performance Impact: AIS on the St. Lawrence Seaway},
      journal = {The Journal of Navigation},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {58},
      number = {01},
      pages = {17-30},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0373463304003030},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0373463304003030}
    }
    
    Graham, B., Reilly, W.K., Beinecke, F., Boesch, D., Garcia, T., Murry, C.A. & Ulmer, F. Deep Water, The Gulf Oil Disaster and the Future of Offshore Drilling 2011 , pp. 398  book URL 
    Abstract: From the outset, the Commissioners have been determined to learn the essential lessons so expensively revealed in the tragic loss of life at the Deepwater Horizon and the severe damages that ensued. The Commission's aim has been to provide the President, policymakers, industry, and the American people a clear, accessible, accurate, and fair account of the largest oil spill in U.S history: the context for the well itself, how the explosion and spill happened, and how industry and government scrambled to respond to an unprecedented emergency. This was our first obligation: determine what happened, why it happened, and explain it to Americans everywhere.
    As a result of our investigation, we conclude:
    -The explosive loss of the Macondo well could have been prevented.
    -The immediate causes of the Macondo well blowout can be traced to a series of identifiable mistakes made by BP, Halliburton, and Transocean that reveal such systematic failures in risk management that they place in doubt the safety culture of the entire industry.
    -Deepwater energy exploration and production, particularly at the frontiers of experience, involve risks for which neither industry nor government has been adequately prepared, but for which they can and must be prepared in the future.
    -To assure human safety and environmental protection, regulatory oversight of leasing, energy exploration, and production require reforms even beyond those significant reforms already initiated since the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Fundamental reform will be needed in both the structure of those in charge of regulatory oversight and their internal decisionmaking process to ensure their political autonomy, technical expertise, and their full consideration of environmental protection concerns.
    -Because regulatory oversight alone will not be sufficient to ensure adequate safety, the oil and gas industry will need to take its own, unilateral steps to increase dramatically safety throughout the industry, including self-policing mechanisms that supplement governmental enforcement.
    -The technology, laws and regulations, and practices for containing, responding to, and cleaning up spills lag behind the real risks associated with deepwater drilling into large, high-pressure reservoirs of oil and gas located far offshore and thousands of feet below the ocean's surface.Government must close the existing gap and industry must support rather than resist that effort.
    -Scientific understanding of environmental conditions in sensitive environments in deep Gulf waters, along the region's coastal habitats, and in areas proposed for more drilling, such as the Arctic, is inadequate. The same is true of the human and natural impacts of oil spills.

    We reach these conclusions, and make necessary recommendations, in a constructive spirit: we aim to promote changes that will make American offshore energy exploration and production far safer, today and in the future.
    More broadly, the disaster in the Gulf undermined public faith in the energy industry, government regulators, and even our own capability as a nation to respond to crises. It is our hope that a thorough and rigorous accounting, along with focused suggestions for reform, can begin the process of restoring confidence. There is much at stake, not only for the people directly affected in the Gulf region, but for the American people at large. The tremendous resources that exist within our outer continental shelf belong to the nation as a whole.The federal government's authority over the shelf is accordingly plenary, based on its power as both the owner of the resources and in its regulatory capacity as sovereign to protect public health, safety, and welfare. To be allowed to drill on the outer continental shelf is a privilege to be earned, not a private right to be exercised.

    As the Board that investigated the loss of the Columbia space shuttle noted, "complex systems almost always fail in complex ways." Though it is tempting to single out one crucial misstep or point the finger at one bad actor as the cause of the Deepwater Horizon explosion, any such explanation provides a dangerously incomplete picture of what happened,encouraging the very kind of complacency that led to the accident in the first place. Consistent with the President's request, this report takes an expansive view.
    Why was a corporation drilling for oil in mile-deep water 49 miles off the Louisiana coast? To begin, Americans today consume vast amounts of petroleum products,some 18.7 million barrels per day,to fuel our economy. Unlike many other oil-producing countries, the United States relies on private industry,not a state-owned or -controlled enterprise,to supply oil, natural gas, and indeed all of our energy resources. This basic trait of our private-enterprise system has major implications for how the U.S. government oversees and regulates offshore drilling. It also has advantages in fostering a vigorous and competitive industry, which has led worldwide in advancing the technology of finding and extracting oil and gas.
    Even as land-based oil production extended as far as the northern Alaska frontier, the oil and gas industry began to move offshore. The industry first moved into shallow water and eventually into deepwater, where technological advances have opened up vast new reserves of oil and gas in remote areas,in recent decades, much deeper under the water's surface and farther offshore than ever before. The Deepwater Horizon was drilling the Macondo well under 5,000 feet of Gulf water, and then over 13,000 feet under the sea floor to the hydrocarbon reservoir below. It is a complex, even dazzling, enterprise. The remarkable advances that have propelled the move to deepwater drilling merit comparison with exploring outer space. The Commission is respectful and admiring of the industry's technological capability.

    BibTeX:
    @book{Graham2011,
      author = {Bob Graham and William K. Reilly and Frances Beinecke and Donald Boesch and Terry Garcia and Cherry A. Murry and Fran Ulmer},
      title = {Deep Water, The Gulf Oil Disaster and the Future of Offshore Drilling},
      publisher = {National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {398},
      url = {http://www.oilspillcommission.gov/sites/default/files/documents/DEEPWATER_ReporttothePresident_FINAL.pdf}
    }
    
    Greidanus, H. Maritime surveillance R&D - EU brief
    JRC ; SatAIS
    2009 TEXAS III, pp. 20  article URL 
    Abstract: Maritime surveillance issues in European policy

    Pollution (oil)
    Oil; Ships
    Maritime safety
    AIS
    Fisheries control
    Registered fishing; IUU fishing
    Illegal immigration
    European Border Surveillance System
    European Security & Defence Policy
    Piracy, EUNAVFOR Horn of Africa
    Drug smuggling
    -Maritime security

    Maritime surveillance R&D at JRC
    Surveillance concepts
    Satellites
    Use of UAVs
    Ship detection in satellite images (SAR)
    Data fusion

    Oil spill surveillance
    Container traffic monitoring by data mining
    Port security
    -
    Generation of detailed global vessel traffic density maps

    Identification of legal and illegal interference sources of the AIS signal
    Measure the performance of spaceborne sensors already in orbit or to be launched during the time span of the project versus other available vessel position data

    SatAIS sources of LuxSpace available within the upcoming two years
    Orbcomm Quick Launch AIS
    Pathfinder 2 AIS on PSLV (Launch in Sept 2009)
    LUXAIS (COLAIS) on ISS (Ops start early 2010)
    LuxSpace 2nd generation AIS payloads embarked on
    MAXVALIER (University of Bozen, Italy funded by OHB), launch 2010
    VENTA 1 (University of Latvia), launch 2010
    Further third party missions are currently under negotiation for launches in 2010/2011
    LuxSpace own three satellite constellation with specific emphasis on spoofing, jamming detection with launch in 2010/2011

    LuxSpace owned ground station for SatAIS receiver calibration operational

    http://www.pasta-mare.eu/

    (Satellite) AIS data policy
    In general:
    Data are collected based on specific regulations for specific purposes
    Maritime: fisheries, customs, maritime safety, -
    Exchanging and combining data would increase efficiency and effectiveness for both authorities and commercial parties
    Take care of mis-use, commercial sensitivity, privacy, -
    Where EU's integrated maritime policy wants to go

    For (Satellite) AIS:
    The international AIS obligation is based on IMO SOLAS, principally for maritime safety
    What constitutes legal / appropriate / acceptable use of (Sat)AIS data?

    Way ahead
    Further integration of maritime surveillance data
    Technical (R&D)
    Operational (pilot projects, legislation)
    Concepts of use for space-based assets (imaging, AIS, coms)
    Per application area - border surveillance, fisheries control, -
    Cost-benefit; public-private
    Futher development of sensors, platforms and data analysis
    Small boat detection over wide areas
    Automatic anomaly detection
    Additional sensors (ELINT, -)

    BibTeX:
    @article{Greidanus2009,
      author = {Harm Greidanus},
      title = {Maritime surveillance R&D - EU brief
    JRC ; SatAIS}, journal = {TEXAS III}, year = {2009}, pages = {20}, url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/twiki/pub/Main/TexasIII/Harm_Greidanus_presentation_TexasJrc04c.ppt} }
    Groothuis, S. Thoughts and Experiences 2006 AIS 06  conference URL 
    Abstract: AIS collision avoidance
    To place too much trust on only AIS information.
    Incorrect information creates possible wrong assumptions.

    AIS as communication tool
    AIS messages on passing arrangements might cause confusion with other vessels not included in these messages.
    AIS class B will overflow the displays with non relevant information.

    Virtual buoys
    Will not move out of position
    Are easy to place on short notice
    Can provide additional information

    To provide information on VTS reporting points
    Have vessels report their ETA and post these ETA's via AIS beacons.
    This reduces VHF communication
    Reduces miscommunication
    Information available for vessels not participating

    Using AIS heading line
    Use the AIS heading line as a virtual Leading Line
    Use AIS virtual buoy to confirm location of actual buoy in area with ice
    Provide current data via AIS signal

    4. ECS
    Corrections will be faster, easier and more accurate entered in all affected charts.
    Changing from paper to electronic will reduce the possibility of errors in correcting charts.
    Simple verification if all charts are accurately updated.
    Local NTM should be faster entered in the charts.
    Coast pilots integrated in charts

    4. ECS, concern
    Many areas in the world are not accurate enough to a recognized chart datum.
    In paper chart you can easy set-out a bearing and distance. Mark 'no go' areas and write other relevant information.
    Paper charts are larger then the screens on which an ECS is displayed. Particular for the planning stages.

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Groothuis2006,
      author = {Sander Groothuis},
      title = {Thoughts and Experiences},
      booktitle = {AIS 06},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20090219050922/http://rhppublishing.com/Presentations%20Day%202/Groothius%20Presentation.pps}
    }
    
    Group, I.A.B.M.C. Revision of the Guidance on the Application of AIS Binary Messages, Report from the AIS Binary Messages Correspondence Group, Annex 1, Guidance on the use of AIS Application Specific Messages 2009 IMO NAV 55 conference  article URL 
    Abstract: Automatic Identification System (AIS) was originally developed as a means for positive identification and tracking of vessels. This was accomplished by transmitting and receiving static, dynamic, and voyage-related data about ships, as well as short safety-related messages. In addition, AIS is beneficial to the safety-of-navigation and protection of the environment by monitoring the maritime traffic and by providing various basic services. In particular, AIS may use binary messages for transmission of Application Specific Messages as a means for certain types of limited communications. Various types of messages were developed for specific applications.
    BibTeX:
    @article{nav55,
      author = {IMO AIS Binary Message Correspondence Group},
      title = {Revision of the Guidance on the Application of AIS Binary Messages, Report from the AIS Binary Messages Correspondence Group, Annex 1, Guidance on the use of AIS Application Specific Messages},
      journal = {IMO NAV 55 conference},
      year = {2009},
      note = {Submitted by Sweden},
      url = {http://vislab-ccom.unh.edu/~schwehr/papers/2009-Nav55-CG-AIX-Report-Annex1.pdf}
    }
    
    Grubbs, D.J. Display issues raised by the expanded use of AIS and the E-Navigation initiative 2006 AIS 06  conference URL 
    Abstract: Virtual AtoN - Digital symbols represented on vector-based electronic charts indicating navigational hazards and AIS-equipped vessel movements

    Virtual AtoN Structural Components
    Accurate, comprehensive, up-to-date electronic navigation charts
    Accurate and reliable electronic positioning signals
    Information on a vessel's route, bearing, maneuvering parameters and other status items, in electronic format
    Transmission of positional and navigational information from ship-to-shore, shore-to-ship and ship-to-ship, using the AIS
    Clear, integrated displays of the above information on board ship and ashore, using electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS)
    Information prioritization and alert capability in risk situations on ship and ashore
    AtoN Chain of Responsibility
    Federal Government and International Maritime Organization (IMO) issue general mandate
    International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation & Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) and International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) codify and promulgate universal standards to meet general mandate
    US Army Corps of Engineers (COE) and National Oceanographic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) gather survey data and generate charts compliant with universal standards
    U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), COE and Local Mariners identify navigational hazards for marking
    USCG generates specifications for necessary AtoNs, awards and oversees manufacturing contracts, assembles, positions and maintains AtoNs

    Advantages of VAtoN
    Reduced cost
    Substantial reduction in number of physical AtoNs required
    Fewer man-hours to update and maintain
    Reduced energy requirements to operate and maintain
    Greater range than physical AtoNs
    Control over and ease of marker placement and adjustment
    Timeliness/immediacy
    More efficient and flexible shipping operations, especially in congested areas
    Enhanced safety with robust electronic safety nets including collision avoidance and anti-grounding systems
    Removes the need to deploy additional installations
    To account for the increased reaction times needed by faster and larger vessels
    To mark and re-mark new and shifting navigation channels.
    Ability to provide unique information for a particular vessel or class of vessel

    Hypothetical Use for Ice Breakers

    Example of Actual Implementation
    Port of New Orleans accommodations for Carnival Cruise
    To date, the ONLY actual use of Virtual Aids to Navigation

    Mini-IENC Background
    Carnival Cruise Line selected the Port of New Orleans as homeport for its super cruise ship, the Conquest.

    Crescent River Port Pilots recognized that low clearance power lines along transit route at Chalmette, LA, Lower Mississippi River, Mile 89.2 would present a serious problem and requested a safe navigation tool.

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans District tasked MD Atlantic Technologies with developing a vessel-specific version of the existing Inland Electronic Navigational Chart, called the Mini-IENC which would depict mariner-friendly safe and unsafe transit areas for the Conquest at varying river stages throughout the year.

    Disadvantages
    Potential degradation of traditional skills
    Vulnerable to intentional and unintentional interference such as terrorism, criminal acts and accidental electromagnetic jamming
    Vulnerabilities necessitate redundancy
    Requires that vessels be properly equipped and operators thoroughly trained
    Lack of training can lead to dangerously incorrect usage and/or over reliance
    Can magnify the effect of small errors

    Technology-Centered Approach vs. Human-Centered Approach to Automated Systems
    Technology- centered approach
    Often the result of inadequate training and poor human-factors design
    Seeks to replace mariner functions with machine functions
    Does not consider mariners' capabilities and limitations
    Effectively leaves mariner out of meaningful control or active participation in the operation of the ship
    Human-centered approach
    Recognizes mariner as the central element in the operation of the ship
    Emphasizes designs that fully utilize human capabilities and protect against human limitations, such as unreliable monitoring and bias in decision making
    (NTSB MARINE ACCIDENT REPORT, Notation 6598A, Adopted: April 2, 1997)

    Conclusion
    Modern shipping environment necessitates increasingly more accurate and responsive aids to navigation
    E-navigation, including virtual aids to navigation, as demonstrated by the Carnival Conquest in New Orleans is an effective and cost efficient tool for the facilitation of safe and economic inland waterway transit
    Like any new set of tools, e-navigation is only as useful as the knowledge, experience and training of the people using it

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Grubbs2006,
      author = {Douglas J. Grubbs},
      title = {Display issues raised by the expanded use of AIS and the E-Navigation initiative},
      booktitle = {AIS 06},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20090219050516/http://rhppublishing.com/Presentations%20Day%201/Grubbs%20Presentation.ppt}
    }
    
    Grundevik, P. WP0 Baltic Sea Safety - BaSSy summary 2009   techreport URL 
    Abstract: The Baltic Sea area has been identified as a high potential risk zone due to the increased maritime transport of oil and due to its sensitive ecosystem. With this background SSPA Sweden, VTT, Technical University of Denmark, MSI Design, Gatehouse and Chalmers have carried through the Baltic Sea Safety (BaSSy) project during 31 2 years starting in 2006.
    Within BaSSy a toolbox has been designed, that allows maritime authorities to evaluate the present risk level in a consistent manner and to evaluate the risk reducing effect of risk mitigating initiatives under consideration. IALA has, free of charge, made the collision and grounding frequency modules of the BaSSy toolbox available for all its members. IALA will host a server for gathering all collision and grounding frequency analysis performed by its members using the BaSSy toolbox. VTT also host a BaSSy web database including guidelines for risk assessment, links for downloading of the toolbox, documents and user results collection within the Baltic Sea. The use of this will be two-fold: partly it will provide world wide based estimates of the collision and grounding frequencies, and partly it will allow for assessing the risk reducing benefits of different means of aids to navigation. Maritime Administrations, Coast guards, Rescue Services and IMO may use the tool as a risk reducing instrument regarding collisions and groundings in sensitive areas.
    The BaSSy project also focused on -Developing a harmonised Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) framework to
    estimate consequences of ship collisions and groundings -Studying radar and electronic chart dispalys with respect to human
    machine interaction aspects, standardised presentation and risk reducing
    abilities -Man Technology Organisation profiling of a Vessel Traffic Service (VTS)
    centre -Designing a VTS Decision support concept for collision avoidance -Accomplish a case study in the Sea of Aland including different safety
    measures and a comparison of cost analysis methods in the Bornholm Gat -Designing a prototype BaSSy web database -Collision and grounding frequency analysis using the BaSSy tool and AIS
    data for southern part of the Swedish east coast and for Gulf of Finland
    The project partners in Sweden, Finland and Denmark have used their complementary competences to achieve the results of the BaSSy project. The co- operation has resulted in transfer of competences between partners and that new knowledge has been made possible. A very good climate of easy co-operation has existed among the partners.

    The present BaSSy / IWRAP program code includes Google Earth maps and manual input of AIS or other ship traffic data. Land contours, depth contours and aids to navigation can be inserted manually. It includes route layouts, waypoints, traffic distribution, a collision model and a grounding model. Commercially an automated input of the required data will probably be provided by Gatehouse.
    Today AIS and radar gives a close to real-time picture of the traffic situation in a VTS centre. Some accidents could possibly be avoided by the VTS if the traffic situations were scanned and evaluated in short time intervals. With this aim a decision support concept for collision avoidance has been developed. The scope has been to investigate the feasibility, needs and requirements for computer assisted decision support to VTS operators. Answering two questions have been of high importance: -What rules/criteria's are required to be able to sort out critical situation from normal situations -What time spans are required to form a usable tool and what time frames are present in real accidents
    Another way of describing the work within this task is that a dynamic risk evaluation tool is conceptually developed. Several steps have been included in the study. They are: 19 SSPA REPORT NO: AUTHOR: -Interview with VTS operators to formulate and clarify needs and demands for a decision-making support tool -Identification and analysis of typical accident scenarios, by studying accident and incident reports including near-misses -AIS data was identified as an important source of information. To be able to use the data, the quality and limits of AIS data was investigated -A C++ code has been written to convert the AIS raw data to ASCII data -MATLAB codes were developed to analyse the data -A test case has been chosen to analyse typical distances to fairway limitations, critical objects, buoys, islands and passing ships -Finally a proposed dynamical warning system is defined based on AIS data for a fairway. The decision-making tools for the VTS operators have been separated into three separate scenarios or modes; o Grounding o Collision o Identification of drifting vessels

    Experienced VTS operators have been interviewed in order to identify critical circumstances. To identify operational conditions the VTS in G teborg was visited several times and the personnel interviewed. The problems around a decision support warning system have been discussed and an actual grounding case discussed in more detail. Some conclusions are:
    -In dense traffic situations it is impossible to manually detect all un-normal situations
    -Knowledge of the ships intended routes will provide means for early detection of un-normal conditions
    -The challenge is to design algorithms that only gives alarm for critical situations
    -The tool must be "intelligent" in order release the VTS operator from manually entering lots of data to the system
    -In many cases the time between detection of un-normal condition to accident is short (too short for VTS to alert ship)

    160 different real cases of groundings/ contacts, collisions and near- collisions have been analysed. To gain further insight into realistic time spans which can be used for a warning system, accident and incident reports have been studied. It has been found out that on the average there is little time to warn vessels prior to collisions, due to the low CPA and TCPA which are accepted by seafarers. For grounding accidents there is usually more time, which can be used to warn the crew of the vessel in danger. In narrow waterways like harbour entrances or channels the time spans are much shorter.
    Since this decision support system rely on the use of AIS data, knowledge of the quality of this data is very important. In the analysis some interesting results have been obtained. Common errors are wrong Heading and Time & date of arrival not set. Other errors are Draught not set and Antenna position unknown. Another problem is wrong MMSI number. A comment was that some old GPS receivers used in the AIS systems give incorrect position information. The conclusion is that:

    AIS draught information cannot be used as an indicator for grounding accidents Position data have to be used carefully in the algorithms Heading has also to be used carefully. Better to use COG

    Message 17 in the AIS protocol is proposed to be used for transmitting ship waypoints and / or route plan report. If this would be realized the support system have possibilities to give even earlier warnings for the VTS operator (both grounding and collision).

    To start with the work comprised a traffic analysis, which is essential in the FSA-process. A tool for analysing the AIS information has been developed. With the tool, the ship tracks can be presented divided into different ship types. In addition with the tool, the traffic flow directions, changes in speeds and courses of each ship can be indicated. The AIS record available for the traffic analyses was not fully extensive so the analysis was complemented with the traffic statistics collected from the ports having traffic out from the Gulf of Bothnia.

    A verification of the BaSSy tool regarding collision frequency results has also been completed. Expected collision frequencies in Sea of Aland estimated with the BaSSy tool were compared to accident statistics, near miss statistics and expert judgements. Only collisions between "AIS-vessels" were covered. The calculations were using the traffic situation for 2006. The accident data was collected for the period 1985 - 2007

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Grundevik2009,
      author = {Peter Grundevik},
      title = {WP0 Baltic Sea Safety - BaSSy summary},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://www.surship.eu/sites/www.surship.eu/resources/project/BaSSy/public_report/Baltic%20Sea%20Safety-%20BaSSy%20Summary.pdf}
    }
    
    Gucma, M. Combination of processing methods for various simulation data sets 2007 Trans, pp. 5  article URL 
    Abstract: Computer based simulations can be used for assessment of traffic lane perimeters, and an actual level of risk at given area and given conditions. Navigational risk is defined as the product of probability of failure occurrence and the consequences it can cause. Additionally, the definition of risk was supplemented by relative frequency of performing the maneuver in given conditions and in given time t. In article method of simulation data possessing for maneuvers of approaching and entering to port, on base of specific vessels, is presented. Autonomous and non autonomous simulation methods are used for obtaining data sets, are supported in presented software solution, as well as restrictions in its implementation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gucma2007,
      author = {Maciej Gucma},
      title = {Combination of processing methods for various simulation data sets},
      journal = {Trans},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {5},
      url = {http://transnav.am.gdynia.pl/transnav2007/proceedings/pdfs/65.pdf}
    }
    
    Gupta, K.M., Aha, D.W., Hartley, R. & Moore, P.G. Adaptive Maritime Video Surveillance 2009 SPIE-09 Visual Analytics for Homeland Defense and Security
    Vol. 7346, pp. 12 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Maritime assets such as ports, harbors, and vessels are vulnerable to a variety of near-shore threats such as small-boat attacks. Currently, such vulnerabilities are addressed predominantly by watchstanders and manual video surveillance, which is manpower intensive. Automatic maritime video surveillance techniques are being introduced to reduce manpower costs, but they have limited functionality and performance. For example, they only detect simple events such as perimeter breaches and cannot predict emerging threats. They also generate too many false alerts and cannot explain their reasoning. To overcome these limitations, we are developing the Maritime Activity Analysis Workbench (MAAW), which will be a mixed- initiative real-time maritime video surveillance tool that uses an integrated supervised machine learning approach to label independent and coordinated maritime activities. It uses the same information to predict anomalous behavior and explain its reasoning; this is an important capability for watchstander training and for collecting performance feedback. In this paper, we describe MAAW’s functional architecture, which includes the following pipeline of components: (1) a video acquisition and preprocessing component that detects and tracks vessels in video images, (2) a vessel categorization and activity labeling component that uses standard and relational supervised machine learning methods to label maritime activities, and (3) an ontology-guided vessel and maritime activity annotator to enable subject matter experts (e.g., watchstanders) to provide feedback and supervision to the system. We report our findings from a preliminary system evaluation on river traffic video.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gupta2009a,
      author = {Kalyan Moy Gupta and David W. Aha and Ralph Hartley and Philip G. Moore},
      title = {Adaptive Maritime Video Surveillance},
      journal = {SPIE-09 Visual Analytics for Homeland Defense and Security},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {7346},
      pages = {12},
      url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=60C6E48068746659CE7745A55479F62D?doi=10.1.1.180.8283&rep=rep1&type=pdf}
    }
    
    Gupta, O.P. Maritime Monitoring and Safety Services with Iridium 2009 TEXAS III, pp. 18  article URL 
    Abstract: LRIT Long Range Identification & Tracking
    Iridium, through its service partners, offers a range of cost-effective, robust LRIT solutions to meet IMO carriage requirements.
    Iridium is the only MSS Provider covering Sea Area A4

    Truly global real time coverage, including
    Sea Area A4.
    - BlueTraker LRIT
    - Thorium LRIT
    - Faria Watchdog 750

    Iridium Application as GMDSS Service Provider being prepared
    Technical review and project planning in progress Ongoing discussions with sponsoring government Expect to submit application to IMO at MSC87 (May 2010)
    Iridium already has Proven success in Aviation safety
    ICAO granted Iridium international approval to offer satellite air traffic safety services in 2008

    Arctic: New NAVAREAS/METAREAS XVII to XXI require reliable MSI broadcasts beyond current NAVTEX and SafetyNet coverage

    Global Data Broadcast Capabilities are currently being investigated by Iridium using our proven Short Burst Data (SBD) Service
    - These capabilities would include all GMDSS requirements
    - Scheduled and unscheduled broadcasts
    - Global (All Ships), 21 NAV/METAREAS, Coastal Warning areas and Circular, Rectangular and User-defined Areas (SAR ops)
    - MSI message particulars (type, priority, number)
    - Main specifications (provisional)
    - Capacity 8.3 Mbytes per day
    - Data rates from 770 bps (global) to 9,200 bps (local)
    - Low latency (< 30 seconds from receipt to delivery)
    - Recorded voice?
    - Availability (tentative) - H1 2011

    Canadian Coast Guard: LRIT Arctic Trials
    - 3 different LRIT terminals (Inmarsat-C, SkyWave D+ and Iridium) installed on 3 CGG icebreakers patrolling Canada's Arctic waters
    - Tests and performance monitoring of all 3 systems well underway, will continue throughout the 2009 Arctic season
    - Results will be reported by Canada to the IMO
    - VAM Partner: EMA, BlueTraker LRIT terminal
    - VAR Partner: Pole Star, Canada's LRIT ASP

    BibTeX:
    @article{Gupta2009,
      author = {Om P Gupta},
      title = {Maritime Monitoring and Safety Services with Iridium},
      journal = {TEXAS III},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {18},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/twiki/pub/Main/TexasIII/Om_Gupta_presentation_TEXAS_Aug_19_Om_Gupta.pdf}
    }
    
    Guth, K.J. United States Coast Guard, Record of Decision, Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), Nationwide Automatic Identification System (NAIS) Project 2006 ROD  standard URL 
    BibTeX:
    @standard{Guth2006,
      author = {Kurtis J. Guth},
      title = {United States Coast Guard, Record of Decision, Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), Nationwide Automatic Identification System (NAIS) Project},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://www.uscg.mil/acquisition/nais/documents/ROD_Final.pdf}
    }
    
    Haering, N., Rasheed, Z., Hassan-shafique, K., Hakeem, A., Javed, O., Cao, X.C., Liu, H., Yu, L., Madden, D.G., Chosak, A.J., Taylor, G., Gupta, H. & Lipton, A.J. Automatic camera calibration and geo-registration using objects that provide positional information 2011 (7949150)  patent URL 
    Abstract: A video sequence of a field of view within an environment is received. Targets are detected in the video sequence. Target geo-positional information is received. Correspondences between the targets detected in the video sequence and the target geo-positional information are determined and used to calibrate the camera and to geo-register a field of view of the camera.

    global positioning system (GPS) transmitter, automatic identification system (AIS) transmitter, blue force tracker (BFT) transmitter, cell phone, radio frequency identification (RFID) tag.

    8. The non-transitory computer-readable medium as set forth in claim 1, wherein the method further comprises: estimating at least one intrinsic parameter or at least one extrinsic parameter of a video camera that generated the video sequence based on the determined correspondences.

    Review: I hate patents and patent examiners for being so stupid.

    This patent at least references... Collins et al., “A System for Video Surveillance and Monitoring: VSAM Final Report,” Technical Report CMU-RI-TR-00-12, Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, May 2000.

    BibTeX:
    @patent{Haering2011,
      author = {Haering, Niels and
    Rasheed, Zeeshan and
    Hassan-shafique, Khurram and
    Hakeem, Asaad and
    Javed, Omar and
    Cao, Xiao Chun and
    Liu, Haiying and
    Yu, Li and
    Madden, Donald G. and
    Chosak, Andrew J. and
    Taylor, Geoffrey and
    Gupta, Himaanshu and Lipton, Alan J}, title = {Automatic camera calibration and geo-registration using objects that provide positional information}, year = {2011}, number = {7949150}, url = {http://www.freepatentsonline.com/7949150.html} }
    Hakkinen, H. Pointing and Tracking Aid for the Modular Radar System using the Automatic Identification System 2011 School: KEMI-TORNIO UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES TECHNOLOGY  mastersthesis URL 
    Abstract: The purpose of this thesis was to develop a Pointing and Tracking Aid software engineering project for the Danish Defence Acquisition and Logistics Organization. The project was to implement a utility that is to be used for placing the measurement area of the Modular Radar System more accurately. The radar system is used to perform scientific and other diagnostic measurements for the Applied Research department of the organization.
    The application uses a system known as the Automatic Identification System to identify and locate nearby ships and other naval targets. The aim is to communicate with the AIS via its own proprietary binary protocol in order for the application to receive information regarding ships. The software is also intended to be used in conjunction with the radar's control unit which was developed by the Danish Defence.
    The application was developed in accordance with modern software engineering practices by first performing a throughout system analysis followed by a software architecture modelling phase and finally ending into an implementation and testing phase. UML was used as the modelling language of the software system, C++ programming language as the implementation language and Qt as the application framework.
    The application was successfully developed and taken into use by the Danish Defence team of scientists. Communication with both the AIS system and the existing radar control unit was implemented successfully and verified to function properly. Some error was detected in the computed vessel distances from the AIS and the magnitude of the error was proportional to the distance itself. This suggests that the algorithm used for computing the ship distances or one of the parameters used contain inaccuracies. Further work is needed to resolve the issue.

    Previous work was done by Nicholas Howard in his Pointing and Tracking Aid for the Modular Radar System (MRS) Using a Commercially Available Automatic Identification System (AIS) Bachelor's thesis upon which this thesis is in partly based on. In his Bachelor project Nicholas Howard chose a Java-based implementation that was able to succesfully communicate with the Automatic Identification System using a serial port connection. His solution was elegant but fundamentally incomplete – the communication with the Modular Radar System was left completely unfinished due to lack of time and unresolved technical issues.

    Cites: http://gpsd.berlios.de/AIVDM.html

    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Hakkinen2011,
      author = {Hakkinen, Henri},
      title = {Pointing and Tracking Aid for the Modular Radar System using the Automatic Identification System},
      school = {KEMI-TORNIO UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES TECHNOLOGY},
      year = {2011},
      url = {https://publications.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/29947/Hakkinen_Henri.pdf}
    }
    
    Hannikainen, H. & Dimitris, L. JSON AIS transmission protocol 2008 Web unofficial request for comment draft standard  misc URL 
    Abstract: This is a work-in-progress specification for passing parsed AIS data in human- and computer-readable JSON format. If you have ideas for this specification, please email Heikki Hannikainen, OH7LZB (hessu at hes dot iki dot fi).

    This protocol is useful for transmitting AIS data between AIS receiver sites and live AIS database services, and also for transmitting AIS data between AIS database services which choose to trust each other and exchange data.

    This specification was initially implemented by Lekkas Dimitris of marinetraffic.com, and documented by Heikki Hannikainen of aprs.fi. Additional feedback has been received from Tapio Sokura, OH2KKU.

    This document defines three levels of JSON messages.

    First, after decoding the AIS packets they are encoded into AIS packet messages. They contain data from the AIS message itself.

    Then, when a set of AIS packet messages are transmitted between two trusted servers, they are grouped in packet group messages per transmission path. The packet group message contains the path the packets have traveled so far, and an array of AIS packet messages. This is done to reduce network traffic - we will have a lot of packets having the same transmission path ('Receivingsite1', 'aprs.fi', 'marinetraffic.com'), so it is not necessary to transmit the path separately with each AIS packet message.

    The packet group messages are then, optionally, enclosed in a transport message. The transport message contains identifiers for detecting that the received message is a valid JSON AIS message, and might at a later phase contain a protocol version number, if the protocol needs to be extended in a non-compatible way. The transport message can be used when packet group messages are transmitted over HTTP pushing/polling, but might not be necessary when a stream of packet group messages are transmitted over a persistent TCP connection, since the relevant handshaking information can be exchanged once when the connection is opened.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Hannikainen2008,
      author = {Heikki Hannikainen and Lekkas Dimitris},
      title = {JSON AIS transmission protocol},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://wiki.ham.fi/index.php?title=JSON_AIS.en&oldid=8456}
    }
    
    Harati-Mokhtari, A., Brooks, P., Wall, A. & Wang, J. AIS Contribution in Navigation Operation- Using AIS User Satisfaction Model 2007 Trans Nav  article URL 
    Abstract: AIS was introduced in 2002 and its phased implementation programme completed in 2004. Problems still exist in its reliable use for navigational operation. Our paper is part of a wider evaluation of AIS. This paper considers the users view of AIS and we have attempted to measure the extent of navigators' satisfaction with AIS in their navigation activities by using an AIS User Satisfaction Model.
    This paper evaluates the validity of the AIS User Satisfaction Model using questionnaire data as a suitable structure for measuring the degree of navigators' satisfaction and usage of AIS, and probably applies for other similar technologies. This, in turn, could help to determine the measures that need to be adopted in order to improve quality and use of AIS as an effective navigation and anti-collision tool.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Harati2007b,
      author = {Abbas Harati-Mokhtari and Philip Brooks and Alan Wall and Jin Wang},
      title = {AIS Contribution in Navigation Operation- Using AIS User Satisfaction Model},
      journal = {Trans Nav},
      year = {2007},
      url = {http://transnav.am.gdynia.pl/transnav2007/proceedings/pdfs/125.pdf}
    }
    
    Harati-Mokhtari, A., Wall, A., Brooks, P. & Wang, J. Automatic Identification System (AIS): A Human Factors Approach 2007 The Nautical Institute AIS Forum, pp. 11  article URL 
    Abstract: Majority (80 to 85%) of all recorded maritime accidents are generally attributed to human error or associated with human error. Contribution of human error to maritime accidents has increased over a ten-year period 1991 to 2001 (Baker and Seah, 2004). Most of the accidents are the result of senseless and avoidable human errors. The concern about human factors is growing as human error is significantly implicated in so many marine accidents. Pomeroy and Tomlinson (2000) stated that many of the failures are actually the result of errors (i.e. latent failures) that have been designed and constructed into highly complex systems especially system integration and interfacing. The scale of damage suffered, taken together with the implication of human error as a major cause for the accidents, has made human factors study an important area of concern globally.
    Many individuals and organisations are involved in marine navigation risk management framework. The main focus is to enhance safety of mariner's performance through motivation, education and training, system design, and procedures and rules. Figure 1 is a systematic risk management framework adapted from Rasmussen (1997, 2000).
    The behaviours associated with the navigation process are at the lowest level and the international organisations responsible for setting laws, at the highest level. The way in which decisions of top levels influence activities of lower levels, and the feedback from lower levels to top levels, will be very important determinants of safety in marine navigation. In addition, some external dynamic forces will put pressures on the system and change the structure of the system over time (Rasmussen, 1997, 2000).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Harati-Mokhtari2008,
      author = {Abbas Harati-Mokhtari and Alan Wall and Philip Brooks and Jin Wang},
      title = {Automatic Identification System (AIS): A Human Factors Approach},
      journal = {The Nautical Institute AIS Forum},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {11},
      url = {http://www.nautinst.org/ais/PDF/AIS_Human_Factors.pdf}
    }
    
    Harati-Mokhtaria, A., Walla, A., Brooksa, P. & Wang, J. Automatic Identification System (AIS): Data Reliability and Human Error Implications 2007 Journal of Navigation
    Vol. 60(3), pp. 373-389 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Harati2007,
      author = {Harati-Mokhtaria, A. and Walla, A and Brooksa, P. and Wang, J.},
      title = {Automatic Identification System (AIS): Data Reliability and Human Error Implications},
      journal = {Journal of Navigation},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {60},
      number = {3},
      pages = {373-389},
      url = {http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=1296472&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0373463307004298},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0373463307004298}
    }
    
    Harrison, M. Using a Pilot Laptop with the AIS pilot plug - observed errors and difficulties 2008 Web  misc URL 
    Abstract: http://www.nautinst.org/ais/reportedProbs.htm

    Feedback from a serving Pilot who is using a Pilot Laptop connected to the AIS Pilot Plug. Showing the potential errors which may be experienced and illustrating the need for caution when using AIS and GNSS data.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Harrison,
      author = {Mike Harrison},
      title = {Using a Pilot Laptop with the AIS pilot plug - observed errors and difficulties},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://www.nautinst.org/ais/PDF/pilotLaptopAISplug.pdf}
    }
    
    Hassler, B. Global regimes, regional adaptation; environmental safety in Baltic Sea oil transportation 2010 Maritime Policy & Management: The flagship journal of international shipping and port research
    Vol. 37(5), pp. 489-503 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Despite significant efforts to improve environmental safety in marine oil transportation, the risk of a major accident with devastating oil spills has most likely increased. Building on the regime analytical approach where it is assumed that international collaboration may benefit participating countries, it is argued that bilateral and sub-regional initiatives may increase maritime safety significantly, compared to exclusive reliance on universal conventions. A distinction is made between on the one hand investments in safety-increasing infrastructure and local capacity building and on the other, vessel design, on-board installations and crew qualifications. It is suggested that bilateral and sub-regional initiatives are more likely to be taken on the former kind of objects, targeting issues, such as modernization of port facilities, monitoring support, assistance in emergency capacity building and designation of ports of refuge, because the interaction between the involved countries are comparably stable in the cases. Actual efforts to improve safety seem to follow the logic of separation between these two types of safety-increasing measures. It is concluded that similar drivers of bilateral and sub-regional initiatives targeting specific aspects of marine safety and contributing to overall collective benefits from improved environmental protection probably exist also in other regions than the Baltic Sea.

    6.1.1. Automatic monitoring: HELCOM Automated Identification System. The Swedish Maritime Administration during an extended time period has argued for an increased use of so-called Automated Identification System (AIS). This system makes it possible to observe individual ships' movements, speed, direction and identity in real time, from individual vessels as well as from land-based network stations. In 2001, IMO adopted Resolution A.917(22), requiring all larger ships to have an AIS installed [24]. Until recently, land-based AIS networks have exclusively been under national control, serving national authorities. However, an initiative to coordinate national networks in the Baltic Sea region was taken by HELCOM as a more or less direct consequence of Baltic Carrier accident in 2001 that lead to an Extraordinary Ministerial Meeting in Copenhagen. The Swedish Maritime Administration (International Unit) [25] has undertaken a number of projects together with other Baltic Sea countries in order to facilitate the construction of a joint network. A decision to develop a joint monitoring system was taken, and on 1 July 2005, the HELCOM AIS was launched. A dedicated -HELCOM AIS server' connects national AIS stations in the respective Baltic Sea countries, making it possible to monitor movements of all larger ships in the Baltic Sea, thereby reducing risks for collisions and other incidents. HELCOM AIS moreover gives ample opportunities to systematize historical data. All information is moreover recorded, making it possible to reconstruct processes that have led to incidents.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Hassler2010,
      author = {Hassler, Bjorn},
      title = {Global regimes, regional adaptation; environmental safety in Baltic Sea oil transportation},
      journal = {Maritime Policy & Management: The flagship journal of international shipping and port research},
      publisher = {Routledge},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {37},
      number = {5},
      pages = {489--503},
      url = {http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/03088839.2010.503715}
    }
    
    Hassler, B. r. Accidental Versus Operational Oil Spills from Shipping in the Baltic Sea: Risk Governance and Management Strategies 2011 AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment
    Vol. 40, pp. 170-178 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors' incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions.

    The so-called HELCOM AIS (Automatic Identification System) is a land- born system covering vessels' movements in the complete Baltic Sea in real time that was made operational in July 2005. This system makes it possible not only to monitor vessels' movements, but also to reconstruct events that subsequently led to incidents or accidents. Initiatives at unilateral and national levels have moreover been taken to, for example, collaborate on updating of hydrographical surveys in order to make navigation safer, increase the use of pilotage and to adopt a regional perspective when des- ignating ports of refuge. In terms of remedial action preparation, several initiatives have been taken to pool sub-

    However, bringing intentionally polluters to court has proven difficult. Technical improvements (e.g., HELCOM AIS) and regional/sub-regional collaboration on aerial surveillance have improved monitoring, but inadequate economic incentives, varying national judicial systems and the international principle of the --Free high seas'',have resulted in meager governance improvements when it comes to enforcement. Therefore, smart governance com- ponents such as the No-Special-Fee system have been invented to realign private and collective interests.

    Finally, despite technical improvements such as HEL- COM AIS, STW (SeaTrack Web oil drift forecasting sys- tem), and satellite monitoring, the identity of the polluter is only established in a miniscule fraction of the detected illegal spills. In 2009, this fraction equaled 4.5% (HEL- COM 2009).

    Looking at concrete measures to improve marine envi- ronmental safety related to accidental oil spill the prime governance axis is formed between global regulation and national implementation, whereas the regional components are comparably few (Table 1). The latter consist of the HELCOM AIS system, a regionally adapted land-based system allowing real-time monitoring of all large vessels, sub-regional pooling of oil spill combating gear and regional Port state control regimes (MoUs). It could be argued that the HELCOM AIS became operational largely due to a limited number of dedicated countries (Hassler 2010). Therefore, it has distinct backgrounds in national interests, despite being a regional mechanism. Similarly, the pooling of oil spill combating gear is mainly a result of individual countries' perceived vulnerability.

    BibTeX:
    @article{springerlink:10.1007/s13280-010-0128-y,
      author = {Hassler, Bj rn},
      title = {Accidental Versus Operational Oil Spills from Shipping in the Baltic Sea: Risk Governance and Management Strategies},
      journal = {AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment},
      publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {40},
      pages = {170-178},
      note = {10.1007/s13280-010-0128-y},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13280-010-0128-y}
    }
    
    HASTINGS, S. Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Update 2010 SUMMARY OF THE MINUTES FROM WORKSHOP PRESENTATIONS  misc  
    Abstract: The Sanctuary Advisory Council (SAC) set up a sub-committee to address the ship strike issue. Whales are afforded additional protections under the National Marine Sanctuary Act. An annual prevention and emergency response plan was drafted. The Santa Barbara Channel is a choke point for shipping traffic. Ship strikes are likely occurring in or near the Channel. A data set of whale sightings in the Santa Barbara Channel exists. The rerouting of ships outside of the Channel and the new western approach proposed by the PARS has complicated things and poses two questions: what are the ships doing? and, what is the presence/absence of whales on the back side of the islands? Of the other Sanctuaries on the west coast, the CINMS is the lead in terms of ship strikes as a Sanctuary issue. Research should focus on a better understanding of spatial and temporal distribution of whales in and around the shipping channel and a better understanding of oceanographic conditions and prey/krill distribution/densities. Other research on ship tracking is occurring as are aerial surveys and volunteer observation data from whale watching boats. Although shipping information is available through the Automated Identification System (AIS), gaps in coverage exist around the region. Megan McKenna will be training staff to better understand AIS data and access to AIS. The Bren School students, from the University of California, Santa Barbara, are going to analyze the feasibility of various management alternatives recommended by the SAC. They, too, will participate in McKenna's AIS training.

    Paper distributed:
    Abramson, L. et al. 2009. Reducing the threat of ship strikes on large cetaceans in the
    Santa Barbara Channel Region and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary: Recommendations and Case Studies.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{HASTINGS2010,
      author = {SEAN HASTINGS},
      title = {Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Update},
      year = {2010}
    }
    
    Hatch, L., Clark, C., Merrick, R., Van Parijs, S., Ponirakis, D., Schwehr, K., Thompson, M. & Wiley, D. Characterizing the Relative Contributions of Large Vessels to Total Ocean Noise Fields: A Case Study Using the Gerry E. Studds Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary 2008 Environmental Management  article URL 
    Abstract: In 2006, we used the U.S. Coast Guard’s Automatic Identification System (AIS) to describe patterns of large commercial ship traffic within a U.S. National Marine Sanctuary located off the coast of Massachusetts. We found that 541 large commercial vessels transited the greater sanctuary 3413 times during the year. Cargo ships, tankers, and tug/tows constituted 78% of the vessels and 82% of the total transits. Cargo ships, tankers, and cruise ships predominantly used the designated Boston Traffic Separation Scheme, while tug/tow traffic was concentrated in the western and northern portions of the sanctuary. We combined AIS data with low-frequency acoustic data from an array of nine autonomous recording units analyzed for 2 months in 2006. Analysis of received sound levels (10–1000 Hz, root-mean-square pressure re 1 lPa Ī SE) averaged 119.5 Ī 0.3 dB at high-traffic locations. High- traffic locations experienced double the acoustic power of less trafficked locations for the majority of the time period analyzed. Average source level estimates (71–141 Hz, root- mean-square pressure re 1 lPa Ī SE) for individual vessels ranged from 158 Ī 2 dB (research vessel) to 186 Ī 2 dB (oil tanker). Tankers were estimated to contribute 2 times more acoustic power to the region than cargo ships, and more than 100 times more than research vessels. Our results indicate that noise produced by large commercial vessels was at levels and within frequencies that warrant concern among managers regarding the ability of endangered whales to maintain acoustic contact within greater sanctuary waters.
    BibTeX:
    @article{hatch2008a,
      author = {Hatch, L. and Clark, C. and Merrick, R. and Van Parijs, S. and Ponirakis, D. and Schwehr, K. and Thompson, M. and Wiley, D.},
      title = {Characterizing the Relative Contributions of Large Vessels to Total Ocean Noise Fields: A Case Study Using the Gerry E. Studds Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary},
      journal = {Environmental Management},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://vislab-ccom.unh.edu/~schwehr/papers/hatch2008-vessel-noise.pdf}
    }
    
    Hempsted, C. Competency in ECDIS navigation 2010 eNavigation conference, pp. 26  article URL 
    Abstract: Navigation (generally):
    Transit from Point A to Point B safely
    Includes at-sea passage & route planning
    Depart point, present moment, destination
    In-port with pilot aboard
    Familiar vessel & power plant
    Familiar navigation system

    Consider these necessities of skillful use of ECDIS/ECS:
    Increasingly carried on vessels under pilotage
    Certification of all watch officers
    Ship's usage may impact pilot's decision making
    Expanding legal & regulatory expectations (trained crew, no-sail fault, etc.)

    Most of all, the skillful use of ECDIS/ECS:
    Depends on hours of no-consequence practice under pilotage conditions
    Can include the "2-second glance" while preserving micro visual perception

    Requires the non-distracting awareness of ambiguities in displayed information

    In conclusion
    In piloting with ECDIS, there really is no middle ground:
    You are either safe,
    or unsafe,
    or lucky for a while.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Hempsted2010,
      author = {Christian Hempsted},
      title = {Competency in ECDIS navigation},
      journal = {eNavigation conference},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {26},
      url = {http://enavigation.org/images/presentations/Hempstead_eNav2010.ppt}
    }
    
    Hersey, J. Spectrum Update Policy Update 2010 TEXAS IV  inproceedings URL 
    Abstract: AIS Channel Management
    The Mid-Atlantic AIS Message 22 incident
    Spectrum
    AIS Search & Rescue Transmitter Trials
    Standards
    Regulations
    The AIS VHF Data Link
    AIS Work of the USCG R&D Center

    AIS MSG 22 (only on switched channel)
    DSC channel 70
    Class A full time
    Class B part time
    Manual (Class A only)
    Automatically reset
    After travelling 500 nm
    After 5 weeks
    Rebooting does not reset

    Why is channel mgt necessary?
    Interference
    Unintentional
    AIS channels are shared with other users
    VHF Data Link management
    Explosive growth of AIS will affect detection (particularly satellite, shore stations, aircraft)
    Class B, SRT,MDA etc vulnerable to VDL loading
    e.g. Gulf of Mexico
    Special AIS applications
    e.g. encrypted position reporting and messaging

    Beginning July 27 we inadvertently “tested” AIS channel mgt on-air
    Base station installed with channel mgt testing parameters left configured
    Delaware Pilots notified us
    22 ships known affected
    Safety Alert and NTMs
    Rescue 21 DSC used to reset channels

    AIS 2 allocated nationwide in 2004, waivers expired in 2007
    AIS 1 allocated nationwide in 2006
    7 incumbent coastal licensees remain until expired (Pre-auction incumbent sites (State of Arizona & Whidbey Tel in Wyoming)
    Includes mobiles
    Most are 50w
    Remain until 2024
    VPC 10-42 incumbents remain until March 2011

    ITU WRC12 initiatives
    Establish AIS 3 & 4 as channels 75 & 76, exclusively maritime, shared with existing low power use (old distress guardband)
    Establish AIS 1 & 2 exclusive to AIS
    Protect SAR aircraft use of AIS
    Protect airborne/spaceborne AIS from newly allocated VHF radar (WRC Agenda 1.14)
    WRC12 meets 23 Jan – 17 Feb 2012

    ITU-R Rec M.1371- 4 mandating MSG 27 on unspecified AIS 3 & 4 adopted April 19 2010

    MSG #27 Channels AIS 3 & 4
    Will be required in Class A
    Now required in ITU-R Rec M.1371-4
    Will be required in IEC 61993-2 Ed.2 Certification Standard (published late summer 2011)
    NOT required in Class B
    NOT required in AIS Search & Rescue Transmitter
    Should it be?
    Can it be?

    Dedicated national channel for encrypted AIS?
    If channel management becomes necessary, to what channel do you switch?

    Software Radio Technology plc Bath, England

    AIS Search & Rescue Trials
    January 2009 Key West
    Detection by C130 and boat
    AIS Search & Rescue Transmitter
    Radar Search & Rescue Transponder
    406 EPIRB
    121.5 MHz beacon on 406 EPIRB
    February 2010 Hawaii
    Detection by satellite, C130 and boat
    AIS Search & Rescue Transmitter
    AIS EPIRB
    Radar Search & Rescue Transponder
    406 EPIRB
    121.5 MHz beacon on 406 EPIRB
    One (or two?) more trials planned using AIS 3 & 4

    Purpose
    To test/demonstrate system performance using MSG#27 and using AIS 3 & 4
    To ascertain no unintentional interference (e.g to distress channel 16)
    To test satellite detection effectiveness on AIS 1 & 2 in VHF data link environment more congested than Hawaii
    To assess need for applying AIS 3 & 4 on AIS SART, AIS EPIRB & Class B
    Next trial 27-28 Oct10 San Juan MSG #27 test
    Second trial date and specifics To Be Determined

    AIS Certification Standards
    IEC 61993-2 Class A published
    Edition 2 in Committee Draft for Voting – 7 Jan 11
    Basis is the approved Rec. ITU-R M.1371-4
    IEC 62287-1 Class B published
    Edition 2 in Final Draft International Std – 29 Oct 10
    IEC 61097-14 SART published
    IEC 62287-2 Class B SOTDMA
    In development
    IEC 62320-2 AIS AtoN base station published
    IEC 62320-1 AIS base station published

    IALA Recommendation A-124 on the AIS Service
    Runtime configuration management of the VDL
    Annex 14 – FATDMA planning and operation
    Annex 15 – Assigned mode operation
    Annex 16 – DGNSS broadcast via the AIS Service
    Annex 17 – Channel management
    Annex 18 – VDL loading management

    SC 121 – AIS and Standards for AIS Binary Messages
    Responsible for national Application Identifiers

    AIS VHF Data Link
    How should the AIS VDL environment be measured?
    Using what tools?
    How much degradation is deemed acceptable?
    SOTDMA considers “corrupted” slots free slots
    At what point should the AIS VDL be managed?
    AIS AtoNs? Repeaters? Encrypted AIS? Binaries?
    When AIS is used for distress?
    Who are most vulnerable to congestion?
    How should the AIS VDL be managed?

    AIS Work of the USCG R&D Center

    WHAT IS SPAIS: Alaska Secure Passive AIS

    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Hersey2010,
      author = {Joe Hersey},
      title = {Spectrum UpdatePolicy Update},
      booktitle = {TEXAS IV},
      publisher = {Nationa Maritime Domain Awareness Coordination Office (NMCO)},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/TEXAS/briefs/TEXAS-IV-Spectrumand%20Policy%20%20Joe%20Hersey.pptx}
    }
    
    Hofseth, K., Heisey, S. & Males, R. DEVELOPMENT OF COMMODITY-DRIVEN VESSEL MOVEMENTS FOR ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF PORT IMPROVEMENTS 2006 (IWR Report 06-NETS-P-02)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: Coastal ports operate through the interactions of shippers, carriers, dock owners, operators, pilots and the various governmental agencies responsible for maintaining and operating channels for safe and efficient movements. Monte Carlo simulation models of vessel movements in ports can be useful in determining the value of improvements such as channel widening or dredging. Such models require, among other things, input that describes the random arrival of vessels at the port. A method of generating synthetic fleet forecasts for Monte Carlo simulation models, consistent with historical and expected future fleets and commodity forecasts has been developed as part of a suite of navigation planning tools developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps). The suite includes: the HarborSym Monte Carlo simulation model; the HSAM visualization/animation tool; a database structure for storing historical and synthetic vessel calls at a port; a set of statistical analysis tools that operate on data describing historic vessel port calls; and a commodity-driven forecast tool and synthetic fleet generator. The elements of the tool suite are described, with emphasis on the VCDB and the commodity-driven forecast tool. The tool suite development is a component of a major Corps research and development initiative on Navigation Economics Technologies (NETS) that is developing state-of- the-art research and tools for analysis of inland waterways and deep draft navigation.
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Hofseth2006,
      author = {Keith Hofseth and Shana Heisey and Richard Males},
      title = {DEVELOPMENT OF COMMODITY-DRIVEN VESSEL MOVEMENTS FOR ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF PORT IMPROVEMENTS},
      year = {2006},
      number = {IWR Report 06-NETS-P-02},
      url = {http://www.corpsnets.us/docs/harborsym/06-nets-p-02.pdf}
    }
    
    Houy, D. AISMon 2005 closed freeware software  electronic URL 
    Abstract: This group is a discussion forum for AISMon, a high-performance freeware AIS demodulator/decoder which outputs AIS data in NMEA format. Input may be from any installed sound card (radio discriminator output required) or 44.1/48K .wav file. Output may be used to drive charting applications such as SeaClear or ShipPlotter.

    Installation files and sample .wav file are in Files area.

    To run AISMon and a charting application on the same PC without using 2 COM ports and crossover cable, use virtual COM port driver in links section.

    For best results, adjust audio input to midrange on the level meter by using Windows "Record Control" volume control (SndVol32 /R).

    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Houy2005,
      author = {David Houy},
      title = {AISMon},
      year = {2005},
      url = {http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aismon/}
    }
    
    Hoye, G., Eriksen, T., Meland, B. & Narheim, B. Space-based AIS for global maritime traffic monitoring 2008 Acta Astronautica
    Vol. 62(2-3), pp. 240-245 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The universal shipborne automatic identification system (AIS) is a recently introduced system for traffic monitoring and safety at sea. In this paper we investigate the possibility of extending the system to space for global maritime surveillance, and give suggestions for how the system can be optimized for long-range identification and tracking (LRIT).
    BibTeX:
    @article{hoye2008,
      author = {Hoye, G.K. and Eriksen, T. and Meland, B.J. and Narheim, B.T.},
      title = {Space-based AIS for global maritime traffic monitoring},
      journal = {Acta Astronautica},
      publisher = {Elsevier},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {62},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {240--245},
      url = {http://202.114.89.60/resource/pdf/1226.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2007.07.001}
    }
    
    Hughes, B. Fleet Management With AIS, Washington State Ferries 2006 AIS 06  conference URL 
    Abstract: One of WSF's recent Directors of Operations said 'Without data I cannot do anything for you or the fleet, however with information I can change this place for the better.

    One of my professors also said, 'Give me information and I can debate both sides of an issue.

    Information is Power

    Click AIS is an incredible tool for navigation, yet, from a managers point of view AIS Observations are simply an impression of what we thought we saw.

    Click But when AIS information saved and replayed there is a huge amount of data that can be utilized for various applications.
    Early on, WSF management had used a transponder technology similar to AIS to track our fleet.

    Click
    An opportunity arose to display this information on our vessels,

    And upon completion of the test we surveyed our Deck Officers.

    Click

    They were in complete support of a visual display of vessel positions on a chart.

    Click

    And in 2002 when the first rumors of AIS started to circulate, our fleet was eager to receive this new technology.

    Ween we first discussed to use AIS data to help manage our fleet,

    we came upon the same problem navigators did,

    how do we graphically display the data.

    For WSF the decision was that ECDIS and Radar had tools that our managers did not need, so the choice was an Electronic Chart.
    click
    After a search and bid for product and a company that was willing to design specific applications, we partnered with Electronic Charts Company of Seattle.
    click
    We then put up an antenna at our office connected it to a Simrad AIS 200 and the Charting system and we had a Base Station. We were then able to start viewing AIS information from our office.

    Ween we first discussed to use AIS data to help manage our fleet,

    we came upon the same problem navigators did,

    how do we graphically display the data.

    For WSF the decision was that ECDIS and Radar had tools that our managers did not need, so the choice was an Electronic Chart.
    click
    After a search and bid for product and a company that was willing to design specific applications, we partnered with Electronic Charts Company of Seattle.
    click
    We then put up an antenna at our office connected it to a Simrad AIS 200 and the Charting system and we had a Base Station. We were then able to start viewing AIS information from our office.

    Our base station had limits as vessel were often obscured by steep hills and bluffs. We knew one antenna location would not provide adequate coverage.

    With terminals and routes separated by over 90 miles WSF would need remote antenna locations.
    click
    The computer ports on the back of the AIS units seemed logical for ECDIS and ECS connectivity, but a secondary look revealed more options.

    The Internet has made remote AIS antenna stations a reality, and Fortunately we were able to construct a Local Area Network (LAN) using the AIS ports at remote sites.

    WSF is now gathering data from Mt. Gardiner, Gold Mountain, and our main office.
    click
    For those looking to do the same, Antenna placement can be at an improvised site, at an existing facility, or mounted to your office building. A single antenna, or a network of antennas can be a reality, as long as an internet connection is available.
    click
    We expected to see 30 to 40 miles, however we are regularly receiving reports half way up Vancouver Island and down to Tillamook Oregon.

    What we see here is not a true representation of the traffic, this is just for a 15 minute period of vessels whose names start with A B or C.

    Once we started to gather information, points of reference to had to be established to measure a vessel's or the fleet's effectiveness.

    For the Ferry system our docks are ideal points of reference.

    After the reference points were established a method to register and analyze the information has to be created. Click This required a software developer and WSF was, again, aided by Electronic Charts Company, who created event areas.

    The targets change shape when they enter an event area and maintain a specific speed, in our case the this is a 0 speed within 100 feet of a ferry dock or facility.

    Here our Fleet Status page shows different colors and shapes; the green AIS shape represents vessels that are underway and orange circles are vessels at dock.

    Event areas can be assigned to any terminal or even areas of open water, wherever a vessel logging a point would be beneficial. Event areas are similar to arrival alarms set up for a GPS waypoint.

    Once event points are established, a data base can be constructed with consideration for those who would use the data.

    Visions-beyond the bridge

    Arrival Timing
    Transit Coordination
    Vessel Maneuvering
    Scheduling
    Incident Investigation
    Fuel Conservation

    Terminal managers
    Vessel Arrivals-Queuing
    Facility Streamlining
    Transit links
    Traffic Queuing & Direction
    Deliveries
    Emergency Response

    Transit Coordination
    Maneuvering Information
    Scheduling & Development

    There are three major aspects that are being analyzed by WSF in regards to scheduling.

    The first aspect is on-time performance. WSF considers anything within 4 minutes of the printed sailing time as on time.

    Last Monday was one of our successful days

    WSF strives to provide consistency in sailings,

    however traffic patterns may drastically vary between week days and weekends.
    AIS can help in research, maneuvering , and events.

    I wish to emphasize the importance of the accurate entry of vessel dimensions.

    As operators we should not rely upon enforcement by the USCG. These tools are made to help explain what is happening.

    You will see in the following graphics some vessels appearing only as AIS symbols, meaning the vessel dimension data was not entered.

    AIS can help in the research of an event.

    Click

    Recently, a vessel was thought to be involved with parting mooring lines on a vessel.

    The assertion was they were traveling a an excessive speed.

    A replay, however, showed another vessels traveling at higher speeds just minutes before.

    Whether speed or proximity caused the incident, AIS allows the replay of data to try and determine what may have happened.

    Several years ago we used a technology similar to AIS to find an uncharted rock, that was clipped by one of our vessels.

    We were able to replay the sailing and determine the exact track of the vessel, and the rock was easily found.

    We subsequently created a safety zone of exclusion in the area.

    AIS will allow the same capability.

    AIS is even beginning to work its way up in to the corporate levels of WSF.

    Our Terminal Engineering department is interested in the AIS replays of vessel approach patterns for the design of docking facilities.

    The approach speeds also indicate the levels of impact that the materials must withstand under normal and less than ideal landing conditions.

    As a quick note, charts can easily be edited to display actual facility arrangements.

    These AIS based graphics are part of our trip analyzer.

    The one to the left show the vessel position that corresponds with the speed graph, on the upper right, and the and acceleration and deceleration graph, lower right.

    These graphics can highlight areas of potential fuel savings and emissions reduction.

    Click

    This area is where we do a two step slow down, essentially half and slow ahead,

    yet most of the advance is is from mass in motion,

    we may be able to do the reduction in one step with little or no change in time,

    and save on our fuel consumption.

    The acceleration and deceleration graphs can indicate areas of opportunity for fuel savings

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Hughes2006,
      author = {Bill Hughes},
      title = {Fleet Management With AIS, Washington State Ferries},
      booktitle = {AIS 06},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20090219050529/http://rhppublishing.com/Presentations%20Day%201/Hughes%20Presentation.ppt}
    }
    
    Humphrey, S. Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco 2007 eNavigation conference, pp. 1  article  
    Abstract: CA VAN>US RCH 1
    CN PDG>US OAK 22 2
    >US OAK SCK 4 3
    >US JMC SS BL321 4
    IMO Navigation Circular SN/Circ.224 5
    BibTeX:
    @article{Humphrey2007,
      author = {Scott Humphrey},
      title = {Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco},
      journal = {eNavigation conference},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {1}
    }
    
    Hurley, M. & Nichols, R. Ground Node 2010   techreport URL 
    Abstract: Shipboard AIS and Radar Contact Reporting (SARCR)

    Rapid & Robust Deployment to Enable Localized Situational Awareness in Coastal Areas:
    Although designed for coastal use, the Ground Node system can be rapidly deployed anywhere with high availability. Typically the Ground Node will be deployed to areas with high maritime traffic. High automation and remote control are derived requirements to meet this goal.
    Support Identifying Vessels Passing through Chokepoint Waterways: The combination of electronic and optical capabilities enables visual verification of inferences drawn from received signals. The multi-INT sensor suite, combined with close proximity, provides high quality data for local use as well as for national Maritime Domain Awareness databases.
    Interoperability and Operationally Contributive: As common to all Nodes developed under the Space INP's Steady Lookout, the Ground Node is capable of collaborative operation with multiple Nodes possessing complementary capabilities, consistent with FORCEnet operations. This includes ground-to-ship and ground-to-air collaboration for geolocation and future data fusion applications. The Ground Node proved effective during previous experiments with platforms in the air and afloat. In addition to the specific contributions presented later in this paper, the Ground Node has also provided data to the Navy/Coast Guard vessel tracking program, AISLive.com, and is capable of operating with National sources. The Ground Node is a sub-task in a broader Space INP, "Steady Lookout" Task. The complete Steady Lookout is a multi-platform prototype working together to advance FORCEnet operations by bringing to bear the best characteristics of each platform to address Naval needs such as Communications-on-the-Move and Maritime Domain Awareness.

    RELATED PROJECTS
    Projects closely related to the Ground Node include the Vessel Tracking Program (VTP) Modular Sensor System, Project Spotlight, and Shipboard AIS and Radar Contact Reporting system.
    6
    As part of "Spotlight" for OSD, NRL deployed to Puerto Rico an aerostat-borne radar and AIS receiver, which have been operating there since November 2006. The Figure below depicts the operating area.

    That system continues to distribute live AIS data from Puerto Rico to NRL's Chesapeake Bay Detachment (CBD), near Chesapeake Beach, MD, which forwards the data to National AIS databases. The radar data from the Aerostat is also still being collected, fused, and distributed to Caribbean Air Maritime Operations Center, Puerto Rico, and the US Coast Guard Sector San Juan. NRL has provided to the site manager at Lajas, PR site documentation to enable Air Force personnel to maintain the system. The Figure below shows the AIS unit that NRL installed on the aerostat. The aerostat is part of the Air Force Combat Command's Counter Narcotics fleet under the AFCC's Tethered Aerostat Radar Systems (TARS) Program. This Spotlight project leveraged and tested several Ground Node components and software elements.

    Separately, capabilities of the Ground Node System have been accepted into the Shipboard AIS and Radar Contact Reporting (SARCR) System, which is funded by DHS to support efforts by JIATF-S to detect "Dark Targets" (non-radiating targets) and support counter piracy efforts. Another project objective is to collect commercial radar. DHS expects to build and install 15 units onto commercial ships and report data via Iridium. The Figure below depicts SARCR data as the host vessel exited the Mediterranean Sea through the Straits of Gibraltar in August 09.

    NRL has a patent pending for the Searchlight geolocation method.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Hurley2010,
      author = {Michael Hurley and Randolph Nichols},
      title = {Ground Node},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA531987}
    }
    
    IALA AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
    FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
    web  misc URL 
    Abstract: WHAT IS AIS 3
    WHAT DOES AIS DO?
    WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASS A AND CLASS B AIS EQUIPMENT? 4
    ONBOARD INSTALLATION 4
    NEEDED?
    IS THERE ANY TRAINING ON THE USE OF AIS AVAILABLE? 5
    HOW DOES THE MASTER KNOW THAT HIS AIS UNIT IS WORKING PROPERLY? 4 IS THERE ANY CALIBRA TION OF THE AIS EQUIPMENT NEEDED?
    IS THERE ANY SET UP (INITIAL/REGULAR/FREQUENT) OF THE AIS EQUIPMENT OPERATING YOUR AIS
    ANOTHER AIS UNIT IS ACCURATE?
    CAN I SEND A LETTER TO MY AGENT VIA AIS?
    WHY DO AIS MESSAGES NOT INCLUDE THE RUDDER ANGLE?
    HOW IS AIS INFORMA TION DISPLA YED?
    CAN I CONNECT MY GNSS TO THE AIS?
    CAN I CONNECT MY GYRO COMP ASS TO THE AIS?
    WHAT IS THE ACCURACY OF NA VIGA TIONAL INFORMA TION PROVIDED? 8 17HOW WILL AIS CONTRIBUTE TO THE PREVENTION OF COLLISIONS? 8 18IS AIS INFORMA TION STORED SOMEWHERE? 8 19IS THERE A LIMIT ON THE LENGTH OF AIS MESSAGES? 8 20SHOULD AIS DATA BE INTEGRATED ON THE SAME DISPLAY AS INFORMATION FROM OTHER SENSORS IN A VTS? 9 21WHA T METHODS ARE A V AILABLE TO PREVENT INAPPROPRIA TE USE OF AIS? 9
    REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS 9
    22WHO SHOULD HA VE AIS FITTED 9 23WHEN IS A VESSEL PERMITTED TO SAIL WITHOUT OPERA TIONAL AIS EQUIPMENT?
    10 24UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES CAN THE AIS UNIT BE SWITCHED OFF? 10 25ARE NA V AL SHIPS REQUIRED TO FIT AIS? 10 26ARE AIS MESSAGES LIMITED TO SAFETY INFORMA TION? 10 27WILL AIS MESSAGING GROW TO INCLUDE COMMERCIAL USAGE? 10 28IS AIS MANDATORY FOR INLAND WATERWAYS? 11
    INTEGRITY/SECURITY OF AIS DATA 11
    WILL AIS REPLACE RADAR? 5 HOW DOES AIS SUPPLEMENT RADAR INFORMA TION? 5 WHAT ARE THE MAIN LIMITATIONS OF AIS? 6
    HOW DOES THE MASTER KNOW THAT THE INFORMATION RECEIVED FROM
    Page 1 of 13
    29IS IT POSSIBLE TO TRANSMIT FRAUDULENT MESSAGES? 11
    OTHER USES OF AIS 11

    FOR WHAT PURPOSES CAN THE STORED OR RECORDED DATA BE USED?

    The data can be used for a variety of purposes, such as:
    legal evidence and accident investigation
    sharing of data between VTS' and with national administrations
    gathering information on the presence and pattern of traffic
    planning of aids to navigation
    fleet management
    risk analysis
    generating statistics.

    CAN I GET DGNSS CORRECTIONS OVER THE AIS LINK?
    HOW IS METEOROLOGICAL/HYDROLOGICAL INFORMA TION DISPLAYED?
    REFERENCE LIST 11

    BibTeX:
    @misc{IALA,
      author = {IALA},
      title = {AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
    FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS}, note = {Accessed Mar 2011}, url = {http://site.ialathree.org/pages/AIS/aisfaqs.pdf} }
    IALA The Automatic Identification (AIS) Volume 1, Part I Operational Issues 2004 (1028)  standard URL 
    Abstract: The IALA AIS Guidelines provide a "one-stop" information source for both operational and technical aspects of AIS, and cover an increasingly wide range of ship and shore-based applications. Such guidance also aims to serve as inspiration and motivation to make full use of AIS, achieving efficiency and effectiveness, supporting maritime productivity, safety and environmental protection. This guidance keeps ship-to-ship safety as its primary objective.
    The purpose of Volume 1 Part 1 is operational guidance, written from the users' point of view. The range of users extends from competent authorities to Officers of the Watch (OOW), pilots, VTS Operators, managers and students.
    The purpose of Volume 1 Part 2 is technical guidance and description, including ship- borne and shore-based devices e.g., Vessel Traffic Services (VTS), Ship Reporting Systems (SRS) and Aids to Navigation (AtoN). This part does not intend to compete with technical manuals needed for system design, installation or maintenance.
    BibTeX:
    @standard{iala2004,
      author = {IALA},
      title = {The Automatic Identification (AIS) Volume 1, Part I Operational Issues},
      year = {2004},
      number = {1028},
      url = {http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pdf/AIS/IALA_AIS_Guidelines_Vol1_Pt1%20OPS%20(1.3).pdf}
    }
    
    IALA IALA GUIDELINES ON THE UNIVERSAL AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS), Volume 1, Part II - Technical Issues 2002 (1, Part II)  standard URL 
    Abstract: Wide range of technical details on AIS for ship, SAR planes, ATONs, basestations, repeaters, and shore data networks.

    Class A Shipborne Mobile Station (Class A) must be 100% compliant with the IMO per- formance standard and the IEC 61993-2 standard.

    BibTeX:
    @standard{iala2002,
      author = {IALA},
      title = {IALA GUIDELINES ON THE UNIVERSAL AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS), Volume 1, Part II - Technical Issues},
      year = {2002},
      number = {1, Part II},
      url = {http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pdf/AIS/IALA_AIS_Guidelines_Vol1_Pt2.%20TECH%20(1.1).pdf}
    }
    
    ICAN Inc. Developing an Automatic Identification System (AIS) - based Program to Monitor Vessels in Waters off the U.S. Eastern Seaboard: Executive Summary 2008 (Requisition NFFK0000-7-14972)  techreport  
    Abstract: NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the federal entity with responsibility for recovering most endangered marine species, has established, or is considering, a number of measures to reduce the threat of ship strikes to right whales. Among them is the establishment of recommended shipping routes in certain areas, vessel speed advisories, and the consideration of mandatory vessel speed restrictions in certain times and locations. NFMS seeks to monitor, through remote sensing, vessel adherence to these measures.
    NOAA-NMFS provided a contract to ICAN to assess the feasibility of developing a unified network of Automatic Identification System (AIS) receivers to monitor, process, analyze, display, and report on vessel activities along the U.S. Eastern Seaboard.
    A summary of ICAN's assessment is as follows. The United States Coast Guard (USCG) has an extensive network of AIS receivers along the U.S. Eastern Seaboard providing complete coverage with the exception of the eastern portion of the Great South Channel speed restriction zone and northern Maine. USCG has agreed to provide NOAA with this data feed. There are a number of options for augmenting this AIS coverage in the upcoming years.
    NOAA's functional requirements for an AIS Vessel Monitoring System are found in Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) hardware and software products. This keeps the overall system costs down and mitigates risk as the technology is already proven.
    Budgetary pricing for system implementation, including all hardware, software, installation, training and maintenance for one year is 135,800.
    This is a low-risk project to implement as USCG is responsible for maintaining the AIS network and the hardware and software components are all COTS products.
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{ICAN2008,
      author = {ICAN Inc.},
      title = {Developing an Automatic Identification System (AIS) - based Program to Monitor Vessels in Waters off the U.S. Eastern Seaboard: Executive Summary},
      year = {2008},
      number = {Requisition NFFK0000-7-14972}
    }
    
    ICAN Inc. Developing an Automatic Identification System (AIS) - based Program to Monitor Vessels in Waters off the U.S. Eastern Seaboard: Phase I - AIS Coverage Analysis 2008 (Requisition NFFK0000-7-14972)  techreport  
    Abstract: The goal for the project "Developing an Automatic Identification System (AIS) - based Program to Monitor Vessels in Waters off the U.S. Eastern Seaboard" is to assess the feasibility of, and develop an implementation plan for, establishing an AIS-based procedure for monitoring vessels in waters along the eastern coastal U.S., and provide to a remote location real-time and summary records of vessel speeds and tracks. NOAA intends to monitor vessel compliance with ship strike reduction measures and wishes to do so through remote sensing, specifically AIS and related technologies.
    NOAA provided a contract to ICAN to develop a blueprint for the implementation of an AIS-based vessel monitoring system. To develop the blueprint, the project was divided into the following phases:
    - Phase I - AIS Coverage Analysis
    - Phase II - System Design
    - Phase III - Blueprint
    This report presents a summary of Phase I - AIS Coverage Analysis and includes a summary of sources, coverage analysis, issues, options and recommendations.

    3.Summary of Sources
    A significant amount of time was dedicated to researching and reviewing potential sources of AIS data that could provide adequate coverage of the U.S. Eastern Seaboard. To have a complete understanding of data availability and coverage is critical to providing a system design and blueprint for developing a vessel monitoring solution that meets NOAA's requirements.
    Sources that were evaluated included U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), AIS Live ( a commercial entity that has over 1000 AIS receivers installed worldwide), NOAA offices with existing AIS receiver networks, Maritime Information Service of North America (MISNA) through the Marine Exchange of Alaska and Maritime Global Net. It should be noted that MISNA was not responsive to our requests for access to their data feeds.

    Organizations and contacts that ICAN communicated with were as follows:
    USCG - Alice Dunn, Lt. Rickerson
    NOAA - Mark Mueller
    AIS Live - Ron Crean
    MISNA - Bill Benning, Brett Farell
    Maritime Global Net - Moses Calouro
    Upon receiving access to the USCG data, it became obvious that this data feed provided the most complete coverage of the U.S. Eastern Seaboard. ICAN compared the USCG and AIS Live feeds for a period of 30 days. AIS Live is considered to have the most comprehensive AIS coverage in the world. The AIS Live feed provided data on approximately 5600 vessels worldwide. The USCG feed provided data from 4200 vessels in U.S. waters alone. ICAN believes that the logged data reflects virtually all transmitting vessels within VHF range based on our understanding of commercial and government fleet markets in the U.S. The average daily volume of data acquired through this feed was approximately five (5) Gigabytes.

    To perform an effective analysis of the USCG data feed, ICAN worked closely with the USCG data center. ICAN believed it necessary to analyze each receiver site's coverage area to determine where overlaps occurred (indicating excellent coverage) and where gaps in coverage or little overlap existed. AIS receivers do nothing more than receive the VHF data transmissions and output the messages to the network device. As such, the receivers do not append AIS receiver unit identifiers to the AIS messages. USCG developed a methodology for associating meta data with each one of their AIS receivers so that they knew the origin of each AIS message. ICAN's developers worked with USCG to understand this meta data and then developed software to parse this data for display in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Screen captures showing the coverage patterns are included in the Section 3 - Coverage Analysis

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{ICAN2008a,
      author = {ICAN Inc.},
      title = {Developing an Automatic Identification System (AIS) - based Program to Monitor Vessels in Waters off the U.S. Eastern Seaboard: Phase I - AIS Coverage Analysis},
      year = {2008},
      number = {Requisition NFFK0000-7-14972}
    }
    
    ICAN Inc. Developing an Automatic Identification System (AIS) - based Program to Monitor Vessels in Waters off the U.S. Eastern Seaboard: Phase II - System Design 2008 (Requisition NFFK0000-7-14972)  techreport  
    Abstract: The AIS Data Processing & Management is performed by the AIS Server application. A network connection (TCP/IP) is established by the AIS Server to the USCG AIS Data Source. The AIS Server assembles the data from the source(s), filters (if necessary) and serves it to the vessel monitoring, display (including web viewers) and data logging applications. The AIS Server is the core application in the NAVMS, so it should be redundantly configured. Clustering is a recommended method for achieving redundancy. Simply defined, a cluster is a group of computers working together to run a common set of applications and to present a single logical system to the client and application. The computers in the cluster are physically connected by local-area network (LAN) or wide-area network (WAN) and programmatically connected by cluster software. These connections allow workloads to fail over to another computer in the cluster in the case of network failure of scheduled maintenance, for example. For the NAVMS, redundancy can be established by having two AIS Servers, each one connected to the USCG AIS Data Source and each server transmitting failover messages to the other. Clustering is fully supported by Microsoft Windows Server software. It is recommended that these AIS Servers be located in separate NOAA offices or perhaps sites operated by contractors. If the primary AIS server goes down, the secondary automatically takes over. The end user should see no interruption in data flow. The data logging function is also critical to monitoring system, so all incoming data should be logged on two different servers.

    4.1.3AIS Data Analysis, Display, Messaging & Reporting
    The functions of data analysis, display, messaging and reporting are performed by a number of applications that reside on a client PC connected to the AIS Server and the AIS Data Logging database. As the AIS data comes into the system, the messages are parsed, duplicate AIS messages removed and the vessel position, speed, course etc. displayed within the GIS application (See Figure 4). The GIS application must provide the capability to track individual vessels.

    Within the GIS application, geographic zones (see Figure 5) are created and overlaid on the display. Alarm conditions (e.g. trigger an alarm when a vessel has a speed greater than ten knots) can be assigned to each of these zones. The system must support multiple zone alarms and multiple alarm conditions for a single zone. Once an alarm is triggered, NOAA requires that an e-mail message be automatically sent to the appropriate NOAA offices and staff. It is possible to deliver an e-mail to the vessel or vessel operator if the e-mail address is entered in a database linked to the GIS application. This message must contain the vessel name, speed, course and the time the zone was entered. For this function, the GIS application must reside on a PC that has an e-mail application configured.

    The GIS application provides the platform for reviewing logged data (data playback). From within the GIS application environment, the user must have the capability to query the logged data and display the returned data within the graphic display. This allows for re-enacting scenarios (e.g. vessel speeding in a speed reduction zone) and can help in determining NOAA's course of action in regards to a particular vessel or incident.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{ICAN2008b,
      author = {ICAN Inc.},
      title = {Developing an Automatic Identification System (AIS) - based Program to Monitor Vessels in Waters off the U.S. Eastern Seaboard: Phase II - System Design},
      year = {2008},
      number = {Requisition NFFK0000-7-14972}
    }
    
    ICAN Inc. Developing an Automatic Identification System (AIS) - based Program to Monitor Vessels in Waters off the U.S. Eastern Seaboard: Phase III - Blueprint 2008 (Requisition NFFK0000-7-14972)  techreport  
    Abstract: The NOAA AIS Vessel Monitoring System is not unique in its general requirements. A number of national maritime authorities and ports have requested similar functionality in Requests for Proposals in the last two years. Examples include:
    - Canadian AIS Infrastructure Project. Project involves networking of AIS base stations, routing of the AIS data to multiple regional offices, displaying the data in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment, archiving of data, data playback capabilities, and automated reporting.
    - Turkish Undersecretariat of Maritime Affairs. Project involves AIS infrastructure deployment and vessel traffic management services for entire coastline of Turkey (27 AIS base stations).
    - Northern Lighthouse Board. Supply of AIS Aids to Navigation (ATON) management software for the General Lighthouse Authorities for Scotland & the Isle of Man; England, Wales & the Channel Islands; Ireland; and their Adjacent Seas and Island. Tools required to route the AIS data from the AIS transponders on the ATON units to multiple national offices for display, monitoring, archiving, playback and reporting on the AIS data.
    This greatly simplifies the implementation of the NOAA AIS Vessel Monitoring System (NAVMS) as all of the components are available as Commercially-off-the-Shelf (COTS) products. To ensure the smoothest implementation possible, it is strongly recommended that NOAA contract their selected software vendor to assist in setup, configuration and training.
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{ICAN2008c,
      author = {ICAN Inc.},
      title = {Developing an Automatic Identification System (AIS) - based Program to Monitor Vessels in Waters off the U.S. Eastern Seaboard: Phase III - Blueprint},
      year = {2008},
      number = {Requisition NFFK0000-7-14972}
    }
    
    IEC Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Digital interfaces - Part 1: Single talker and multiple listeners (IEC 61162-1)  standard URL 
    Abstract: International standard IEC 61162 is a four part standard which specifies four digital interfaces for application in marine navigation, radiocommunication and system integration. The four parts are:
    IEC technical committee 80 interface standards are developed with input from manufacturers, private and government organisations and equipment operators. The information is intended to meet the needs of users at the time of publication, but users should recognise that as applications and technology change, interface standards should change as well. Users of this standard are advised to immediately inform the IEC of any perceived inadequacies therein.
    The first edition of IEC 61162-1 was published in 1995. The second edition published in 2000 removed some sentences which were no longer in use, added some new sentences and included details of the ship equipment defined in IMO resolutions together with appropriate sentences for communication between them. This information was subsequently removed from the third edition when it became the practice to specify the sentence formatters in the individual standards for equipment.
    The third edition published in 2007 introduced a re-arrangement of the text and new sentences particularly to support the Automatic Identification System and the Voyage Data Recorder. The third edition also introduced a further type of start of sentence delimiter. The conventional delimiter "$$" was retained for the conventional sentences which are now called parametric sentences. The new delimiter "!" identifies sentences that conform to special purpose encapsulation.
    This fourth edition removes some sentences which are not in use, adds some new sentences for new applications and makes some corrections and additions. In particular the sentences of relevance to satellite navigation receivers have been expanded to facilitate the description of new satellite systems.
    Liaison has been maintained with NMEA and this edition has been aligned where appropriate with NMEA 0183 version 4.00.
    BibTeX:
    @standard{iec2010,
      author = {IEC},
      title = {Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Digital interfaces - Part 1: Single talker and multiple listeners},
      number = {IEC 61162-1},
      url = {http://www.iec.ch/cgi-bin/procgi.pl/www/iecwww.p?wwwlang=E&wwwprog=pro-det.p&He=IEC&Pu=61162&Pa=1&Se=&Am=&Fr=&TR=&Ed=4}
    }
    
    IEC Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) - Part 2: Class A shipborne equipment of the universal automatic identification system (AIS) - Operational and performance requirements, methods of test and required test results 2011 (IEC 61993-2)Paywalled  standard URL 
    Abstract: This Final Draft International Standard is an up to 3 months' pre-release of the official publication. It is available for sale during its voting period: 2011-04-08 to 2011-06-10. By purchasing this FDIS now, you will automatically receive, in addition, the final publication.

    Kurt's opinion: It is horrible that this document is paywalled.

    BibTeX:
    @standard{IEC2011,
      author = {IEC},
      title = {Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) - Part 2: Class A shipborne equipment of the universal automatic identification system (AIS) - Operational and performance requirements, methods of test and required test results},
      year = {2011},
      number = {IEC 61993-2},
      url = {http://webstore.iec.ch/Webstore/webstore.nsf/Artnum_PK/9999980617}
    }
    
    IEC Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Class B shipborne equipment of the automatic identification system (AIS) - Part 1: Carrier-sense time division multiple access (CSTDMA) techniques 2010 (62287-1)  standard URL 
    Abstract: EC 62287-1:2010(E) specifies the minimum operational and performance requirements, methods of testing and required test results for Class B shipborne AIS equipment using CSTDMA techniques. This standard takes into account other associated IEC International Standards and existing national standards, as applicable. It is applicable for AIS equipment used on craft that are not covered by the mandatory carriage requirement of AIS under SOLAS Chapter V. The major technical changes with respect to the first edition are the following. The reference to the relevant recommendation of the ITU has been updated from M.1371-1 to M.1371-4 with some consequential small changes. A previous option of providing short safety-related messages in 6.5.1.5 has been removed on advice from the IMO. A new requirement for a default MMSI has been added in 6.4 and a further new requirement for protection from invalid control commands has been added in 6.8. Some test methods have been updated and, in particular, small revisions have been made to the frequencies used for testing in some of the test methods.
    BibTeX:
    @standard{IEC2010,
      author = {IEC},
      title = {Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Class B shipborne equipment of the automatic identification system (AIS) - Part 1: Carrier-sense time division multiple access (CSTDMA) techniques},
      year = {2010},
      number = {62287-1},
      url = {http://webstore.iec.ch/Webstore/webstore.nsf/Artnum_PK/44637}
    }
    
    IEC Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Digital interfaces - Part 1: Single talker and multiple listeners 2010 (61162-1)Paywalled  standard URL 
    Abstract: EC 61162-1:2010(E) contains the requirements for data communication between maritime electronic instruments, navigation and radiocommunication equipment when interconnected via an appropriate system. Is intended to support one-way serial data transmission from a single talker to one or more listeners. This data is in printable ASCII form and may include information such as position, speed, depth, frequency allocation, etc. Typical messages may be from about 11 to a maximum of 79 characters in length and generally require transmission no more rapidly than one message per second. For applications where a faster transmission rate is necessary, reference should be made to IEC 61162-2. The main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed below:
    - certain sentences have been removed as they are not used by other standards prepared by technical committee 80;
    - new sentences have been added; corrections have been made to certain sentences (ABK, BBM, DOR, FIR, SSD, TUT, and VTG);
    - new fields have been added to certain sentences;
    - three additional tests have been added to Annex B.
    BibTeX:
    @standard{IEC2010a,
      author = {IEC},
      title = {Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Digital interfaces - Part 1: Single talker and multiple listeners},
      year = {2010},
      number = {61162-1},
      url = {http://webstore.iec.ch/Webstore/webstore.nsf/Artnum_PK/44635}
    }
    
    IEC Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Digital interfaces - Part 3: Serial data instrument network 2010 (61162-3)Paywalled  standard URL 
    Abstract: EC 61162-3:2008+A1:2010(E) defines all the pertinent layers of the International Standards Organisation Open Systems Interconnect (ISO/OSI) model, from the application layer to the physical layer, necessary to implement the required IEC 61162-3 network functionality. Is based upon the NMEA 2000 standard. This consolidated version consists of the first edition (2008) and its amendment 1 (2010). Therefore, no need to order amendment in addition to this publication.
    BibTeX:
    @standard{IEC2010b,
      author = {IEC},
      title = {Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Digital interfaces - Part 3: Serial data instrument network},
      year = {2010},
      number = {61162-3},
      url = {http://webstore.iec.ch/Webstore/webstore.nsf/Artnum_PK/44625}
    }
    
    IEC Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Automatic identification system (AIS) - Part 2: AIS AtoN Stations - Operational and performance requirements, methods of testing and required test results 2008 (IEC 62320-2)  standard URL 
    BibTeX:
    @standard{iec2008,
      author = {IEC},
      title = {Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Automatic identification system (AIS) - Part 2: AIS AtoN Stations - Operational and performance requirements, methods of testing and required test results},
      year = {2008},
      number = {IEC 62320-2},
      url = {http://www.iec.ch/cgi-bin/procgi.pl/www/iecwww.p?Am=&Ed=1&Fr=&He=IEC&Pa=2&Pu=62320&Se=&TR=&wwwlang=E&wwwprog=pro-det.p}
    }
    
    IEC Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Automatic Identification Systems - Part 1: AIS Base Stations - Minimum operational and performance requirements - methods of test and required test results 2007 (IEC 62320-1)  standard URL 
    Abstract: Specifies the minimum operational and performance requirements, methods of testing and required test results for AIS Base Stations, compatible with the performance standards adopted by IMO Res. MSC.74 (69), Annex 3, Universal AIS. It incorporates the technical characteristics of non-shipborne, fixed station AIS equipment, included in the relevant ITU and IALA recommendations. Where applicable, takes into account the ITU Radio Regulations.
    BibTeX:
    @standard{iec2007,
      author = {IEC},
      title = {Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Automatic Identification Systems - Part 1: AIS Base Stations - Minimum operational and performance requirements - methods of test and required test results},
      year = {2007},
      number = {IEC 62320-1},
      note = {Basestation},
      url = {http://webstore.iec.ch/webstore/webstore.nsf/Artnum_PK/37701}
    }
    
    IEC Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Class B shipborne equipment of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) using CSTDMA techniques - Operational and performance requirements, methods of test and required test results (withdrawn) 2006 (IEC 62287)  standard URL 
    BibTeX:
    @standard{iec2006,
      author = {IEC},
      title = {Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Class B shipborne equipment of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) using CSTDMA techniques - Operational and performance requirements, methods of test and required test results (withdrawn)},
      year = {2006},
      number = {IEC 62287},
      note = {withdrawn},
      url = {http://www.iec.ch/cgi-bin/procgi.pl/www/iecwww.p?wwwlang=&wwwprog=pro-det.p&progdb=db1&He=IEC&Pu=62287&Pa=1&Se=&Am=&Fr=&TR=&Ed=1.0}
    }
    
    IEC Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Digital interfaces - Part 100: Single talker and multiple listeners - Extra requirements to IEC 61162-1 for the UAIS (withdrawn) 2002   standard URL 
    BibTeX:
    @standard{IEC2002,
      author = {IEC},
      title = {Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Digital interfaces - Part 100: Single talker and multiple listeners - Extra requirements to IEC 61162-1 for the UAIS (withdrawn)},
      year = {2002},
      note = {Withdrawn},
      url = {http://www.iec.ch/cgi-bin/procgi.pl/www/iecwww.p?wwwlang=english&wwwprog=pro-det.p&progdb=db1&He=IEC/PAS&Pu=61162&Pa=100&Se=&Am=&Fr=&TR=&Ed=1}
    }
    
    IEC Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Digital interfaces - Part 1: Single talker and multiple listeners 2000 (IEC 61162-1:2000(E))paywalled standard  standard URL 
    Abstract: IEC TC 80 interface standards are developed with input from manufacturers, private and government organisations and equipment operators. The information contained in this standard is intended to meet the needs of users at the time of publication, but users must recognise that as applications and technology change, interface standards must change as well. Users of this document are advised to immediately inform the IEC of any perceived inadequacies in this standard.

    NOTE 2
    ACK ALR DSE DSI DSR GNS HMS HMR HTC HTD MLA MWD TLB TXT
    NOTE 3
    New sentences have been added:
    Acknowledge alarm Set alarm state Expanded digital selective calling DSC transponder initiate DSC transponder response GNSS fix data Heading monitor set Heading monitor receive Heading/track control command Heading/track control data GLONASS almanac data Wind direction and speed T argetlabel Text transmission

    The following sentences have been deleted, as the systems referred to are no longer in operation:
    GXA - TRANSIT position, OLN - OMEGA lane numbers, TRF - TRANSIT fix data.

    A mode indicator character field 'a' has been added as a new last data field to specific sentences,
    namely APB, BWC, BWR, GLL, RMA, RMB, RMC, VTG, WCV and XTE. The mode indicator character 'a' has been defined to include the following when used in the designated sentences:
    A = Autonomous mode D = Differential mode E = Estimated (dead reckoning) mode M = Manual input mode S = Simulator mode N = Data not valid

    BibTeX:
    @standard{IEC2000,
      author = {IEC},
      title = {Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Digital interfaces - Part 1: Single talker and multiple listeners},
      year = {2000},
      number = {IEC 61162-1:2000(E)},
      url = {http://www.it-ru.de/forum/download.php?id=5698}
    }
    
    IEC Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Digital interfaces - Part 450: Multiple talkers and multiple listeners - Ethernet interconnection 2011 (IEC 61162-450 ed1.0)  standard URL 
    Abstract: IEC 61162-450:2011(E) specifies interface requirements and methods of test for high speed communication between shipboard navigation and radiocommunication equipment as well as between such systems and other ship systems that need to communicate with navigation and radio-communication equipment. Is based on the application of an appropriate suite of existing international standards to provide a framework for implementing data transfer between devices on a shipboard Ethernet network. Provides a higher speed and higher capacity alternative to the IEC 61162-1 and IEC 61162-2 standards while retaining these standards' basic data format. Provides a higher data capacity than IEC 61162-3. Specifies an Ethernet based bus type network where any listener may receive messages from any sender.
    BibTeX:
    @standard{IEC2011a,
      author = {IEC},
      title = {Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - Digital interfaces - Part 450: Multiple talkers and multiple listeners - Ethernet interconnection},
      year = {2011},
      number = {IEC 61162-450 ed1.0},
      url = {http://webstore.iec.ch/Webstore/webstore.nsf/Artnum_PK/45202}
    }
    
    III, T. MDA on MDA 2009 TEXAS III, pp. 27  article URL 
    Abstract: Sensor Match made in Heaven

    Space-based AIS Receiving Constellation
    ORBCOMM currently operating up to 6 satellites, receiving AIS signals globally (~ 72deg S to ~ 72deg N)
    Provision of frequent ship and voyage information (name, callsign, MMSI#, destination, etc)

    Spaceborne SAR Sensors
    Both RADARSAT-1 and RADARSAT-2 are operational, offering all weather, low illumination (day/night) imaging
    Able to detect vessels reliably, which (when combined with AIS) allows for rapid identification of the non-AIS emitting ships

    Spaceborne AIS provides persistent surveillance of legal ship traffic; Spaceborne SAR detects all offshore traffic in large regions
    Correlation confirms the identity of compliant targets & quickly locates non-compliant targets
    Reduces cost and improves efficiency of deterrence efforts for smuggling, terrorism, piracy, illegal immigration, illegal fishing and pollution

    Fisheries Monitoring - Canada
    MDA completed an operation demonstrating the capabilities of these two spaceborne systems
    Over a 10 day period, MDA supported the maritime surveillance of a specific region outside the Canadian 200 Nautical Mile EEZ for DND/DFO

    ORBCOMM AIS data was provided regularly during the Op
    RADARSAT-2 imagery utilized on every opportunity

    Graphical Interface to AIS Data
    MDA's customized interface to view all AIS data (real time and historical)
    Allows for visualization of a specific vessel's track over 2 weeks (shown in Yellow)
    This snapshot shows only the area of interest for one day during the operation
    Google Earth

    AIS ideally as coincident to RADARSAT pass as possible, though a large time window (-2 hours / + 30 minutes) is operationally sufficient

    Utilizing the heading (Cog), speed (Sog), and age (before or after) of the AIS record, it is possible to predict the location of the vessel at the time of the RADARSAT image
    Unless the area is very congested (e.g., port, narrow choke point), it is possible to correlate (i.e., match) the two records
    When AIS record is before the RADARSAT image, it is possible not only to fuse the information but update the vessel location and confirm speed and heading

    SeaView Overview
    A managed web service that allow users to monitor activities on the water without any hardware or software investment
    Provides an integrated view of the recognized maritime picture (RMP) utilizing space-borne AIS and radar sensors
    Leading edge maritime products that are delivered directly to your computer screen
    Provides an unclassified picture without the restrictions associated with using classified data

    BibTeX:
    @article{mda2009,
      author = {TEXAS III},
      title = {MDA on MDA},
      journal = {TEXAS III},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {27},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/twiki/pub/Main/TexasIII/MDA_Presentation__TexasIII_AIS.ppt}
    }
    
    IMO GUIDANCE ON THE USE OF AIS APPLICATION-SPECIFIC MESSAGES 2010 (SN.1/Circ.289)  standard URL 
    BibTeX:
    @standard{imo2010a,
      author = {IMO},
      title = {GUIDANCE ON THE USE OF AIS APPLICATION-SPECIFIC MESSAGES},
      year = {2010},
      number = {SN.1/Circ.289},
      note = {This circular revokes SN/Circ.236 as from 1 January 2013.},
      url = {http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pdf//IMO_SN1_Circ289_Guidance_on_use_of_AIS_ASM.pdf}
    }
    
    IMO GUIDANCE FOR THE PRESENTATION AND DISPLAY OF AIS APPLICATION-SPECIFIC MESSAGES INFORMATION 2010 (SN.1/Circ.290)  standard URL 
    Abstract: t present, there is no specific guidance or standards related to the presentation and display of AIS Application-Specific Messages information on shipborne equipment or systems. While the Minimum Keyboard Display (MKD) is capable of displaying text messages, it was never intended for the graphical display and presentation of AIS Application-Specific Messages information. However, there are a number of general and equipment-specific international standards that have been adopted by IMO, IHO and IEC that contain "guidance" related to the presentation and display of various types of shipborne navigation-related information.
    BibTeX:
    @standard{imo2010b,
      author = {IMO},
      title = {GUIDANCE FOR THE PRESENTATION AND DISPLAY OF AIS APPLICATION-SPECIFIC MESSAGES INFORMATION},
      year = {2010},
      number = {SN.1/Circ.290},
      url = {http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pdf//IMO_SN1_Circ290_Guidance_on_presentation%20of%20AIS_ASM.pdf}
    }
    
    IMO GUIDELINES ON ANNUAL TESTING OF THE AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS) 2007 (MSC.1/Circ.1252)  standard URL 
    Abstract: 2The purpose of an annual testing is to determine that AIS is operational as defined in appropriate performance standards not inferior to those adopted by the Organization*.
    3To assist in achieving this aim, it is recommended that all AIS be subject to a standard method of testing as detailed in the annexed Guidelines.
    BibTeX:
    @standard{imo2007a,
      author = {IMO},
      title = {GUIDELINES ON ANNUAL TESTING OF THE AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS)},
      year = {2007},
      number = {MSC.1/Circ.1252},
      url = {http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pdf//IMO_MSC1_Circ1252_AIS_testing.pdf}
    }
    
    IMO AMENDMENTS TO THE GUIDELINES FOR THE INSTALLATION OF A SHIPBORNE AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS) (SN/Circ.227) 2004 (SN/Circ.245)  standard URL 
    Abstract: This whole document consists of:

    2.4
    1
    Power source
    The existing text of paragraph 2.4 is replaced by the following:
    "The AIS should ideally be connected through an uninterrupted power supply (UPS) to the ship's power supply as defined in SOLAS chapter II-1."

    BibTeX:
    @standard{imo2004a,
      author = {IMO},
      title = {AMENDMENTS TO THE GUIDELINES FOR THE INSTALLATION OF A SHIPBORNE AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS) (SN/Circ.227)},
      year = {2004},
      number = {SN/Circ.245},
      url = {http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pdf/AIS/IMO.SN.Circ.245_AIS_Installation.pdf}
    }
    
    IMO GUIDELINES FOR THE INSTALLATION OF A SHIPBORNE AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS) 2003 (SN/Circ.227)  standard URL 
    BibTeX:
    @standard{imo2003a,
      author = {IMO},
      title = {GUIDELINES FOR THE INSTALLATION OF A SHIPBORNE AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS)},
      year = {2003},
      number = {SN/Circ.227},
      url = {http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pdf/marcomms/imo/Circulars/IMO.SN.Circ.227_AIS_Installation.pdf}
    }
    
    IMO GUIDELINES FOR THE ONBOARD OPERATIONAL USE OF SHIPBORNE AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS (AIS) 2002 (Resolution A.917(22))  standard URL 
    Abstract: 1 These Guidelines have been developed to promote the safe and effective use of shipborne Automatic Identification Systems (AIS), in particular to inform the mariner about the operational use, limits and potential uses of AIS. Consequently, AIS should be operated taking into account these Guidelines.
    2 Before using shipborne AIS, the user should fully understand the principle of the current Guidelines and become familiar with the operation of the equipment, including the correct interpretation of the displayed data. A description of the AIS system, particularly with respect to shipborne AIS (including its components and connections), is contained in Annex 1.
    3 The internationally-adopted shipborne carriage requirements for AIS are contained in SOLAS regulation V/19. The SOLAS Convention requires AIS to be fitted on certain ships through a phased implementation period spanning from 1st July 2002 to 1st July 2008. In addition, specific vessel types (e.g. warships, naval auxiliaries and ships owned/operated by Governments) are not required to be fitted with AIS. Also, small vessels (e.g. leisure craft, fishing boats) and certain other ships are exempt from carrying AIS. Moreover, ships fitted with AIS might have the equipment switched off. Users are therefore cautioned always to bear in mind that information provided by AIS may not be giving a complete or correct -picture' of shipping traffic in their vicinity. The guidance in this document on the inherent limitations of AIS and their use in collision avoidance situations (see paragraphs 39 to 43) should therefore be heeded.
    BibTeX:
    @standard{imo2002,
      author = {IMO},
      title = {GUIDELINES FOR THE ONBOARD OPERATIONAL USE OF SHIPBORNE AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS (AIS)},
      year = {2002},
      number = {Resolution A.917(22)},
      note = {Adopted on 29 November 2001 (Agenda item 9), ASSEMBLY 22nd session},
      url = {http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pdf/AIS/IMO_A_917(22)_AIS_OPS_Guidelines.pdf}
    }
    
    IMO RECOMMENDATION FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE AIS VHF DATA LINK 2002 (RESOLUTION MSC.140(76))  standard URL 
    Abstract: Annex 14, RECOMMENDATION FOR THE PROTECTION. OF THE AIS VHF DATA LINK. Which recommends that: Class B AIS devices, as well as any device which transmits on the radio channels AIS 1 or AIS 2, should meet the appropriate requirements of Recommendation ITU-R M.1371 (series); Class B AIS devices should be approved by the Administration; and, that Administrations should take steps necessary to ensure the integrity of the radio channels used for AIS in their waters.
    BibTeX:
    @standard{imo2002a,
      author = {IMO},
      title = {RECOMMENDATION FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE AIS VHF DATA LINK},
      year = {2002},
      number = {RESOLUTION MSC.140(76)},
      url = {http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pdf/marcomms/imo/msc_resolutions/Resolution%20MSC.140(76).pdf}
    }
    
    IMO RECOMMENDATION ON PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR SHIPBORNE COMBINED GPS/GLONASS RECEIVER EQUIPMENT 1998 (RESOLUTION MSC.74(69))  standard URL 
    Abstract: Recommendation on Performance Standards for Shipborne Combined GPS/GLONASS Receiver Equipment (Annex 1);
    (b)Recommendation on Performance Standards for Track Control Systems (Annex 2); and
    (c)Recommendation on Performance Standards for Universal Automatic Identification System (AIS) (Annex 3)
    BibTeX:
    @standard{imo1989,
      author = {IMO},
      title = {RECOMMENDATION ON PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR SHIPBORNE COMBINED GPS/GLONASS RECEIVER EQUIPMENT},
      year = {1998},
      number = {RESOLUTION MSC.74(69)},
      url = {http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pdf/marcomms/imo/msc_resolutions/MSC69-22a1-12.pdf}
    }
    
    Ingalsbe, K. The USCG Nationwide AIS Project 2007 eNavigation conference, pp. 15  article  
    Abstract: Mission Need
    Maritime Security
    Maritime Safety and Mobility
    NAIS Project Description and Status
    Increment 1 - AIS Receive In Critical Ports and Coastal Areas
    Increment 2 - AIS Receive and Transmit Nationwide
    Increment 3 - Long-Range AIS Receive

    U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) is the lead federal agency for U.S. Maritime Security
    Protecting approximately 95,000 miles of America's maritime boarders
    Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA) of 2002
    Automatic Identification System (AIS) carriage
    Direction to USCG on carrying out Maritime and Homeland Security

    The MTSA directs the U.S. Coast Guard:
    " to collect, integrate, and analyze information concerning vessels operating on or bound for waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, including information related to crew, passengers, cargo, and intermodal shipments."

    Leveraging the full functionality of AIS to enhance USCG preparedness for risks in the maritime environment and mission performance:
    Infrastructure and system for data communications between shore and vessels
    Tracking of and secure communications with government vessels
    Ability to manage AIS operations to preserve primacy of navigational safety

    BibTeX:
    @article{Ingalsbe2007,
      author = {Keith Ingalsbe},
      title = {The USCG Nationwide AIS Project},
      journal = {eNavigation conference},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {15}
    }
    
    ITU Technical characteristics for an automatic identification system using time division multiple access in the VHF maritime mobile band 2010 (ITU-R M.1371)  standard URL 
    BibTeX:
    @standard{ITU2010,
      author = {ITU},
      title = {Technical characteristics for an automatic identification system using time division multiple access in the VHF maritime mobile band},
      year = {2010},
      number = {ITU-R M.1371},
      url = {http://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-M.1371/en}
    }
    
    ITU Maritime broadband wireless mesh networks 2010 (ITU-R M.2202)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: Radiocommunication plays an important role in providing maritime safety and security for ships, waterways and ports. Currently, there are several maritime safety and security systems that depend heavily on radiocommunication. These systems include the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) and automatic identification system (AIS). A common characteristic of these International Maritime Organization (IMO) mandated systems mentioned above is the low bandwidth of the wireless communication links which limit information exchange rates for purposes such as the transfer of essential navigation data required to improve safety and security at sea.
    To improve safety at sea, IMO has proposed a concept known as e-navigation. This concept harmonizes the collection, integration, exchange, presentation and analysis of maritime information onboard and ashore by electronic means to enhance berth-to-berth navigation and related services, for safety and security at sea and protection of the marine environment. A high-speed and cost- effective maritime wireless communication link is essential for the success of the e-navigation concept.
    In addition to the as yet undefined bandwidth requirements for e-navigation, higher demand for bandwidth is also coming from ship’s crews. More crew are demanding Internet access to stay connected to family and friends. Although satellite communication can provide broadband wireless access to ships, the speed is limited and costs are quite high.
    This Report proposes the development of a high-speed maritime communication system using radios placed on board ships as relays to form a mesh network. The mesh network will address new bandwidth demands for ships travelling in dense traffic lanes and traffic lanes close to the shoreline.
    Concept of maritime mesh network and existing standards
    Wireless technologies are widely used for terrestrial land systems providing speeds close to 1 Gbit/s in 4G cellular networks with users enabled with access in the order of tens or even several hundred Mbit/s. However, in the maritime environment, transmission speed is still in the order of several tens or several hundreds kbit/s.
    Due to the location of the ships at sea, using current cellular systems or wireless point-to-point systems, ships will only benefit in certain areas, such as busy ports, because base stations normally provide sufficient coverage with single hop transmission. At the present time, it is difficult to provide communication for ships beyond the cellular coverage. Mesh network technology can be used to address these nodes that are beyond the cellular coverage.
    Figure 1 shows the desired maritime mesh network architecture. In Fig. 1, coverage extension is achieved by forming a wireless mesh network amongst neighbouring ships, marine beacons and buoys. The mesh wireless network will be connected to the terrestrial networks via land stations, which are placed at regular intervals along the shoreline. Each ship will carry a mesh radio that has the capability of frequency agility where frequencies can be switched to suit country-specific frequency regulations or sea conditions.
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{ITU2010a,
      author = {ITU},
      title = {Maritime broadband wireless mesh networks},
      year = {2010},
      number = {ITU-R M.2202},
      url = {http://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-r/opb/rep/R-REP-M.2202-2010-PDF-E.pdf}
    }
    
    ITU Technical characteristics for an automatic identification system using time division multiple access in the VHF maritime mobile band 2007 (ITU-R M.1371)  standard URL 
    Abstract: This Recommendation provides the technical characteristics of an automatic identification system (AIS) using time division multiple access in the VHF maritime mobile band.
    The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly,
    considering
    a)that the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has a requirement for a universal shipborne automatic identification system (AIS);
    b)that the use of a universal shipborne AIS would allow efficient exchange of navigational data between ships and between ships and shore stations, thereby improving safety of navigation;
    c)that a system using self-organized time division multiple access (SOTDMA) would accommodate all users and meet the likely future requirements for efficient use of the spectrum;
    d)that such a system should be used primarily for surveillance and safety of navigation purposes in ship to ship use, ship reporting and vessel traffic services (VTS) applications. It could also be used for other maritime safety related communications, provided that the primary functions were not impaired;
    e)that such a system would be autonomous, automatic, continuous and operate primarily in a broadcast, but also in an assigned and in an interrogation mode using time division multiple access (TDMA) techniques;
    f)that such a system would be capable of expansion to accommodate future expansion in the number of users and diversification of applications, including vessels which are not subject to IMO AIS carriage requirement, aids to navigation and search and rescue;
    g)that IALA is maintaining and publishing technical guidelines for the manufacturers of AIS and other interested parties,
    recommends
    1that the AIS should be designed in accordance with the operational characteristics given in Annex 1 and the technical characteristics given in Annexes 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8;
    2that applications of the AIS which make use of application specific messages of the AIS, as defined in Annex 2, should comply with the characteristics given in Annex 5;
    3that the AIS applications should take into account the international application identifier
    branch, as specified in Annex 5, maintained and published by IMO;
    4that the AIS design should take into account technical guidelines maintained and published by IALA.
    BibTeX:
    @standard{ITU2007,
      author = {ITU},
      title = {Technical characteristics for an automatic identification system using time division multiple access in the VHF maritime mobile band},
      year = {2007},
      number = {ITU-R M.1371},
      url = {http://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-M.1371/en}
    }
    
    ITU Technical characteristics for an automatic identification system using time division multiple access in the VHF maritime mobile band 2006 (ITU-R M.1371)  standard URL 
    BibTeX:
    @standard{ITU2006,
      author = {ITU},
      title = {Technical characteristics for an automatic identification system using time division multiple access in the VHF maritime mobile band},
      year = {2006},
      number = {ITU-R M.1371},
      url = {http://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-M.1371/en}
    }
    
    ITU Technical characteristics for an automatic identification system using time division multiple access in the VHF maritime mobile band 2001 (ITU-R M.1371)  standard URL 
    BibTeX:
    @standard{ITU2001,
      author = {ITU},
      title = {Technical characteristics for an automatic identification system using time division multiple access in the VHF maritime mobile band},
      year = {2001},
      number = {ITU-R M.1371},
      url = {http://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-M.1371/en}
    }
    
    ITU Technical characteristics for an automatic identification system using time division multiple access in the VHF maritime mobile band 1998 (ITU-R M.1371)  standard URL 
    BibTeX:
    @standard{ITU1998,
      author = {ITU},
      title = {Technical characteristics for an automatic identification system using time division multiple access in the VHF maritime mobile band},
      year = {1998},
      number = {ITU-R M.1371},
      url = {http://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-M.1371/en}
    }
    
    ITU Technical characteristics of differential transmissions for global navigation satellite systems from maritime radio beacons in the frequency band 283.5-315 kHz in Region 1 and 285-325 kHz in Regions 2 and 3 2006 (ITU-R M.823-3)  standard URL 
    Abstract: Many Administrations have implemented transmissions from radio beacon stations of differential corrections for global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). This Recommendation contains the technical characteristics to which such transmissions should conform for corrections to the GPS and GLONASS Navigation Satellite Systems. The Recommendation also describes the various types of differential correction messages used for those navigation satellite systems and the message format. In addition, it contains details of message transmission schedules.

    Used in AIS Message 17

    BibTeX:
    @standard{ITU-R.M.823-3-2006,
      author = {ITU},
      title = {Technical characteristics of differential transmissions for global navigation satellite systems from maritime radio beacons in the frequency band 283.5-315 kHz in Region 1 and 285-325 kHz in Regions 2 and 3},
      year = {2006},
      number = {ITU-R M.823-3},
      note = {1992-1995-1997-2006},
      url = {http://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-M.823/en}
    }
    
    ITU Interim solutions for improved efficiency in the use of the band 156-174 MHz by stations in the maritime mobile service 2001 (ITU-R M.1084-4)  standard URL 
    Abstract: Used in Message 22: Channel management

    This Recommendation provides guidance to administrations on the possible use of channels narrower than 25 kHz as a means to alleviate congestion on Appendix 18 channels. Annex 1 provides technical parameters. Annex 2 is a guide to migrate from 25 kHz channels to narrower bands. Annex 3 documents a possible implementation method for 12.5 kHz channels.

    This Annex considers how in future the maritime-mobile service might migrate to narrow-band channels spaced at 5 kHz or 6.25 kHz apart, using linear or digital modulation. Consideration is given to migration from 25 kHz channel spacing as used at present, and from 12.5 kHz if the latter was to be implemented as an interim measure by some administrations.

    The most practicable and least disruptive method of migrating from 25 kHz or 12.5 kHz to 5 kHz or 6.25 kHz would be by interleaving the narrow-band channels with the wider ones and a similar technique can be used in all cases. However because the linear and digital modulation techniques using 5 kHz and/or 6.25 kHz are incompatible with current FM equipment, dual mode or additional equipment would be required during the change-over period.

    BibTeX:
    @standard{2001,
      author = {ITU},
      title = {Interim solutions for improved efficiency in the use of the band 156-174 MHz by stations in the maritime mobile service},
      year = {2001},
      number = {ITU-R M.1084-4},
      note = {1994-1995-1997-1998-2001},
      url = {http://www.itu.int/rec/R-REC-M.1084/en}
    }
    
    IWR ANNUAL REPORT ACTIVITIES OF THE INSTITUTE FOR WATER RESOURCES FISCAL YEAR 2009 2010   techreport URL 
    Abstract: In FY 2009 the Federal - Industry Logistics Standardization
    (FILS) sub group adopted and incorporated the use of a universal code
    for navigation locations. Adoption of the code allows for transfer of
    information regarding locations between the participating agencies;
    USACE, IRS, USCG, CBP, and others. Additionally, a Federal Initiative
    for Navigation Data Enhancement (FINDE) sub group was formed in late
    FY 2009 to leverage standards developed in FILS for locations and
    vessels, and to provide more complete, accurate and reliable
    navigation information for monitoring commercial cargo and vessel
    activity on our Nation's waterways, enforcing regulations, and making
    capital investment decisions. The FINDE sub group also developed a
    prototype project in New York that fuses Automated Identification
    System (AIS) data from the Coast Guard and other Federal sources
    together. It was expected that majority of the results of FINDE will
    be captured in FY 2010. However, despite the late formation in FY
    2009, the group was able to improve the spatial coverage of commercial
    facilities in New York Harbor from 60 to 100 precent.
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{IWR2010,
      author = {IWR},
      title = {ANNUAL REPORT ACTIVITIES OF THE INSTITUTE FOR WATER RESOURCES FISCAL YEAR 2009},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.iwr.usace.army.mil/docs/2009_IWR_Annual_Report_.pdf}
    }
    
    Jakob, M., Vanek, O., Urban, Š., Benda, P. & Pechoucek, M. Employing agents to improve the security of international maritime transport 2010 Proceedings of the 6th workshop on Agents in Traffic and Transportation (ATT2010)(May 2010)  conference URL 
    Abstract: We explore how agent-based techniques can be employed to reduce the threat of contemporary maritime piracy to in- ternational transport. At the center of our approach is a data-driven agent-based simulation platform incorporating a range of real-world data sources in order to provide a solid computational model of maritime activity. The platform is integrated with extension modules providing advanced anal- ysis, reasoning and planning capabilities. Two such modules are presented. The first module applies statistical machine learning techniques to extract models of vessel movement from trajectory data; the models are subsequently used for categorizing vessels and detecting suspicious activity. The second module employs game theory-based strategic rea- soning to plan risk-minimizing routes for vessels transiting known pirate waters. Empirical evaluation performed on the data-driven simulation shows promising potential of agent- based methods for reducing the security risks and economic costs of illegal maritime activities.
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Jakob2010,
      author = {Jakob, M. and Vanek, O. and Urban, Š. and Benda, P. and Pechoucek, M.},
      title = {Employing agents to improve the security of international maritime transport},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 6th workshop on Agents in Traffic and Transportation (ATT2010)(May 2010)},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://agents.felk.cvut.cz/cgi-bin/docarc/public.pl/document/276/main.pdf}
    }
    
    James B. Rice, J., Reagor, B.T., Macdonald, A., Glenn, S., Nickerson, J. & et al U.S. Department of Homeland Security National Center of Excellence
    Center for Secure and Resilient Maritime Commerce (CSR): YEAR TWO REPORT
    2010   techreport URL 
    Abstract: The Center for Secure and Resilient Maritime Commerce (CSR), along with the University of Hawaii's National Center for Islands, Maritime, and Extreme Environments Security (CIMES), are the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) National Center of Excellence for Maritime, Island and Extreme/Remote Environment Security (MIREES). The Center supports DHS efforts under NSPD-41 / HSPD-13 to provide for the safe and secure use of our nation's maritime domain (including island and extreme environments and inland waterways), and a resilient MTS, through advancement of the relevant sciences and development of the new workforce.

    The ship detection data is compared against GPS data sent via AIS to evaluate system performance. The AIS data collected on November 9, 2009 by all Rutgers AIS receivers is shown in Figure 4. The receiver at Tuckerton provided the most data due to the fact that the antennas are approximately 40 feet above sea level. Zooming in on NY Harbor is shown in Figure 5. The AIS data collected by the receiver at Sandy Hook was intermittent. We decided to move the antenna closer to the ocean to the Sea Bright HF Radar shore station. The AIS data collected for a similar time period after the receiver was relocated is shown in Figure 6. The position data for vessels entering NY Harbor is now more robust and continuous.

    Challenges and Progress: Vessel Detection Software Development
    Background: CODAR has been developing vessel detection software intended for dual-use with the U.S. IOOS national network of SeaSonde coastal HF radars; these efforts began in 2001 within a joint program with Rutgers funded by ONR. This MATLAB code ran offline on raw data (Range Files). Considerable success was demonstrated in these early programs. With the DHS CoE funding, and beginning in Year 1, these MATLAB codes were improved and work was begun converting them to C from MATLAB, so they could run in real time on the remote SeaSonde stations in the field, similar to the tools that produce radial currents and waves from the sea-echo data.
    Bistatic Improvements: Detection capability for multi-static radar configurations (where transmitter and receiver are separated, including buoy transmitters) had not been finished within the MATLAB code before the CSR Year 2 began. During Year 2, and with DHS support, this capability was completed and tested. This capability allows the code to output ASCII files with bistatic detections at the same time as the conventional backscatter ASCII files are produced, and in the same format. Thus the positions and velocities of candidate targets are available for multi-static geometries, allowing multiple detections of the same target. The latter capability is important in overcoming sea-clutter limitations that mask single-radar backscatter detections nearly 40% of the time.
    Completion of RCS Addition to Code: Within the ASCII output detection files, it had been intended to include the radar cross section (RCS) of the detected vessel, based on received signal level of its echo. This had not been completed in a way that would allow robust RCS estimation at all SeaSonde operating bands. With the DHS support, this work

    C.. Satellite Team
    The Satellite team paired satellite imagery against Automatic Identification System (AIS) data to identify vessels in the Hudson River estuary opposite from New York City. The purpose of the research was to examine the use of satellite imagery and its applications toward the detection of small vessel threats. The team's goal was to determine the capabilities of satellites in the detection of small vessels, defined as those vessels of ten meters or less in length. The technology used involved a combination of Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery, Google Earth software overlays, traditional photography, and AIS data provided by equipped vessels. The team's research results indicated that the commercial satellites used were not applicable to the detection of small vessels, but were instead useful for port security and resilience applications.

    Satellite Reception Maritime surveillance with different satellite sensors during the CSR NY Harbor joint field experiment As mentioned earlier, a primary challenge to the use of space-based sensor technologies in support of the maritime security community is the provision of near real-time information to professionals on the ground. In order to address this challenge, the CSR partner universities conducted on 9 & 10 November 2009 the second of a series of DHS- supported field experiments to demonstrate existing technical capabilities and evaluate potential new technologies and procedures for the multi-sensor surveillance of a large maritime area. The experiment was conducted in NY Harbor. The details of the experiment are provided in a later section in this report, but it is important to note here that CSTARS provided for the first time, near real-time collects of high-resolution satellite data from the COSMO-SkyMed constellation in support of a small boat detection exercise. The goal of this exercise was to test how small of a vessel could be detected by different surveillance systems such as satellites, HF radar and acoustic sensors. Figure 1 shows an overview of the Port of New York and New Jersey from Cosmo/SkyMed-2 on 9 November 2010 with 10 minutes duration of ship tracks using AIS. The positions of two small boats, Stevens' research vessel and a Pilot boat are indicated by a red +.

    Task 1.1 Space-Based Wide Area Surveillance, University of Miami (H. Graber, PI)
    Project Abstract
    As one of the nation's leaders in the development of technology and technology products to enable space-based wide-area surveillance, CSTARS continues to develop the capability to employ space assets such as high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for a range of applications. Under the DHS CSR project, CSTARS is engaged in the use of SAR and other sensors in the detection and classification of maritime threats ranging in size from small boats to large vessels. During Year 2, this same capability was shown to have significant value in the monitoring of environmental pollutants such as oil spills that can have significant negative impacts on port and maritime commerce as well as posing health threats to coastal communities. We have leveraged ongoing studies and exercises with DOD agencies that have shown that wakes from small, fast moving boats can be detected, and large vessels can be tracked across ocean basins. This represents important new research directions that will be expanded during Year 3 under the DHS CSR funding. In collaboration with one of the primary companies operating a network of spaced-based Automatic Identification System (AIS) transponders, we engaged in the testing of the interoperability of SAR satellite data and space-based AIS for various scenarios. We have learned that a primary challenge to the use of space-based sensor data in maritime security applications is the provision of near real-time information to users on the ground. CSTARS has developed with the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) a Commercial SAR Architecture Center (CSTARS Pilot Project) which incorporates the new, high resolution SAR sensors such as Cosmo-SkyMed, TerraSAR- X, TanDEM-X and RadarSat-2 to support global and near real time acquisitions of image data. As part of the CSR series of joint field experiments (including the November, 2009 experiment in NY Harbor), satellite-based real-time monitoring of vessel traffic is continuing to be evaluated in order to better understand what is required to implement a comprehensive end-to end surveillance of the global maritime domain. This capability does not currently exist, as a result of challenges that include the need for direct access to multiple satellite sensors to maintain persistence. During Year 2, CSTARS demonstrated its capability to rapidly respond and deliver large volumes of images to the maritime first responder community, during the DeepWater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. CSTARS will continue to participate in port and maritime security exercises and leverage other resources and projects to develop technology products that support safe and secure operations within the global and national maritime domain.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Rice2010,
      author = {James B. Rice, Jr. and Barbara T. Reagor and Anthony Macdonald and Scott Glenn and Jeff Nickerson and et al},
      title = {U.S. Department of Homeland Security National Center of Excellence
    Center for Secure and Resilient Maritime Commerce (CSR): YEAR TWO REPORT}, year = {2010}, url = {http://www.stevens.edu/csr/fileadmin/csr/Annual_Report/CSR_YEAR2_AnnualReport_Final.pdf} }
    James H, I.W. USCG-2009-0701-0003 2010 Regulations.gov, pp. 2  article URL 
    Abstract: Lake Carriers' Association

    We are concerned that this Interim Policy has the potential to distribute sensitive information that could then be used by competing vessel operators and other modes of transportation to try to win cargo contracts. We do not object to the Coast Guard sharing information transmitted by vessels' Automatic Identification System (AIS) with other government agencies at the Federal, State, and local levels in the United States and Canada if that agency is involved in a project that directly relates to commercial navigation on the Great Lakes. However, we do object to the proposal to share transmissions with one
    and all at Level C
    Much of the information transmitted by vessels' AIS is directly related to business. AIS brbadcasts the name of the vessel, its official number, the type and amount of cargo onboard, its destination, ETA...A person or an entity could then determine how much cargo a vessel (or vessels) was loading at or delivering to a port. Armed with this information, the person or entity could develop a freight rate and lure business from the vessel operator or the waterborne mode. Knowing volume is key to setting a rate.
    On page 2557 the Coast Guard stales that "as a broadcast system (where communications are intended to be received by the public, there is no expectation of privacy [for] any information transmitted on AIS." While that is In fact true, in general the public is not equipped to receive AIS. This interim policy essentially makes the general public a full participant in the process and will divulge information that should be considered proprietary. For example, a company could collect AIS transmissions and determine that "X" tons of limestone are delivered to a port. This tells the company the size of the market in that area and could then lead to a decision to enter that market. While we believe in free enterprise, the Coast Guard is giving competitors an unfair advantage.
    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers does publish extensive statistics on cargo movement through U.S. ports in the publication Waterborne Commerce of the United States. However, that data is always at least two years old, sometimes three. This interim policy considers any transmission more than 12 hours old to be historical and so available with a simple Freedom of Information Act request.
    The cargo statistics contained in Waterborne Commerce do not reveal any information about the shipper or the carrier. For example, the 2008 edition tells us that Cleveland, Ohio received 2,995,000 tons of limestone that year. That total does not reveal how much limestone went to Ontario Stone Corporation or Lafarge, two of the major stone merchants serving Cleveland. Access to AIS transmissions from vessels serving those customers would reveal receipts down to the ton. That Is proprietary Information and the Coast Guard should not facilitate its distribution.
    Sometimes it is impossible to mask cargo data. Using Cleveland again as the example, it is common knowledge there is only one salt shipper in the port. However, while Waterborne Commerce will reveal how much salt was loaded in Cleveland in a given year, it will not reveal the destination, Again, that is proprietary information.
    AIS is a valuable tool for navigation safety and maritime security. However, the Coast Guard must take great care in sharing vessel transmissions. We recommend that release of transmissions to the general public be delayed by at least two years so release basically parallels Waterborne Commerce, Information about vessel destination should be limited to the port or harbor. The customer's Identity should remain confidential.

    Review: They are showing how clueless they are. Sorry James, but it is already public info.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JamesH2010,
      author = {James H, I. Weakley},
      title = {USCG-2009-0701-0003},
      journal = {Regulations.gov},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {2},
      url = {http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=USCG-2009-0701-0003}
    }
    
    Janex, A. Encoding method for anti-collision system for sea navigation 1993 (5210534)  patent URL 
    BibTeX:
    @patent{janex1993,
      author = {Albert Janex},
      title = {Encoding method for anti-collision system for sea navigation},
      year = {1993},
      number = {5210534},
      url = {http://www.wikipatents.com/US-Patent-5210534/encoding-method-for-anti-collision-system-for-sea-navigation}
    }
    
    Jianmin, Z. & Jie, W. Intelligent vessel dynamics video monitoring system based on AIS data 2009 Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2009. SMC 2009. IEEE International Conference on  inproceedings DOI URL 
    Abstract: Vessel dynamics video monitoring system is one of the most significant components in port safety and traffic management. This paper intends to discuss the key points in the design of the system: firstly, the data concerning vessel dynamics position are acquired via AIS; then intelligent video tracking system automatically drives intelligent spherical cameras to monitor vessels in port. Also system components of hardware and software and their working principles are introduced, a stress on the algorism of automatically monitored decision-making control module and its functions in system had been discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Jianmin2009,
      author = {Zhou Jianmin and Wang Jie},
      title = {Intelligent vessel dynamics video monitoring system based on AIS data},
      booktitle = {Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2009. SMC 2009. IEEE International Conference on},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.libproxy.unh.edu/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5346270&tag=1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICSMC.2009.5346270}
    }
    
    Jidong, S. & Xiaoming, L. Fusion of radar and AIS data 2004 Signal Processing, 2004. Proceedings. ICSP '04. 2004 7th International Conference on  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The AIS system that will be brought into effect can improve shipping security for its more accurate information of target position and target identification. On applying AIS making use of the fusion of radar and AIS data should be attached important to. A method of fusion of radar and AIS data is proposed in this paper. The membership degree, on which the adaptive correlation-detecting function is constructed, is calculated by fuzzy C-mean clustering algorithm. It has been shown by simulations that reliable associations of track-to-track could be achieved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jidong2004,
      author = {Suo Jidong and Liu Xiaoming},
      title = {Fusion of radar and AIS data},
      journal = {Signal Processing, 2004. Proceedings. ICSP '04. 2004 7th International Conference on},
      year = {2004},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=1442315},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICOSP.2004.1442315}
    }
    
    John, P. Intelligent Maritime Navigation with the Automatic Identification System 2006 Canadian Transportation Research Forum  inproceedings  
    Abstract: Executive Summary
    The role played by Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) in commercial activities is rapidly growing and has become ubiquitous in the road, rail and air modes of transportation. The use of such systems in marine transportation is, however, still in its infancy. Intermodalism and networking has necessitated a high degree of uniformity in the use and implementation of control systems in all modes of transportation and it is here that the Automatic Identification System (AIS) has made itself manifest as an ITS in the maritime industry.
    The AIS technology enables the tracking of vessels by shore-based stations and other vessels. The AIS is expected to have widespread use in the maritime transportation industry due to the approval of the AIS standard and the adoption of carriage requirements by the International Maritime Organization. Canada and the U. S. have been in the forefront of constructing the infrastructure and implementing the Marine AIS.
    As an Intelligent Navigation Aid, the AIS will have a far-reaching impact on safety and security at sea. It will be required on most ocean-going commercial ships, and will also be integrated into shore based surveillance and vessel traffic control systems.
    This paper examines the role of the Automatic Identification System as an Intelligent Marine Navigation Aid of the future and concludes that its use will become indispensable:
    As an Intelligent Electronic Navigation Aid
    As an Intelligent Vessel Traffic Monitoring Tool in Ports, for Vessel and Port Safety and Security, and
    As an Intelligent Means of Controlling and Managing Vessel Traffic for Efficient and Cost-Effective Traffic Flow and Commercial Port and Vessel Operations.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{john2006,
      author = {John, P.},
      title = {Intelligent Maritime Navigation with the Automatic Identification System},
      booktitle = {Canadian Transportation Research Forum},
      year = {2006}
    }
    
    Johnson, G. USCG-2009-0701-0013 2010 Regulations.gov  article URL 
    Abstract: In general it is my recommendation that ALL NAIS data be available to the public - in real-time or near real-time. This is data that the Coast Guard is collecting and maintaining using the public's tax dollars -- data that is transmitted on public frequencies with no expectation of privacy. All of this data (real-time and historical) is available to anyone with an AIS receiver or from commercial providers who have networks of AIS receivers connected to the Internet. The fact that it is the Coast Guard's network of AIS receivers that receives the data does not suddenly make the data collected any more sensitive or in need of classification. There should be no distinction on message type as it is all transmitted on open frequencies. This does put the CG into "competition" slightly with the commercial providers, but commercial providers can compete based on value-added services (easier data access, easier historical retrieval, or other layered services) and may have receivers in locations the CG does not. Bottom line is that the public has paid for this equipment and capability and since there is no valid security reason to classify (FOUO, SBU) and restrict data that is freely available through other means, the public should be given access to the data.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Johnson2010,
      author = {Gregory Johnson},
      title = {USCG-2009-0701-0013},
      journal = {Regulations.gov},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=USCG-2009-0701-0013}
    }
    
    Johnson, G.W. AIS Transmit VDL Loading Summary Report 2010   techreport  
    Abstract: The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is an autonomous and continuous broadcast system that exchanges maritime safety/security information between participating vessels and shore stations. In addition to providing a means for maritime administrations to effectively track the movement of vessels in coastal and inland waters, AIS can be a means to transmit information to ships inport or underway that contributes to safety-of-navigation and protection of the environment. This includes meteorological and hydrographic data, carriage of dangerous cargos, safety and security zones, status of locks and aids-to-navigation, and other port/waterway safety information. In the United States, it is intended that this information be transmitted from shore-side AIS base stations in a binary message format as part of an expanded Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) provided by the United States Coast Guard (USCG).
    The AIS does a great job informing the VTS about vessel position and identification, but it can also be used as a VTS tool for communication by utilizing the transmit capability and AIS binary messages. For clarification purposes transmit is defined to include both AIS broadcast and addressed messages. The current AIS specification, ITU-1371-3 [1] defines 26 different AIS messages shown in Table 1. Some of these message types can be grouped into categories applicable to AIS transmit: message types 16, 20, 22, and 23 can be considered telecommands that can be used by a VTS for channel management; message types 12, 13, and 14 can be used for safety-related text messages; and message types 6, 7, 8, 21, 25, and 26 are all binary messages that can be used for information transfer. The messages listed in bold have been used in the testing discussed in this report.
    The AIS transmit capability is not a broadband digital connection-- there is limited bandwidth available, so it is not intended to be used for generic data transfer of information that can be obtained by other means. The AIS transmit capability can make required information available to the mariners and other users without using voice communications; especially time-critical or dynamic information. The vision for the expanded use of AIS within VTS areas is to:
    1)Reduce workload on ship bridges by using less Very High Frequency (VHF) voice and making crucial information available when needed for decision-making.
    2)Improve VTS efficiency by reducing voice communications with the possibility of “silent” traffic advisories and automatic encounter lists.
    3)Improve VTS services with better, and more, information to mariner in a usable format, that is timely and less intrusive.

    Project Goals
    The goals of this effort are to reduce voice communications and improve navigation safety and efficiency. This can be best achieved by the following objectives:
    *Identify and prioritize the types of information that should be broadcast using AIS binary messages – information that is available, important to the mariner, and provided to the mariner in a timely fashion and in a useable format.
    *Develop recommendations for transmission and shipboard display standards.
    *Obtain data to support reduced voice communications and improved navigation.
    To meet these objectives the U.S. Coast Guard Research and Development Center (R&DC) initiated the AIS Transmit Project. There are three main efforts to this project:
    1)Determine functional requirements. The goal is to establish what the AIS capability within VTS should be which involves identifying and gathering information from various AIS/VTS Stakeholders
    2)Establish test bed(s). The goal is to test concepts, ideas, draft standards, and validate requirements prior to USCG implementation by establishing a test bed in an existing VTS area and encouraging active participation by marine pilots
    3)Establish a Working Group within the RTCM (Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services) to review current VTS AIS capability in US waters and recommend

    “consolidated” AIS binary messages (also known as Application Specific Messages) for regional and international implementation, and to identify needed changes in AIS equipment to support new capabilities.

    Conclusions / Recommendations
    After running the two test beds for the past 18 months and analyzing the data there are several conclusions that can be drawn. First, broadcasting PORTS data via AIS every three minutes has very minimal impact to the VDL. It is equivalent to adding one vessel equipped with AIS to the VDL. Second, it is important to pay attention to potential bit-stuffing impacts and mitigations when designing messages, especially if it is desired to have single-slot messages. Third, in regards to the number of slots per message, the best “value” seems to be to use 3-slot messages or less. Fourth, the message transmission technique should always be FATDMA not RATDMA as there is greatly increased probability of message delivery with FATDMA, especially on multi-slot messages. This is especially important on base stations in repeat mode since they generate a huge number of transmissions. Fifth, the VDL monitoring location is important. The Competent Authority needs to consider the area and traffic density and maximum loading able to be tolerated in selecting the monitor location. This may need to be at the base station or at different receiver site. And finally, careful consideration and planning needs to be done when using Repeater Mode on a base station as it will increase traffic loading considerably – in the Columbia River many messages are transmitted up to 5 times!

    Review: Received from Irene Gonin, USCG RDC.
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Johnson2010a,
      author = {Gregory W. Johnson},
      title = {AIS Transmit VDL Loading Summary Report},
      year = {2010}
    }
    
    Johnson, G.W., Gonin, I.M., Alexander, L. & Tetreault, B.J. USCG AIS Transmit Capability Functional Requirements Study 2008 (CG-D-01-09)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: Automatic Identification System (AIS) is an autonomous broadcast that exchanges maritime safety/security information between participating vessels and shore stations. In addition to providing a means for maritime administrations to track the movement of vessels in coastal waters, AIS can be used to transmit information to ships while inport or underway to ensure safety-of-navigation and protection of the marine environment. In the USA, it is intended that this capability will enhance the Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) provided by the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG).
    A study was conducted by Alion Science and Technology for the USCG Research and Development Center to develop requirements for marine information that could be broadcast by USCG VTS Centers. The study focused on gathering stakeholder requirements and determining the capabilities of: information providers, disseminators, and shipboard equipment manufacturers, and users (mariners). The goal was to identify and prioritize the types of information that should be broadcast using AIS binary messages.
    In the analysis, information items were scored based upon perceived mariner need, suitability for AIS transmit, and suitability for use by manufacturers to present to the mariner. Based on the results of this study, there is interest on the part of providers, disseminators, and users in having AIS binary messages be used as a part of expanded VTS services. Also clear, that there is a need to have more information flow from the VTS to the mariners as digital data capable of being displayed rather than by increased voice communications.
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Johnson2008,
      author = {G. W. Johnson and I. M. Gonin and L. Alexander and B. J. Tetreault},
      title = {USCG AIS Transmit Capability Functional Requirements Study},
      year = {2008},
      number = {CG-D-01-09},
      url = {http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA494925}
    }
    
    Johnson, M.M. Shine Micro 2006 AIS 06  conference URL 
    Abstract: Alan Stewart WG14 Chairman
    AIS for AtoNs field trials
    Hamburg, Germany

    MS Sleipner commissioned - August 1999 sank - November 1999
    Passengers saved: 69
    Passengers lost: 16

    Cause of disaster:
    Off course
    Foul weather
    Communication equipment improperly installed

    Actual Response:
    Sleipner radioed the authorities,
    who declared Mayday and
    radioed other ships in the vicinity.

    How AIS AtoNs could have helped:
    AtoN visible on screen in wheelhouse, not just visual (obscured by weather)
    AIS communication with other ships in vicinity, vs. relay through base-station
    Weather data received directly from buoy to AIS display
    AIS-SARTs could provide faster response time

    AtoNs
    Met-Hydro Data
    Dangerous Cargo
    Fairway Closed
    Tidal Window
    Extended Ship Static and Voyage Related Data
    Number of Persons on Board
    Pseudo-AIS Targets

    AIS-SARTs

    AIS-SARTs, Buoys, and 'Chaining'

    DBVDS buoy communicating to AIS buoy

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Johnson2006,
      author = {Mark M. Johnson},
      title = {Shine Micro},
      booktitle = {AIS 06},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20070221155334/http://www.rhppublishing.com/Presentations%20Day%201/Johnson%20Presentation.ppt}
    }
    
    Jones, M.J. Multiple protocol software defined radio 2011 (US20110007849)  patent URL 
    Abstract: A single software defined radio handles both AIS and ORBCOMM communications. A software defined software defined radio detects incoming signals and resolves whether they are AIS or ORBCOMM signals. The signal is directed to a processor in which an algorithm is selected in correspondence with the type of signal which has been recognized. The algorithm extracts intelligence when receiving or encodes intelligence when transmitting. The present software defined radio switches from the ORBCOMM mode to the AIS mode automatically as required in order to maintain a mandatory duty cycle in both the AIS and ORBCOMM modes as defined by regulations, and provides user configurable communications capabilities over both the AIS and ORBCOMM networks in a low-cost, integrated, hardware implementation
    BibTeX:
    @patent{Jones2011,
      author = {Jones, Mark J.},
      title = {Multiple protocol software defined radio},
      year = {2011},
      number = {US20110007849},
      url = {http://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2011/0007849.html}
    }
    
    Jones, S. & Arroyo, J. Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Vessel Requirements for Notices of Arrival and Departure, and Automatic Identification System - USCG-2005-21869 2009 USCG Public Meeting
    Vol. USCG-2005-21869, pp. 23 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Applicability and Exemptions,
    - When to Submit NOA,
    - NOA Required Information,
    - Method of Reporting,
    - U.S. and foreign vessels bound for the U.S. over 300 gross tons

    Exemptions:
    - U.S. recreational vessels
    - OSRV's engaged in actual spill response or exercise
    - Passenger/supply vessels in exploration OR removal of oil, gas, or mineral resources on the OCS
    - (Basically) Vessels that operate above MM 235 on Mississippi River
    - If not carrying CDCs

    BibTeX:
    @article{Jones2009,
      author = {Sharmine Jones and Jorge Arroyo},
      title = {Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Vessel Requirements for Notices of Arrival and Departure, and Automatic Identification System - USCG-2005-21869},
      journal = {USCG Public Meeting},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {USCG-2005-21869},
      pages = {23},
      url = {http://www.nvmc.uscg.gov/nvmc/Forms/NOAD-AIS_WashDC_SAS03052009.pdf}
    }
    
    Jordan, R.J., Herndon, D.C., Mcmorrow, J.A., Harrington, J.E., Constantine, H.E. & Linzey, M.R. Marine vessel traffic system 2001 (6249241)  patent URL 
    Abstract: The marine Vessel Traffic System (VTS) is an improved radar harbor surveillance sensor, computer and display system that monitors marine harbor traffic, provides advisories to vessels in areas selected by the system operators, and provide the operators of the system with an early warning of unacceptable traffic conflicts in the confined waterways of the harbor. The VTS collects harbor traffic information from multiple remote sensor collection sites around the harbor and integrates, records, merges and presents the remote site data onto a single operator display, selected from a plurality of operator displays. VTS provides quick accurate computer generated graphic display of the harbor traffic, possible surface and subsurface conflicts, and key vessel identification information and the VTS documents incidents and traffic conditions for the Coast Guard or other waterway authorities.
    Review: This shouldn't be a patent.
    BibTeX:
    @patent{Jordan2001,
      author = {Jordan, Robert J. and 
    Herndon, Douglas C. and
    Mcmorrow, Joseph A. and
    Harrington, John E. and
    Constantine, Harold E. and
    Linzey, Michael R.}, title = {Marine vessel traffic system}, year = {2001}, number = {6249241}, url = {http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6249241.html} }
    Joseph, J.E. THE AUTONOMOUS WIDE APERTURE CLUSTER FOR SURVEILLANCE 2008   techreport URL 
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The Autonomous Wide Aperture Cluster for Surveillance (AWACS) is a multi- disciplined team effort comprised of a number of collaborating academic and scientific institutions, fleet operation support communities, and manufacturers of ocean sensors and platforms. The long-term objective of the AWACS program is to develop an undersea surveillance system consisting of a cluster of autonomous vehicles for use in complex, littoral, shallow-water environments. The vehicles will be capable of sampling oceanographic, bottom, and acoustic features in a local environment and, as a networked cluster, will collectively feed adaptive sampling and search algorithms, leading to improved detection, classification, and localization of quiet targets.
    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) contribution is focused on development, implementation, and validation of a quasi-real-time environment, transmission and ambient noise estimation system that assimilates data retrieved by the cluster of vehicles to recursively improve estimates of ocean, bottom, and acoustic parameters with reduced error variances in the volume of interest, thereby improving probability of detection while reducing false alarm rates.
    SUMMARY: This multi-year program is based on an extensive build-test-build approach in which AWACS components and algorithms are designed, built, tested, and evaluated; then redesigned and rebuilt based on test results. The NPS effort in 2008 built upon the previous year's effort to produce an improved estimation system built on a platform using commonly available PC components and software. The physical system is portable and well-suited for sea-based or land-based operations, wherever sufficient bandwidth for data transfer is available for near-real-time assimilation. The system is designed to handle data generated from a variety of ocean sensors provided the data are geo-referenced by latitude and longitude coordinates and time-stamped. During the New England Shelf Test 2008 (NEST08), environmental data were routinely assimilated, providing range-dependent sound-speed profiles and directional TL predictions used in daily acoustic experiments. New interfaces were employed and improved algorithms were applied that generated directional TL predictions in near-real-time to support the upcoming daily experiment. Improved geo-acoustic modeling was also employed to provide optimal TL estimates.
    Work has commenced to incorporate ocean ambient-noise estimates to improve the value of guidance products. NPS has established a small Automatic Identification System (AIS) network along the central California coast using commercial, off-the-shelf receivers to begin analysis of ambient noise variability with shipping traffic over a moored hydrophone off Point Sur. A feed has been established from the Department of Transportation MSSIS system, which provides much wider area AIS coverage. These data will help establish shipping statistics in support of noise prediction in various regions of interest.
    KEYWORDS: Littoral, Acoustics, Surveillance, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, Anti-Submarine Warfare, Ambient Noise
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Joseph2008,
      author = {John E. Joseph},
      title = {THE AUTONOMOUS WIDE APERTURE CLUSTER FOR SURVEILLANCE},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://www.nps.edu/research/publications/researchsummaries08.pdf}
    }
    
    Joseph, J.E. & Miller, C. Application of automatic identification system information to ocean soundscape modeling 2011
    Vol. 129(4)Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, PROGRAM ABSTRACTS OF THE 161ST MEETING OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, pp. 1 
    inproceedings DOI URL 
    Abstract: The impact of anthropogenic noise on marine life is an important issue to both the scientific community and public policy makers. Human-generated noise has potential to disrupt critical marine mammal biological functions such as foraging, communication, and navigation. Commercial shipping contributes significantly to the ocean soundscape, typically dominating the noise field at frequencies less than 500 Hz. Market conditions, trends in vessel design and propulsion, use of more economical ship routes, operational efficiency, and environmental factors are all important variables that help shape the changing soundscape. To reliably model the temporal and spatial variability of a regional soundscape, accurate characterization of the sources of noise is needed. Acoustic recordings taken at the Point Sur Ocean Acoustic Observatory (OAO) and Automatic Identification System (AIS) reports broadcast by ships passing the OAO site have been used to determine ship source levels over the 25-600 Hz band, categorized by ship class and speed. Source levels are then applied to a model used to evaluate temporal variability of the noise field at several sites along the central California coast based on AIS-reported shipping traffic transiting the region. Results of our calculations are presented and discussed. [Research supported by US Navy CNO(N45).]
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Joseph2011,
      author = {John E. Joseph and Christopher Miller},
      title = {Application of automatic identification system information to ocean soundscape modeling},
      booktitle = {Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, PROGRAM ABSTRACTS OF THE 161ST MEETING OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {129},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1},
      url = {http://asadl.org/jasa/resource/1/jasman/v129/i4/p2367_s4?bypassSSO=1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3587662}
    }
    
    Kaarmann, L. & Usk, A. e-Navigation Test Bed Development in Estonia 2011 EfficienSea E-NAVIGATION UNDERWAY, pp. 64-  article URL 
    Abstract: Due to the widespread use of a cost efficient GSM/GPRS based AtoN remote control and monitoring system, implementation of ?real? AIS AtoN equipment on floating aids was abandoned due to high cost and limited functional capabilities. Instead, synthetic AIS AtoN broadcasting based on status data received over the monitoring data link was implemented as the first e-Navigation service. Deployment of a synthetic AIS AtoN signalling infrastructure retained the flexibility, sophistication and bandwidth of the original GSM/GPRS based remote control and monitoring network, while creating a platform with the capability to broadcast Safety Related Messages, Virtual AtoN Messages, Hydro-meteorological and binary messages in addition to regular AtoN Reports. In terms of costs, yearly subscription for operating a low volume GSM/GPRS data link with most service providers is already within the same order of magnitude compared to a yearly AIS license fee, while the prices per kilobyte of data transmitted in the cellular networks are still exhibiting a downward trend. Utilizing GSM data links opens the avenue for introduction of additional services requiring higher data transmission capabilities like acceleration measurement for platform stability research using the same TelFiCon hardware intended for remote control and monitoring. It is also worth to remind that once the infrastructure is in place, synthetic as well as virtual AIS AtoN broadcasts are not subject to AIS license fees

    Daily operation of the AtoN monitoring is performed using a set of HTML/JavaScript based webpages served to the users for AtoN population status display and equipment configuration upon logging on using a web browser. A simple structured table showing coloured blocks with AtoN numbers inside was chosen for the main situation status screen over a nautical chart based graphical display due to the interface efficiency - capability of providing a clear technical overview of AtoN operational situation, uncluttered by irrelevant details, and the speed of navigating between different screens. Nevertheless, an interface is provided for displaying the AtoNs with position monitoring information on the nautical chart background using external web mapping service (WMS). The user interface of RCMC software is currently provided in the Estonian language.

    Review: What AIS license fees???
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kaarmann2011,
      author = {Leo Kaarmann and Aivar Usk},
      title = {e-Navigation Test Bed Development in Estonia},
      journal = {EfficienSea E-NAVIGATION UNDERWAY},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {64-},
      url = {http://www.efficiensea.org/files/conferenceproceedings.pdf}
    }
    
    Kanehl, R. Coast Guard awards contract for Nationwide Automatic Identification System core data exchange capability 2008 Press Release  misc URL 
    Abstract: WASHINGTON , The U.S. Coast Guard's Acquisition Directorate announced Monday the award of a contract to Northrop Grumman Space & Mission Systems Corp. to deliver the core Nationwide Automatic Identification System data exchange capability.

    Under the contract, valued at about $$12 million, Northrop Grumman will provide the necessary shore-side communications, network and processing capability to ensure the effective exchange of Automatic Identification System information between AIS-equipped vessels, aircraft, aids to navigation and shore stations within all major U.S. ports, waterways and coastal zones as well as from AIS-equipped vessels bound for the U.S.

    The core data exchange capability consists of all the system components and functionality, including AIS receive and transmit messaging, data processing, data storage and retrieval and system monitoring, on a limited geographic scale. AIS is an internationally adopted communication system to provide for autonomous, continuous exchange of vessel positions and other navigation safety related information.

    "The Nationwide AIS project is already making critical contributions to maritime safety and security at our nation's highest priority ports and coastal zones," said Rear Adm. Gary T. Blore, assistant commandant for acquisitions. "This contract will allow the Coast Guard to fully leverage the inherent features of AIS by adding transmit capabilities to our nationwide system, which will provide a considerable enhancement to safety of navigation and the marine transportation system."

    The Coast Guard solicited for this work under a full and open competition, following a disciplined process to award the contract from a robust pool of offerors. Northrop Grumman was selected because the firm offered the best value of technical capability, management approach and price.

    The contract provides for a two-year base period and six, one-year option periods. In addition to the core data exchange capabilities Northrop Grumman will deliver transmit and expanded receive coverage for Coast Guard Sectors Delaware Bay, Philadelphia; Hampton Roads, Va.; and Mobile, Ala., during the base period.

    Northrop Grumman's Command and Control Systems Division, headquartered at Herndon, Va., will perform the work at Newport News, Va., and Carson, Calif., as well as at each of the three initial Coast Guard sectors and their surrounding areas.

    The contract option periods include optional tasks to provide surveys and equipment in support of the U.S. Government's implementation of transmit and expanded-receive coverage for the remaining Coast Guard sectors. The approximate total value of this contract, if all options are exercised, is approximately $$68 million.

    "I am looking forward to working with Northrop Grumman to successfully deliver this important new capability," said Cmdr. James K. Ingalsbe, NAIS deputy project manager. "The first increment of NAIS provided the Coast Guard valuable capability to build maritime domain awareness. The award of this contract will allow the Coast Guard to begin using all the capabilities of AIS in support of all Coast Guard missions, and in providing services to mariners to enhance their safety, security, and efficiency."

    The Coast Guard's Acquisition Directorate is responsible for a $$27 billion investment portfolio that includes more than 20 major projects. The Coast Guard's investment in modernization and recapitalization ensures that the operational force has the equipment necessary to remain the lead agency in maritime safety, security and natural resources stewardship.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{uscg2008b,
      author = {Richard Kanehl},
      title = {Coast Guard awards contract for Nationwide Automatic Identification System core data exchange capability},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://www.piersystem.com/go/doc/786/246102/}
    }
    
    Kao, S.-L., Lee, K.-T., Chang, K.-Y. & Ko, M.-D. A Fuzzy Logic Method for Collision Avoidance in Vessel Traffic Service 2007 The Journal of Navigation
    Vol. 60(01), pp. 17-31 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: ABSTRACT Currently Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) does not have enough technical capability to monitor a crowded surveillance area to maintain safety. Without an efficient alerting system, many marine accidents have occurred due to operator oversight. In this article, a new fuzzy logic method is proposed to add vessel collision avoidance capability to VTS&sol;AIS systems for all potential collision ships in the surveillance area. Starting from the VTS standpoint and integrating AIS data into the Marine Geographic Information System (MGIS) as a platform, the calculations of ship domain and ship inertial force are utilized to generate models of a guarding ring and danger index. By this means, a precise prediction of collision time and position can be achieved using a marine GIS spatial analyst module. The proposed method is able to enhance the VTS operator&apos;s decision-making abilities by providing a collision avoidance alerting system.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kao2007,
      author = {Kao,Sheng-Long and Lee,Kuo-Tien and Chang,Ki-Yin and Ko,Min-Der},
      title = {A Fuzzy Logic Method for Collision Avoidance in Vessel Traffic Service},
      journal = {The Journal of Navigation},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {60},
      number = {01},
      pages = {17-31},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0373463307003980},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0373463307003980}
    }
    
    Karppinen, S. ARRANGEMENT AND METHOD FOR PROVIDING NAVIGATIONAL INFORMATION TO ELECTRONIC CHART SYSTEMS FOR VISUALIZATION 2011 (WO/2011/027032)  patent URL 
    Abstract: An arrangement (201) for facilitating the management of navigational messages in a vessel comprising an AIS (Automatic Identification System) entity (108, 208) configured to wirelessly receive an AIS binary message, said AIS binary message comprising a navigational message, an electronic chart entity (110, 210) capable of controlling the visual representation of a nautical chart on a display surface, such as on a display or on a target surface of a projector, said electronic chart entity being configured to visualize an entity referred to in the navigational message as located on a chart position indicated by the navigational message. A corresponding method and a transmission entity are presented.

    http://www.linkedin.com/in/sampokarppinen

    Review: Seems rediculous. Can't find the full text
    BibTeX:
    @patent{Karppinen2011,
      author = {Sampo Karppinen},
      title = {ARRANGEMENT AND METHOD FOR PROVIDING NAVIGATIONAL INFORMATION TO ELECTRONIC CHART SYSTEMS FOR VISUALIZATION},
      year = {2011},
      number = {WO/2011/027032},
      url = {http://www.wipo.int/pctdb/en/wo.jsp?IA=FI2010050679}
    }
    
    Keane, F.W. USCG-2009-0701-0004 2010 Regulations.gov  article URL 
    Abstract: The Board is supportive of making near real-time Nationwide Automatic Identification System ("NAiS") or historical NAIS information available to State agencies, such a the Board, since it would provide an additional tool in the investigation of a marine casualty as well as provide useful information in regulatory and compliance issues relating to State pilotage.

    Board of Commissioners of Pilots of the State of New York

    BibTeX:
    @article{Keane2010,
      author = {Frank W. Keane},
      title = {USCG-2009-0701-0004},
      journal = {Regulations.gov},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=USCG-2009-0701-0004}
    }
    
    Kondo, M., Hayashi, Y. & Kubo, T. NAVIGATION ASSISTING DEVICE 2011 (20110084870 A1)  patent URL 
    Abstract: This disclosure provides a navigation assisting device, which includes a TT information acquiring module for acquiring target object data by performing target tracking based on an echo received by a radar antenna, an AIS information acquiring module for acquiring target object data based on a Universal Shipborne Automatic Identification System, a maximum-number-of-output-data determination module for determining a maximum number of output data that is the number of target object data that is outputable while the radar antenna revolves once, a priority determination module for performing a priority determination according to a predetermined rule, for the target object data acquired by the TT information acquiring module and the target object data acquired by the AIS information acquiring module, and an output control module for outputting the target object data fewer than the maximum number of output data according to the priorities while the radar antenna revolves once.
    Review: TT == target tracking?
    BibTeX:
    @patent{Kondo2011,
      author = {Kondo, Motoji and
    Hayashi, Yoshihito and
    Kubo, Takatsugu}, title = {NAVIGATION ASSISTING DEVICE}, year = {2011}, number = {20110084870 A1}, url = {http://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2011/0084870.html} }
    Kreucher, C. & Shapo, B. A Fuse-Before-Track Approach to Target State Estimation Using Passive Acoustic Sensors 2011 The Proceedings of The 14th International Conference on Information Fusion  inproceedings URL 
    Abstract: This paper describes a Bayesian fuse-before- track approach to detecting and tracking moving targets by fusing data from multiple passive acoustic arrays. We describe a surveillance application, where a collection of fixed location arrays are charged with monitoring a spatial region. Each array provides information only about target bearing relative to the array. The conventional approach is to track bearing at each array and then fuse the tracks to estimate XY position. Instead, in fuse-before-track, we fuse measurements before creating tracks. The fusion is done using a nonlinear filter, where non-thresholded measurements corrupted by non-Gaussian noise which are related non- linearly to the desired target state are combined from all arrays in one tracker. We illustrate the algorithms’ efficacy on real, collected at-sea data.

    Targets were automatically detected and initiated according to the methodology of Section 3. Since this was a controlled experiment, we also have latitude and longitude truth sources from the Automatic Identification System (AIS) for some of the contacts in the collection. One of the targets in our surveillance region during the period of interest was an AIS equipped vessel, and its truth track (dashed gray line) is shown in the plot for comparison to the tracker output. The tracks are color coded to distinguish the traces.

    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Kreucher2011,
      author = {Chris Kreucher and Ben Shapo},
      title = {A Fuse-Before-Track Approach to Target State Estimation Using Passive Acoustic Sensors},
      booktitle = {The Proceedings of The 14th International Conference on Information Fusion},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www-personal.umich.edu/~ckreuche/PAPERS/2011Fusion_Fuse_before_track.pdf}
    }
    
    Kubricky, J.J. Keynote: Observations, Outlook & Opportunities 2010 TEXAS IV  inproceedings URL 
    Abstract: Will a partial AIS capability today be better than AIS with all desired features a few years later?
    What impact will a non-NATO nation have on ops when it becomes the global provider of AIS data?
    Is it worth overrunning the budget to obtain new AIS features that were not originally envisioned?
    Is it worth overrunning the schedule for new or better AIS features that aren't needed this year?
    Will my AIS project be delivered within budget and on time before my current boss rotates out?
    How can secure AIS operations be assured for military and civilian law enforcement purposes?

    As students in this University's GIS Exploitation Course, you will use commercially
    available tools and data to complete a number of tactical assessments that will aid a
    military evaluation of current airpower at regions in the southern United States. USA,
    Australia, Canada, England, Germany, Italy and Japan have agreed not to suppress or
    redact this information from the World Wide Web, so our country will use all globally
    available commercial sensors for total exploitation of airspace and maritime domains.

    TEXAS participants must engage in global partnerships through trust, collaboration and speed to achieve maritime awareness
    AIS success requires a global coalition
    AIS Technologies Exist (TRL8); but Political Science has not yet fully matured (PRL4/5).
    TEXAS participants should agree by the end of this conference on an inventory of barriers that prevent successful AIS capabilities, and offer alternatives that solve political/resource shortfalls; discuss options and outcomes.
    Define the end-state that permits collaboration

    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Kubricky2010,
      author = {John J. Kubricky},
      title = {Keynote: Observations, Outlook & Opportunities},
      booktitle = {TEXAS IV},
      publisher = {Nationa Maritime Domain Awareness Coordination Office (NMCO)},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/TEXAS/briefs/TEXAS%20IV%20Keynote%20Day%201%20J%20Kubricky%20B_W.ppt}
    }
    
    Kunz, E. NAVnet MaxSea 2006 AIS 06  conference URL 
    Abstract: Sales pitch

    Ethernet TCP/IP Networking
    Uses many types of chart formats including Vector and Raster Formats
    Unique 'Layering' Display Architecture
    Free Subscription to Weather data (including SST/Altimetry/Chlorophyll)

    Optimum Weather Routing Feature for Sailing Vessels
    Exclusive PBG (Personal Bathymetric Generator)
    Simple IMO/Navet Radar Integration

    2D layer (Color Shading)
    3D Window
    Personal Bathy Generator (PBG)
    Contour Based Route Creation
    Forward Looking Sounder
    Bottom Hardness/Roughness Display

    Forward Looking Depth Profile (FLDP) and Echo-Gram Display

    e-Nav AIS Features
    AIS Target Display on any chart
    AIS center (Sort, Center On…)
    Trail and Track for every target
    Programmable Monitoring Zones reduces 'Information Overload'
    AIS Contact Database
    ARPA/AIS Target Fusion (IMO Radars)

    Future e-Nav Concepts
    Satellite Weather via XM or Sirius
    Virtual A-TONs Display
    'My.Furuno.Com' Automatic Logging
    'Web Services' for Automatic Chart Updating and Software Updating
    Powerboat Weather Routing Module

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Kunz2006,
      author = {Eric Kunz},
      title = {NAVnet MaxSea},
      booktitle = {AIS 06},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20090219050951/http://rhppublishing.com/Presentations%20Day%202/Kunz%20Presentation.ppt}
    }
    
    L-3 L-3 AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS) AID to NAVIGATION (AtoN) PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE 2008   manual  
    Abstract: AtoN PART NUMBERS: ATN01-100-00 ATN01-100-01 ATN01-100-02 ATN01-100-03 ATN01-300-00 ATN01-300-01 ATN01-300-02 ATN01-300-03 ATN01-301-00
    ATN01-111-00 ATN01-111-02 ATN01-311-00 ATN01-311-02 ATN01-311-03
    ATN01-120-00 ATN01-121-00 ATN01-320-00 ATN01-321-00

    P/N: 165M0014-30

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) Aids to Navigation (AtoN) is designed to be installed as an integral part of weather and navigation buoys to transmit warn- ings, navigational, and meteorological data to approaching vessels. L-3 offers two versions of the AIS AtoN. Type 1 transmits output messages, while Type 3 transmits and receives messages.
    In its most basic form, the unit transmits a report with the AIS AtoN's position in an ITUR 1371 message 21. When the unit contains a daughterboard or it interfaces with the buoy's navigational and weather instrumentation, additional messages transmit navigational and meteorological data. A summary of all the messages processed by the AIS AtoN are defined in this section.
    A fully functional AtoN, as defined by IEC 62320-2, can be configured with multiple MMSI values (unique identifiers) in order to provide virtual and/or synthetic AtoN operation. An AtoN also can act as a relay point in a chain of AtoNs to allow for re- mote configuration of AtoNs, using the VDL. Furthermore an AtoN can be configured to use RATDMA (Type 3 only) or FATDMA for transmissions on the VDL.

    BibTeX:
    @manual{L-32008,
      author = {L-3},
      title = {L-3 AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS) AID to NAVIGATION (AtoN) PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE},
      year = {2008}
    }
    
    Lagueux, K.M., Zani, M.A., Knowlton, A.R. & Kraus, S.D. Response by vessel operators to protection measures for right whales Eubalaena glacialis in the southeast US calving ground 2011 ENDANGERED SPECIES RESEARCH
    Vol. 14, pp. 69-77 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Vessel strikes are the leading cause of mortality for the endangered North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis. Prior to a December 2008 implementation of a mandatory, seasonally based vessel-speed rule (10 knots, 18.5 km h–1) along the eastern US seaboard, voluntary recommended speeds and routes were established. We used Automatic Identification System (AIS) data to evaluate and compare the compliance rates between the mandatory and voluntary measures to protect right whales in the southeast US critical habitat area off Florida and Georgia during the winters from 2005–06 to 2008–09. Vessel compliance was significantly higher under mandatory versus voluntary recommended speed restrictions, with compliance rates of 75 and 16 respectively. Average vessel speeds were slower under mandatory speed restrictions (10.5 knots, 19.6 km h–1) compared to voluntary recommended speed restrictions (14.5 knots, 26.9 km h–1). Although vessels only slow down when mandated, they change their routing voluntarily. Compliance rates with voluntary recommended routes steadily increased during this period, from 43% prior to rulemaking, to 52% during the first year, 84% in the second year, and 96% in the final year of the study. Combining reduced speeds with recommended routes reduces the probability of right whale mortality from ships by 71.9% from the pre-implementation period. These results support long-term implementation of both vessel-speed reduction and restricted vessel routes for the survival and recovery of the North Atlantic right whale.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lagueux2011,
      author = {Kerry M. Lagueux and Monica A. Zani and Amy R. Knowlton and Scott D. Kraus},
      title = {Response by vessel operators to protection measures for right whales Eubalaena glacialis in the southeast US calving ground},
      journal = {ENDANGERED SPECIES RESEARCH},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {14},
      pages = {69-77},
      url = {http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/esr/v14/n1/p69-77/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/esr00335}
    }
    
    Lane, B. AIS Parser SDK 2010 software  misc URL 
    Abstract: The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a ship tracking network using VHF transponders. AIS equipped ships are transmitting their positions, destinations, names, cargo types, etc. You can receive these transmissions using expensive AIS transponders, or receivers such as those available from Milltech Marine, SeaCAS and Y-Tronic. AIS transponders and receivers output the received information as serial data using AIVDM messages. These are described in the IEC 61993-2 specification, but they are very similar to NMEA 0813 messages output by GPS devices.

    The AIS Parser SDK parses these packed serial messages into data structures containing all of the AIS information for each message type. It allows you to easily add AIS capabilities to your desktop and web products, saving you valuable development time. The SDK consists of 3 'C' files to link into your project; you then pass serial data to the SDK and it returns data structures with all of the information from the message. The AIS message contents are documented by the ITU M.1371 and IEC 62287 specifications. You will need a copy of these to fully understand the data generated by the SDK.

    Example applications are included that process AIS messages from stdin and output json, xml and human readable text. The ais_json application is used in the AIS Google Map Demo page.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Lane2010,
      author = {Brian Lane},
      title = {AIS Parser SDK},
      year = {2010},
      note = {v 1.10},
      url = {https://github.com/bcl/aisparser}
    }
    
    Lans, H. Position Indicating System 1996 (5506587)  patent URL 
    Abstract: A plurality of movable objects, such as aircraft, are provided with GPS receivers, enabling the individual determination of longitude and latitude. Further, the receiver also receives a very precise time base from the GPS satellites. This very precise time base is used to enable all of the plurality of movable objects to transmit in a predetermined radio frequency their identities and positions in precisely determined time blocks. By limiting the range of the frequencies used by the movable objects to transmit, the range of receivability is limited, such that the system may be implemented as a worldwide overlapping mosaic. The transmissions of each movable object may be received by all of the plurality of movable objects, as well as by air traffic monitoring centers on the ground.
    BibTeX:
    @patent{Lans1996,
      author = {Hakan Lans},
      title = {Position Indicating System},
      year = {1996},
      number = {5506587},
      note = {Invalidated March 2010: http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/patog/week13/OG/html/1352-5/US05506587-20100330.html},
      url = {http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5506587.html}
    }
    
    Larson, J. Electronic Charting Systems and other Navigation Regulatory Changes 2007 eNavigation conference, pp. 7  article  
    Abstract: Office of Navigation Systems

    INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS As of July 1, 2002, SOLAS Chapter V restated the applicability of navigation regulations as follows for vessels not falling under international regulations:

    The administration shall determine the extent of the provision to be implemented on:
    Vessels less than 150 GT on any voyage
    Vessels less than 500 GT not engaged on international voyage
    Fishing vessels
    All vessels operating landward of the baseline

    PUBLIC LAW 108-293 ELECTRONIC CHARTS -..the following vessels, while operating on the navigable waters of the United States, shall be equipped with and operate electronic charts under regulations prescribed by the secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating:

    (Public Law 108-293 cont.) A) A self-propelled commercial vessel of at least 65 feet overall length B) A vessel carrying more than a number of passengers for hire determined by the Secretary C) A towing vessel of more than 26 feet in overall length and 600 HP D) Any other vessel for which the Secretary decides that electronic charts are necessary for the safe navigation of the vessel.

    OVERLAPPING APPLICABILITY
    The U.S. is signatory, and thus obligated to adhere to SOLAS Chapter V.
    Domestic navigation requirements encompass all waters under the jurisdiction of the U.S. as per 33 USC 1221

    SOLAS recognizes only ECDIS as an optional primary navigation means to paper charts
    Chart data availability
    The paper chart issue/backup
    Performance standard considerations/Type Approval

    BibTeX:
    @article{Larson2007,
      author = {Jim Larson},
      title = {Electronic Charting Systems and other Navigation Regulatory Changes},
      journal = {eNavigation conference},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {7}
    }
    
    Larsson, R. AIVDM & AIVDO: Online Decoder for AIS NMEA messages 2003 web  misc URL 
    Abstract: AIS receivers and transponders report received messages over the NMEA protocol in AIVDM sentences. They look something like this:

    !AIVDM,1,1,,A,13u?etPv2;0n:dDPwUM1U1Cb069D,0*24

    AIVDM messages are AIS reports from other vessels, and AIVDO messages carry your own ship’s data.

    Below is a very simple decoder for NMEA AIVDM sentences. Currently it only decodes message types 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 – i.e. position reports for class A shipborne equipment, base station reports and static data reports. Some less interesting data is left out from the result, but the good stuff is there! Where applicable, you will also get a link to Google Maps where you can check the target’s position.

    Most of the time was spent on the Internet, gathering information on GMSK, NRZI and bit stuffing. Too much time was wasted finding the required modem circuit CMX589. Sometimes it is a good idea to look in the least likely place first..! AIS signal from the discriminator The AIS signal is trickier to decode than, for instance, FFSK or Pocsag. Brave souls would use their soundcards to decode AIS, I chose to use a hardware solution with a special modem circuit. This made the programming burden easier, but I had to deal with crystals, ICs and capacitors instead. Decisions, decisions … At least this solution works whatever computer I use, it just needs a serial port. The software doesn’t care if my soundcard is of the ”correct” type, or if I have a soundcard at all.

    After I found a bug (or ”undocumented feature”) in the AVR’s bit unstuffing code, the quality of the decoding was somewhat improved. Far from perfect, but now I can blame the hardware and a poor receiving location.

    The AIS decoding software is not available for purchase. Nor is it a giveaway, a freeware or a shareware. It was a pure recreational hobby project.

    Review: First saw this online in the 2006 time frame if I remember right.

    Explicity says the source or binaries are not available

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Larsson2003,
      author = {Robert Larsson},
      title = {AIVDM & AIVDO: Online Decoder for AIS NMEA messages},
      year = {2003},
      url = {http://rl.se/aivdm}
    }
    
    Leaper, R. & Panigada, S. SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON THE USE OF AIS DATA TO ESTIMATE SHIPPING DENSITY FOR SHIP STRIKE RISK ASSESSMENT 2011 International Whaling Commission 63rd Annual Meeting  inproceedings URL 
    Abstract: Data on shipping density are required for input into risk assessment of ship strikes. Automatic identification Systems (AIS) data have been used for estimation of shipping density in a number of studies. Several different measures of density exist and some methods are presented for converting these to comparable units. The limited range of terrestrial AIS complicates analysis and limits spatial coverage. New developments in AIS received from satellites (S-AIS) have allowed correction factors to be applied for vessels missed and provided the first quantitative estimates of average shipping density at a global scale. These highlight the concentrated nature of global shipping with the majority of under way vessels concentrated in 2% of the global sea area when shipping density is averaged over 1o blocks. Although relatively coarse resolution these data provide new opportunities for comparative ship strike risk assessments and S-AIS data may be available at a finer spatial scale for areas of specific interest identified as high risk.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Leaper2011,
      author = {Russell Leaper and Simone Panigada},
      title = {SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON THE USE OF AIS DATA TO ESTIMATE SHIPPING DENSITY FOR SHIP STRIKE RISK ASSESSMENT},
      booktitle = {International Whaling Commission 63rd Annual Meeting},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://iwcoffice.org/_documents/sci_com/SC63docs/SC-63-BC4.pdf}
    }
    
    Lee, R. A Rationale for Future Bridge Navigation Displays; A new IMO Initiative 2000 http://www.uais.org/RoyLeesPaper%28Ver1.3%29.html  misc URL 
    Abstract: Summary:

    In July 2000, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) at its NAV46 meeting agreed to a new work item -to harmonize the presentation of navigation information' in such a way as -to avoid confusion in the display of such information' [1]. This paper aims to give a brief review of some of the issues that need to be addressed, especially in the area of distributed information and clutter and to propose a means for moving forward in a coordinated effort to solve the anticipated problems.

    It is suggested that common integrated displays ( also known as multi-function displays ) with data fusion - rather than confusion - is perhaps the best way forward. Such common displays should be duplicated ( or triplicated ) and should all be -Navigation and Hazard displays' that give effective -situation awareness' and -decision aid' support to the mariner. They should be individually selectable for the prevailing scenario and inclusive of all operational needs, both for the displayed information and what is displayed where. The selection of the presented information should be filtered by the -need to know principle' to enable the user to reduce cognitive workload.

    It is further strongly recommended that an Internationally agreed -common display surface' to the user be defined in both operation and symbology, irrespective of manufacturer. This is considered to be the only safe way forward particularly with predicted future manning levels. The maritime user should be party to agreeing such an interface.

    A regulatory impact assessment should be carried out so that all stakeholders, including those involved in training, are better informed of the benefits and risks.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Lee2000,
      author = {Roy Lee},
      title = {A Rationale for Future Bridge Navigation Displays; A new IMO Initiative},
      year = {2000},
      url = {http://www.uais.org/RoyLeesPaper%28Ver1.3%29.html}
    }
    
    Legouge, R., SUNILA, R., VIRRANTAUS, K. & Seppanen, H. Risk and Vulnerability Analysis in the Gulf of Finland 2010 FIG Congress 2010 - Facing the Challenges - Building the Capacity  inproceedings URL 
    Abstract: In 1994, the biggest catastrophe ever in the Gulf of Finland caused the deaths of more than eight hundred people in a major shipping accident. This major accident and the increase in the sea traffic between Helsinki and Tallinn, which crosses waterways going into and out of St. Petersburg, led to the study of the risks and vulnerability of shipping traffic in many research studies. In this paper, the authors aim to present risk and vulnerability models in the Gulf of Finland based on data from the Automatic Identification System. The risk model uses the accident probability density and population density model for the analysis, whereas the vulnerability analysis uses data based on the A.I.S. The risk model anticipates the location of future accidents on the basis of accident history information and the probability of an accident occurring. Therefore, it can be used to define the areas where people may be affected by shipping accidents. The vulnerability model can be used to detect ships that cannot be reached by either the rescue units or nearby ships in the traffic flow at the given time. The vulnerability analysis chart can be used to predict the future position of ships in the traffic flow and the capability of the rescue units. The outcome of both analyses is useful information for the coastguard unit, which can assist them in their work, for example, to assist them in setting up patrols for the observation of ships that may be at risk. This study can be taken as a preliminary study for building a real-time coastguard system. Some factors were left out of this study, for instance, the weather conditions and the season. These factors can be added to a subsequent study to improve the quality of the model and produce more realistic results.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Legouge2010,
      author = {Raphael Legouge and Rangsima SUNILA and Kirsi VIRRANTAUS and Hannes Seppanen},
      title = {Risk and Vulnerability Analysis in the Gulf of Finland},
      booktitle = {FIG Congress 2010 - Facing the Challenges - Building the Capacity},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.fig.net/pub/fig2010/papers/ts10e%5Cts10e_legouge_sunila_et_al_4195.pdf}
    }
    
    Lehner, S. TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X Mission Status Ship Detection Campaigns at DLR 2010 TEXAS IV  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Lehner2010,
      author = {Susanne Lehner},
      title = {TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X Mission StatusShip Detection Campaigns at DLR},
      booktitle = {TEXAS IV},
      publisher = {Nationa Maritime Domain Awareness Coordination Office (NMCO)},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/TEXAS/briefs/TSX-TDX-Status-Sept2010_Leh.ppt}
    }
    
    Leppavuori, E.K., Nyman, T. & Berglund, R. President and CEO Erkki KM Leppavuori, VTT: New safety technology for the entire Baltic Sea 2010 Press Release  misc URL 
    Abstract: Maritime safety should be viewed as an international whole

    Risks related to maritime traffic in the Baltic Sea have been assessed only in areas where a concrete risk of accident has been detected. However, the risk analyses carried out by different countries in these areas vary greatly. According to VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, maritime safety would improve across the entire Baltic Sea if accident risks were analysed in all Baltic countries and across wider areas using a system for risk assessment that is jointly agreed on by all parties.

    "The Automatic Identification System (AIS) for the identification and communication of ships also offers significant possibilities for improving traffic safety in the Baltic Sea. By investing in technologies which promote maritime safety, accidents could be prevented and irreparable personal and environmental damages could be avoided," President and CEO Erkki KM Leppavuori notes.

    According to President and CEO Erkki KM Leppavuori, the Baltic Sea needs joint principles to apply the Formal Safety Assessment recommended by the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

    The technology already exists. The trouble is that currently, risk assessments carried out by different countries vary greatly, for example, in terms of how the costs of oil accidents are estimated. "A single method would enable the Baltic countries to identify real risk areas and assess the safety of their own sea territories," Leppavuori explains.

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) transmits geographical and identification data to and between ships, facilitating safe passage and readiness in changing sea conditions. The system provides a cohesive picture of sea traffic in the area. It helps ships anticipate the behaviour of surrounding traffic, and icebreakers can head to where help is needed. The system also facilitates more accurate risk analyses.

    VTT has been involved in developing new message specifications for the AIS to increase the data content of messages. Using this new type of message (the AIS Application-Specific Message), ships can update weather information received from land stations on e.g. wind speeds, sea levels and atmospheric pressure in real time and thus predict changes in weather and sea conditions.

    The new messages will reduce the workload of captains and navigators. In the future, they can concentrate on navigation instead of using the traditional VHF voice radio method to send information about the ship's cargo, passenger numbers and any detected hazards. In addition, the new messages provide an efficient means of communication to inform ships about caution areas, search and rescue operations and routes recommended by icebreakers.

    The integration of the new message format to existing on-board systems is slow. It could be decades before it is in wide use. That is why VTT is in the process of developing an affordable and easy method for ships to adopt the new features provided by AIS. In order to utilise the new features, ships need software that runs on a regular computer, and a cable to link the computer to the ship's AIS transponder. The software interprets the messages transmitted by AIS and provides current weather observations and other data in an easy-to-view format. The first version of the software is already being tested aboard Viking Line's ships. The project is a joint venture of VTT, the Baltic Sea Action Group, IBM and the Finnish Transport Agency.

    VTT has used AIS to collect data about hazardous near misses between ships, which happen at sea from time to time. More efficient monitoring of maritime traffic can help to reduce the number of near misses.

    Maritime traffic control system can learn to predict hazards

    Maritime safety in the Gulf of Finland is monitored at VTS (Vessel Traffic Service) centres. VTS is designed to improve maritime safety, promote the flow and efficiency of vessel traffic and to prevent accidents and related environmental damages.

    The increased traffic in the Gulf of Finland - the ever-growing numbers of oil cargoes in particular - has meant that each VTS operator is responsible for monitoring more ships.

    VTT develops tools to forecast hazards and to help busy traffic service personnel take these hazards into account in advance. The method currently being developed by VTT is based on "teaching" the control system by imitating normal sea traffic. This way, the system learns to predict abnormal ship movements. This, in turn, gives the control personnel and ship crew time to act in order to avoid accidents.

    Traffic separation to improve safety in Sea of Aland

    The IMO-approved traffic separation scheme, which was deployed in the Sea of Aland on 1 January 2010, separates north- and southbound traffic into different lanes. The deployment was based on the risk analysis carried out by VTT, which showed that traffic separation and its control is a very cost-efficient way to improve safety in the area and to protect the vulnerable archipelago.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Leppavuori2010,
      author = {Erkki KM Leppavuori and Tapio Nyman and Robin Berglund},
      title = {President and CEO Erkki KM Leppavuori, VTT: New safety technology for the entire Baltic Sea},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.vtt.fi/news/2010/10022010.jsp?lang=en}
    }
    
    Lessing, P., Tetreault, B., L.J.Bernard & J.N.Chaffi Use of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) on Autonomous Weather Buoys forMaritime Domain Awareness Applications 2006 IEEE Oceans 2006  inproceedings DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper discusses system design of a prototype, autonomous, buoy-based, embedded system for AIS-equipped vessel detection using an AIS receiver and satellite transmitter for near real-time relay of vessel identification data. This paper also describes follow-on enhancements to the system to further extend AIS coverage and field testing of the system. The prototype system development began in August 2004. The prototype system receives AIS data from AIS-equipped vessels on a timed, periodic schedule, processes and verifies received data onboard the buoy, and relays these data from the remote weather buoy via satellite in and near real-time to the NDBC Data Assembly Center (NDAC), and then on to the USCG. The prototype system was successfully field tested March 2005 through June 2005 on four near-shore NDBC buoys located in the Strait of Juan de Fuca, near San Francisco Harbor, near Charleston, South Carolina and near Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Field testing successfully proved the concept of collecting vessel identification data from an autonomous AIS system on NDBC weather buoys. Enhancements to the system were developed from August 2005 to February 2006. These enhancements extend AIS monitoring coverage from periodic AIS monitoring to continuous monitoring and conserve system power by insertion of NDBC weather data into the AIS data stream returning it to NDBC using the low power satellite telemetry of the AIS system rather than the existing high power geosynchronous satellite transmission system in use on most NDBC weather buoys. Extended field testing of the enhanced AIS system on four deep ocean NDBC weather buoys began in March 2006 and will continue through February 2007.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Lessing2006,
      author = {P.A. Lessing and Brian Tetreault and L.J.Bernard and J.N.Chaffi},
      title = {Use of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) on Autonomous Weather Buoys forMaritime Domain Awareness Applications},
      booktitle = {IEEE Oceans 2006},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4098860&tag=1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OCEANS.2006.307023}
    }
    
    Lewandowski, M.J. & Pietraszewski, D.J. Automatic Identification System A General Discussion of Development, Application, and Implementation 2002 USCG RDC?  article  
    Abstract: This introduces the Automatic Identification System (AIS) and discusses implementation issues. Class A international shipborne device standards are complete, and work continues on Class B and base station standards. This material is current as of June 2002. The paper addresses some Coast Guard specific issues but may interest other members of the Marine Transportation System (MTS) community.

    An Automatic Identification System (AIS) has been under development since 1997 when the International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted performance recommendations for a worldwide system. The IMO AIS recommendations state that AIS should improve safety 'by assisting navigation of ships, protection of the environment, and operation of Vessel Traffic Services (VTS), by satisfying the following functional requirements: in a ship-to-ship mode for collision avoidance; as a means for littoral States to obtain information about a ship and its cargo; and as a VTS tool, i.e. ship-to-shore (traffic management).'1
    In 1998, the Coast Guard Research and Development Center (R&DC) began participation 'in the international development of AIS technology through the related work of organizations, including the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), International Telecommunications Union (ITU), National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA), etc.,' and began to develop 'tools, including a computer simulation, to assess the capability and capacity of a network of AIS devices.'2Since then, R&DC emphasis has been on direct support for the international development and deployment of AIS technology. The R&DC is also active in the International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) development of the definition and description of AIS base-stations and infrastructure. IALA has been the primary organization for sponsoring and coordinating AIS development.

    AIS Information Use - Vessel collision avoidance
    The primary emphasis of AIS is collision avoidance. The International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea (COLREGS) require 'use of all available means appropriate'13 for collision avoidance. AIS will be one of those means. AIS may improve situational awareness. In comparison to radar and automatic radar plotting aids ('own ship' information), AIS information is provided directly from the 'other' ship's sensors (GNSS position, SOG, COG, heading, rate of turn, etc.), with each vessel's name and call sign.

    AIS Information Use - Shore Based AIS
    IMO specifically included littoral state monitoring and vessel traffic management in AIS functionality.23Shore-based AIS information flow will offer a wide range of possibilities andcomplementary uses. It also presents an organizational challenge to maximize AIS benefits. AIS infrastructure designers must look at two issues: the location of AIS base-stations (planned VHF Data Link coverage) and the information transfer architecture (AIS Network) for the 'application-oriented processes of exchanging AIS-related information.'24Together, these are considered a 'high-level' system. A sound AIS 'high-level' system infrastructure may be one of the most important elements in an Intelligent Waterways System.

    Functional Management and Planning for a High-Level System - VHF Data-Link and Shore AIS Network

    LIST OF COAST GUARD MISSION AREAS AND POTENTIAL USE OF AIS INFORMATION

    LIST OF NON-COAST GUARD MTS STAKEHOLDERS AND POTENTIAL USE OF AIS INFORMATION
    Aid to Navigation AIS
    The potential benefits from AIS-equipped aids to navigation are obvious. In addition to 'remote' AIS reception and relay (either via network or by the device acting as a repeater), its own broadcasting of performance monitoring information and actual position could alleviate numerous vessel sorties used to check operation and position. As AIS device cost constraints

    Review: FIX: Where did I find this paper?
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lewandowski2002,
      author = {M. J. Lewandowski and D. J. Pietraszewski},
      title = {Automatic Identification System A General Discussion of Development, Application, and Implementation},
      journal = {USCG RDC?},
      year = {2002}
    }
    
    Li, G. & Wang, T. A New Model for Information Fusion based on Grey Theory 2011 Information Technology Journal
    Vol. 10, pp. 1 
    article URL 
    Abstract: rey theory is one of the research methods of uncertainty, which is superior in the mathematical analysis of systems with uncertain information. This study develops a data processing method with grey theory toward data fusion for ship navigation and collision avoidance system. In view of the information complementarities between Automatic Radar Plotting Aid (ARPA) radar and Automatic Identification System (AIS), we fuse AIS information with ARPA radar and present an information fusion framework based on gray theory to provide more accurate and reliable data for ship navigation and collision avoidance system. Owning to the lack of track association based on fuzzy mathematics and statistics, we propose a novel track association algorithm based on grey theory. The simulation results demonstrate that the identification accuracy is 98-99% in the circumstance of about 40 target ships. It has a high matching rate of track association.

    http://www.doaj.org/doaj?func=abstract&id=695333

    BibTeX:
    @article{Li2011,
      author = {Guangzheng Li and Tao Wang},
      title = {A New Model for Information Fusion based on Grey Theory},
      journal = {Information Technology Journal},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {10},
      pages = {1},
      url = {http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/ansinet/itj/2011/189-194.pdf}
    }
    
    Lillycrop, J. & Tetreault, B. e-Navigation Testbeds in the United States - interagency cooperation in alignment with international efforts 2011 e-Navigation Underway: International Conference on e-Navigation Testbeds, pp. 41.  article URL 
    Abstract: The United States has thousands of miles of ocean and lake coastline, inland waterways and coastal fairways used for navigation by domestic vessels and vessels from all over the world. Over 25 separate US Government agencies have jurisdiction over or provide services in support of navigation on these waters. e- Navigation offers the promise of harmonizing the delivery of services and maritime operations on this diverse array of waters and waterway users. This paper will describe several of the testbeds underway and planned in the US to begin exploring tangible e-Navigation delivery of services and will touch on the US e-Navigation implementation strategy, currently being developed under the auspices of the Committee on the Marine Transportation System.
    Existing testbeds are addressing key parts of the e-Navigation ?problem, including navigation data standards and sharing amongst stakeholders, broader application of navigation technology to serve end users, and coordinated efforts amongst various stakeholders to reduce duplication of effort and develop synergies. These efforts will be described in more detail:
    -Federal-Industry Logistics Standardization/Federal Initiative for Navigation Data Enhancement (FILS/FINDE) - an effort between federal and private stakeholders to agree on data standards, data sharing agreements and data stewardship.
    -River Information Services (RIS) development, including the establishment of a RIS Center, the Lock Operations Management Application (LOMA) and the RIS Portal - coordinated efforts to provide various services, both existing and to be developed, to enhance inland waterway navigation safety, efficiency and reliability.
    -Expanded use of AIS technology to enhance navigation safety - including development of new AIS application specific messages to provide critical navigation safety information to mariners (Test beds in Tampa Florida and on the inland waterways will be discussed)
    -Advanced navigation safety coordination, including use of modeling and simulation to provide near- real-time hydrologic conditions on confined waterways - a planned test bed to use modeling to provide mariners with detailed hydrological information in critical waterway areas, such as the approach to locks or other constricted waterways.
    The US National e-Navigation Strategy is an ambitious effort to coordinate and harmonize the efforts of the multiple agencies of the US Federal Government with identified user needs of external stakeholders, including the shipping industry and mariners.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lillycrop2011,
      author = {Jeff Lillycrop and Brian Tetreault},
      title = {e-Navigation Testbeds in the United States - interagency cooperation in alignment with international efforts},
      journal = {e-Navigation Underway: International Conference on e-Navigation Testbeds},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {41.},
      url = {http://www.efficiensea.org/files/conferenceproceedings.pdf}
    }
    
    Littke, L. E- Navigation capabilities 2006 AIS 06  conference URL 
    Abstract: AIS target data volumes
    Training
    INS - Multifunction
    E- functions
    Data recording - Incident investigations

    Proper training is safety
    Reluctance to spend money on training
    Pressure on crews to act regardless
    IMO Model course - Generic
    Vendor 'Hands on' training - Responsibility
    Part of product
    AIS + ECDIS
    ECS part of ECDIS

    FIRST IN THE WORLD
    TYPE-APPROVED INS CLASS C
    Fully compliant with IEC 61924 standard

    Passage planning
    AUTHORITY REQUIREMENTS
    USER NEED / REQUEST
    ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT - Procedures / Routines - Document support
    ONE SYSTEM FITTS ALL

    3D Info - Chart objects - Topography - Route info - NoGo areas - AIS / ARPA targets

    Data recording
    Recording in INS - (S)VDR - ECDIS - ECS
    Analysis
    - Direct onboard - In office - In simulator
    Replay
    - Standard SVDR Playback SW - Simulator supported * Direct import - quick simple * Advanced

    Example

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Littke2006,
      author = {Lars Littke},
      title = {E- Navigation capabilities},
      booktitle = {AIS 06},
      publisher = {RHP Publications},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20090219051041/http://rhppublishing.com/Presentations%20Day%202/Transas%20Presentation.ppt}
    }
    
    Lloyd's Register IMO NAV 55 Report, The 55th session of IMO Sub-Committee on Safety of Navigation held on 27 - 31 July 2009 2009 NAV 55  conference URL 
    Abstract: 5.Measures to minimize incorrect data transmissions AIS equipment (Agenda Item 10)
    The Sub-Committee considered measures to minimize incorrect data transmissions by AIS equipment, in addition to the measures taken as MSC.1/Circ. 1252 - Guidelines on annual testing of the Automatic Identification System (AIS), and amendments to the Survey Guidelines under the HSSC (A.997 (25).
    (Draft new SOLAS Regulation V/18-9)
    The Sub-Committee, having considered documents submitted and opinions expressed, developed draft amendments to the SOLAS regulation as follows:
    The automatic identification system (AIS), shall be subjected to an annual test. The test shall be conducted by an approved surveyor or an approved testing or servicing facility. The test shall verify the correct programming of the ship static information, correct data exchange with connected sensors as well as verifying the radio performance by radio frequency measurement and on-air test using e.g., a Vessel Traffic Service (VTS). A copy of the test report shall be retained onboard the ship.
    Implications: So far as Safety Equipment Survey is carried out in conjunction with Safety Radio Survey, this may not induce any practical problem, however, the way to verify actual data in the transmission may require careful consideration.
    Application: To ships required to carry AIS onboard (all passenger ships regardless of tonnage and cargo ships (non-passenger ships) of 300 gt (engaged on international voyages), 500 gt (engaged on non-international voyages) or over)

    6.Development of an e-navigation strategy implementation plan (Agenda Item 11)

    (Satellite detection of AIS-Data)
    A member State expressed a need for legal instrument to govern commercial entities that distribute AIS Data through satellites that have been launched for that particular purpose.
    However, Sub-Committee agreed that the Sub-Committee is not a forum for discussing such policy and legal issues, and agreed to wait for instructions from the Committee.

    9.Revision of the Guidance on the application of AIS binary messages (Agenda Item 14)
    The AIS was originally developed as a means for positive identification and tracking of vessels. This was accomplished by transmitting and receiving static, dynamic, and voyage-related data about ships as well as short safety-related messages. In addition, AIS is beneficial to the safety of navigation and protection of the marine environment by monitoring the maritime traffic and by providing various basic services. In particular, AIS may be used binary messages for transmission of Application-Specific Messages as a means for certain type of limited communications. Various types of messages were developed for specific application.
    At NAV 49, guidance on the application of AIS Binary Messages was issued in SN/Circ.236 (28 May 2004). SN/Circ.236 contains interim guidelines for the presentation and display of AIS target information. However, it deals with the graphical presentation and display of AIS target data in standalone or integrated navigational systems. This includes the AIS Minimum Keyboard Display (MKD), radar, ECDIS and Integrated Navigation System (INS) equipment. At present, there is no requirement for ships to have any equipment capable of interpreting, processing or displaying the information on content of AIS binary messages. However, AIS binary messages are being displayed on existing shipborne equipment including radar, ECDIS and INS.
    The Sub-Committee at this session prepared two SN Circulars for the approval of the Committee.
    (Draft SN Circular on Guidance on the use of AIS Application-Specific Messages)
    This document provides an overview of the purpose and scope of Application-Specific Message (a type of Binary Message) and provides guidance on their use.
    (Draft SN Circular on Guidance for the presentation and display of AIS Application Specific Messages information)
    This document contains the revised set of guidance for presentation after evaluating the use of Application-Specific message in trial period defined in SN/Circ. 236.
    Implications: While use of binary message is not mandatory under SOLAS or related performance standard, the above change may affect operational requirements at shipboard side.
    Application: No specified - voluntary.

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Lloyds2009,
      author = {Lloyd's Register},
      title = {IMO NAV 55 Report, The 55th session of IMO Sub-Committee on Safety of Navigation held on 27 - 31 July 2009},
      booktitle = {NAV 55},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://www.lr.org/Images/LR%20IMO%20NAV%2055%20Report_tcm155-175865.pdf}
    }
    
    Loomis, H.H., Ross, A., Ashby, S., Betterton, T., Boger, D.C., Michael, J.B. & v.Z. Wadsworth, D. MARITIME DOMAIN AWARENESS SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION 2006 NPS report  misc URL 
    Abstract: Covers working in 2004 or 2005

    OBJECTIVES: To develop a tool set for data manipulation, fusion and display, and thus to demonstrate improved Maritime Domain Awareness.
    SUMMARY: This project demonstrated the feasibility of a system that automatically fuses position information from multiple information sources at various classification levels to develop tracking and identity information on significant numbers of ships globally.
    Over the last year, five Master's candidates have successfully completed classified thesis projects addressing elements of this problem. Their work included identifying and fusing additional data sources, evaluating the applicability of commercial tool sets to this problem, and defining system and security architectures. Six students are currently at work on thesis projects, and additional student recruitment is anticipated.
    CC4913, the capstone course for the JC4I Systems curriculum taught during spring 2004 by Professor Boger, created a command and control (C2) architecture for the maritime domain protection problem as the class project. The end-of-course project briefing was presented to several distinguished visitors, and Professors Boger and Ross briefed the project to the Maritime Domain Protection (MDP) Symposium on 19 August 2004. A technical report documenting the project was published in September 2004.

    The Automated Identification System (AIS) is a radio transponder system that continuously broadcasts ship's position and identification information in the VHF band for the purpose of collision avoidance. This signal is monitored by U.S. Coast Guard shore stations and is available for tracking and identification. Professor Wadsworth has been studying the characteristics of this signal and ways of exploiting it. A technical report is in development.
    Three government-contractor-developed computer programs were identified that show significant promise for providing the tools to accomplish this demonstration. These tools will provide the basis for the work of three current thesis students.
    THESES DIRECTED:
    Atwell, M.L., "Fusion of Unclassified Information Sources for Maritime Domain Awareness," Master's Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, September 2004, (Secret/SCI document).
    Christensen, J.P. and Toriello, A.J., "Advanced Database Visualization in Support of Operational Intelligence Research," Master's Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, June 2004, (Secret/SCI document).
    Haney, M., "Data Fusion in Maritime Domain Awareness," Master's Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, September 2004, (Top Secret//SCI document).
    Mishak, J., "Multi-Source Intelligence Fusion in Support of Maritime Domain Awareness," Master's Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, September 2004, (Secret//SCI document).

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Loomis2006,
      author = {Herschel H. Loomis and Alan Ross and Steven Ashby and Thomas Betterton and Dan C. Boger and James Bret Michael and Donald v. Z. Wadsworth},
      title = {MARITIME DOMAIN AWARENESS SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION},
      year = {2006},
      note = {P24-25},
      url = {http://www.nps.edu/research/publications/SummaryRes04/ECE.pdf}
    }
    
    Lorenzini, D. & Kanawati, M. SpaceQuest 2010 TEXAS IV  inproceedings URL 
    Abstract: AprizeSat -3 and AprizeSat-4 AIS Satellites

    Two satellites in orbit with sophisticated AIS payloads One flight-ready AIS satellite test bed for software development AIS signal processing decoder on-board satellites Providing decoded and digitized spectrum data to customers Operational remote ground station equipment and software Six Internet-connected Antennas Nodes for downloading AIS Data Experience with low-cost satellite construction, launch, & operation License to export and launch ten more satellites AprizeSat-5 and 6 scheduled for launch in Nov 2010 Additional AIS satellite launches planned for 2011, 2012 and 2013

    AIS Distress Messages from Low-Power Transmitter
    A total of 42 messages from 1-Watt AIS transmitters were detected during a 7-minute satellite pass over Hawaii on Jan 21st

    Results from US Coast Guard testing of AIS (97001xxx) Distress Messages from Hawaii on Jan 21, 2010.

    Regional Coverage for Haiti Relief Effort

    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Lorenzini2010,
      author = {Dino Lorenzini and Mark Kanawati},
      title = {SpaceQuest},
      booktitle = {TEXAS IV},
      publisher = {Nationa Maritime Domain Awareness Coordination Office (NMCO)},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.spacequest.com/Articles/SpaceQuest%20Texas%20IV%20Presentation.pdf}
    }
    
    Lorenzini, D. & Kanawati, M. SpaceQuest 2009 TEXAS III, pp. 38  article URL 
    Abstract: In 2007 SpaceQuest placed an AIS transponder in orbit. Brought AIS signal from space to Earth via S-Band analog downlink. Briefed results of signal analysis at TEXAS II Conference. Learned what was needed to construct an effective AIS decoder for space. During the past 12 months SpaceQuest: - Designed and developed advanced AIS hardware and flight software. - Built and tested three space-qualified AIS satellites in 10-months. - Launched two AIS spacecraft on July 29th (AprizeSats 3 & 4). - AprizeSat-5 is a ground-based software development test bed. - Commissioned both satellites autonomously during the first orbit, and began collecting AIS data globally. - Contacted both satellites from our ground station in Fairfax, Virginia during the first visible pass 7-hours after launch. - Downloaded and analyzed AIS & telemetry data using both UHF and S-Bands.
    Mission: M2M Data with auxiliary AIS payload
    Flight Computer Tray - SpacecraftFlightComputer -ARM-7 ?Processor -ADC/DAC Interface, - PowerPCFPGArunningLINUX
    AIS Experiment Tray - Two fixed Channel AIS Receivers - Agile AIS Receiver - Dual-Channel Downconverter - Input-Output Switching Matrix - GPS Receiver
    AIS Payloads: 2 AIS monopole antennas 2 dual-channel AIS receivers with -125 dBm sensitivity
    1 frequency-agile AIS receiver with -120 dBm sensitivity 1 frequency-agile 1-Watt S-Band transmitter up to 500 Kbps 2 UHF frequency-agile, 2 to 4 Watt transmitters up to 38.8 Kbps 2 independent AIS ?processor recorders with 5GB of data storage 1 dual-channel down-converter with mixing and converting to various IF's or baseband 1 audio switching matrix to switch any input to any output with gain & filter controls 1 14-Channel GPS receiver for precise location and time
    AprizeSats also contain:
    - Four M2M Receivers and Two UHF Transmitters.
    - Several SpaceQuest components for space qualification.

    Functional Capabilities of AIS Payloads
    Receive and transpond both AIS signals in real time via UHF or S-Band downlinks
    -Receive, digitize and store AIS signals from anywhere on Earth
    -Convert digital data to analog and transmit via UHF or S-Band
    -Decode both AIS channels in real time for on-board storage or real-time transmit
    -Vary sampling rates, filtering and RF gains on board the satellite

    -Perform worldwide spectrum survey of AIS frequencies and amplitude levels
    -Use AIS data from space to develop and test new AIS algorithms
    - Upload new AIS firmware to satellite data processors in space
    -Sufficient power to operate AIS receivers and data processor continuously

    -Download analog or digital AIS data to many ground stations around the world
    -UHF or S-Band transmitter can operate for 15minutes or more on every orbit

    Initial AIS Operations:
    - AprizeSat-3and4werecommissioned1hourafterseparation.
    - BothAISpayloadswereactivatedandbegancollectingdataontheirsecondorbit.

    - Over200,000AIStransmissionswerecapturedanddecodedinthefirst160minutes.

    - TheaverageAISdatacollectionrateforthefirst112orbitswas20reading/second.

    FPGA Demodulator
    Use multiple correlation receivers to detect preamble frequency and timing
    Demodulate coherently to increase ability to detect overlapping packets

    SpaceQuest AIS Capability
    - Two satellites in orbit with advanced AIS payloads
    - One flight-ready AIS satellite test bed for software development

    - Space-qualified AIS payload technology
    - Operational remote ground station equipment & software
    - AIS signal processing algorithm & software implementation
    - ITU frequency allocation in 400 MHz band
    - National spectrum license issued by Industry Canada
    - Partners with antennas suitable for downloading AIS Data
    - Export license to launch 10 more satellites from Russian
    - Preferred access to future Kosmotras Dnepr cluster launches
    - Experience with low-cost satellite construction, launch & operation

    SQ completed the construction and launch of two AIS satellites in 10-months.
    - AIS data collection was activated on the second orbit following separation.
    -AprizeSat-3 and 4 are providing high-fidelity AIS signals and packets worldwide.
    - Data quality and density appear suitable for commercial & government use.
    - Hourly updates are possible with daily 9-hour gaps in coverage.

    -The next two AIS satellites will reduce coverage gaps to 4-hours.

    - SpaceQuest's AIS payload performance can be significantly improved.

    Some Conclusions
    Effective AIS payloads and satellites can be constructed and launched quickly and affordably.
    - AIS data collected from space complements shore-based receivers.

    -In spite of the numerous collisions it is possible to recover a
    significant number of AIS messages in real-time from space.
    - Multiple ground stations strategically located can download all global AIS packets at data rates of 38.8 Kbps or less.

    Next Steps
    Enhance satellite AIS data processing to eliminate duplicate records, compress files and encrypt data.
    -Set up automated AIS data collection, downloading and distribution.
    -Construct and launch two more AIS satellites to reduce the gaps in hourly updates.

    Thank You !
    Kosmotras - Successful launch on Dnepr vehicle
    - Peter Wilhelm- Use of NRL Blossom Point S-Band Antenna
    - Bjorn Narheim - Data from land-based AIS receivers
    - Kurt Schwehr - AIS Animation
    - Dean Rosenberg - Port Vision data for comparison
    - Google Earth

    BibTeX:
    @article{Lorenzini2009,
      author = {Dino Lorenzini and Mark Kanawati},
      title = {SpaceQuest},
      journal = {TEXAS III},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {38},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/twiki/pub/Main/TexasIII/SpaceQuest_AIS_Texas_III_Presentation.pdf}
    }
    
    Luft, L. NMEA 0183 ADVANCEMENTS
    This Standard's Evolution Continues
    2010 NMEA, pp. 49  article URL 
    Abstract: Version 4.10 expected January 2011
    Supporting the VDR Providing Detailed Alarm information
    Supporting RADAR
    Supporting AIS Shore Stations
    Supporting AIS AtoN Stations
    Supporting Shipboard and AIS Shore Stations
    Supporting Protocol Extensions (beneficial for all equipments)
    BibTeX:
    @article{Luft2010,
      author = {Lee Luft},
      title = {NMEA 0183 ADVANCEMENTS
    This Standard's Evolution Continues}, journal = {NMEA}, year = {2010}, pages = {49}, url = {http://www.nmea.org/Assets/0183_advancements_nmea_oct_1_2010%20(2).pdf} }
    Luft, L. AIVDM Metadata 2005   techreport  
    Abstract: !AIVDM,1,1,,B,15Cjtd0Oj;Jp7ilG7=UkKBoB0<06,0*63,s1234,d-119,T12.34567123,x1234,r003669958,1085889680

    Following the "*63" checksum are additional fields delimited by commas. These fields provide additional metadata about the reception of each AIS broadcast.

    s => The field beginning with the lower case "s" is a Relative Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) measurement from the receiver. This measurement has a range of 0-65535. This is one of the parameters used internally by the AIS receiver to determine the signal strength value as reported in the field beginning with the lower case "d". This field only exists when the AIS receiver provides this data.

    d => The field beginning with a lower case "d" is the signal strength measurement for this broadcast in dBm. This field only exists when the AIS receiver provides this data.

    T => The field beginning with the upper case "T" is the Time of Arrival of the received broadcast in seconds from UTC 0. This field only exists when the AIS receiver provides this data.

    S => Another optional field not shown is one that begins with an upper case "S" and represents the slot number in which the reception occurred. The field would appear after the checksum and before the station identifier field. This field only exists when the AIS receiver provides this data. Ex. S0042

    x => The field beginning with the lower case "x" is an index counter. When enabled, this field provides an incrementing index count for each sentence sent by the remote reception site to the AIS MultiServer. This is used primarily for communications link assessments.

    r => The field beginning with the lower case "r", lower case "b", or lower case "r" then upper case "B", "rB", is a station identifier field. This field is always provided, regardless of the type of AIS equipment.

    The last field is a time tag based on the standard "C" programming language time function. Both date and time to the nearest second can be derived from this field. This field is always provided, regardless of the type of AIS equipment.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Luft2005,
      author = {Lee Luft},
      title = {AIVDM Metadata},
      year = {2005}
    }
    
    Luque, F.P., Luque, F.J., Galloso, I., Santamaría, A. & Lastres, C. IDT3D: Identification and Tracking in Controlled Environments Using a 3D Unified User Interface   techreport URL 
    Abstract: http://www.cedint.upm.es/en/project/ids3d

    Identification and tracking of objects in specific environments such as harbors or security areas is a matter of great importance nowadays. With this purpose, numerous systems based on different technologies have been developed, resulting in a great amount of gathered data displayed through a variety of interfaces. Such amount of information has to be evaluated by human operators in order to take the correct decisions, sometimes under highly critical situations demanding both speed and accuracy. In order to face this problem we describe IDT-3D, a platform for identification and tracking of vessels in a harbour environment able to represent fused information in real time using a Virtual Reality application. The effectiveness of using IDT-3D as an integrated surveillance system is currently under evaluation. Preliminary results point to a significant decrease in the times of reaction and decision making of operators facing up a critical situation. Although the current application focus of IDT-3D is quite specific, the results of this research could be extended to the identification and tracking of targets in other controlled environments of interest as coastlines, borders or even urban areas.

    As mentioned before, two monitoring frameworks are responsible for collecting track data in IDT-3D: the AIS communication system and the video surveillance system. Both of them work in an independent way to capture and provide relevant features concerning the monitored targets. In this section, a brief description of the monitoring technologies involved is provided. Some considerations regarding the final implementation and integration with the complete platform are also discussed.
    4.1AIS Communication System
    AIS devices are on board broadcasting systems that allow ships to communicate their position, among other relevant data, in real time. They act in a similar way to a transponder, transmitting the information in the maritime VHF band with a capacity of over 4500 reports per minute and updates every two seconds.
    One of the main features of AIS technology is the message delivery protocol. This system sends different type of messages depending on the data to be updated, increasing the difficulty of the fusion module to count on a queue of historic messages during the operation process. In order to guarantee the scalability of the platform in terms of the integration of new types of information sources, in IDT-3D the functionalities of the AIS system have been encapsulated into a control driver providing a unified data model. This solution also allows working with more than one AIS system simultaneously, as it is shown in the next diagram (see Figure 3).

    Review: Unknown AIS tools

    FIX: get these references:

    [1]David J. Clarke, Eric Davis and Alan G. Varco, "Surveillance of borders, coastlines, and harbours (SOBCAH): a European commission preparatory action on security research", Proc. SPIE 7113, 71130R (2008); doi:10.1117/12.801996
    [2]Sibert, M.; Rhodes, B.J.; Bomberger, N. A.; Beane, P.O.; Sroka, J. J.; Kogel, W.; Kreamer, W.; Staufer, C.; Kirschner, L.; Chalom, E.; Bosse, M; Tilson, R; "SeaCoast port surveillance", Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 6204; Photonics for Port and Harbour Security II, Orlando, FL, USA, 18-19 April 2006

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Luque,
      author = {Francisco Pedro Luque and Francisco Javier Luque and Iris Galloso and Asuncion Santamaría and Carmen Lastres},
      title = {IDT3D: Identification and Tracking in Controlled Environments Using a 3D Unified User Interface},
      url = {http://ftp.rta.nato.int/Public/PubFullText/RTO/MP/RTO-MP-IST-099/MP-IST-099-P09.doc}
    }
    
    LUXSPACE Sarl The PASTA MARE Project 2010 TEXAS IV  inproceedings URL 
    Abstract: Objective:
    Analyse the performance of space borne AIS in order to increase knowledge of its potential and effectiveness as a tool to support the EU's maritime policy.

    Tasks:
    Generation of vessel traffic density maps and interference maps
    Measure the performance of spaceborne sensors
    Raw AIS frequency data sampling
    Drawing up of conclusions, lessons learned and recommendations for possible next steps towards a spaceborne AIS service, supporting EU Maritime Policy

    Russian radar interference with AIS
    Analysis of the regulatory status of AIS frequencies (ITU)
    Frequency sampling using LuxSpace AIS sampler on ISS
    for an improved planing of future space borne missions and enhanced AIS receivers

    Example:
    4 x 15s AIS frequency sampling with Pathfinder 2 on 4th January 2010

    Deduction of fishing method based on vessel movement
    Purse Seining
    Trawling

    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{LUXSPACESarl2010,
      author = {LUXSPACE Sarl},
      title = {The PASTA MARE Project},
      booktitle = {TEXAS IV},
      publisher = {Nationa Maritime Domain Awareness Coordination Office (NMCO)},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/TEXAS/briefs/LUXSPACE_PASTA_MARE_Presentation_to_JRC.ppt}
    }
    
    Macaluso, J.J. Maritime Domain Awareness Data Sharing Community of
    Interest:
    A new partnership explores net-centricity.
    2006 USCG Proceedings
    Vol. Fall, pp. 62-64 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Information sharing among federal and nonfederal agencies is a cornerstone of post-9/11 mission execu- tion. For years now, both the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Department of Defense (DOD) have been working independently on ways to share data among their respective elements. The Defense Information Systems Agency is imple- menting a service-oriented architecture via its net-cen- tric enterprise services (NCES) program, for net-centric DOD data to enhance data sharing for national defense. The DHS has been building the Homeland Security Information Network (HSIN) for the agencies enhancing homeland security. At the same time, the two departments have been working together to develop the concept of Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) as required by the president's 'Directive on Maritime Security Policy,' the 'National Strategy for Maritime Security,' and the 'National Plan to Achieve Maritime Domain Awareness.' On February 23, 2006, all of these efforts converged when the Maritime Domain Awareness data sharing com- munity of interest (MDA DS COI) was formed to focus on maritime information sharing among federal agen- cies and their partners. The purpose of the community of interest is to develop information-sharing capabili- ties among the cadre of MDA stakeholders by imple- menting a net-centric data strategy.

    Three engineering centers in the Maritime Domain Awareness data sharing community of interest have agreed to design the infrastructure and software pro- grams needed to publish their unclassified AIS data to the community in a net-centric environment. Shortly after the kickoff meeting, the centers began collaborat- ing as members of the DMWG with the DOD CIO experts to develop a common vocabulary and schema for automatic identification system information. Members have been careful to design the AIS data representation so it will merge with the other types of MDA data to be added in the future. In May 2006, the DMWG delivered an initial draft version of a com- mon vocabulary and schema to the PDWG. The pilot demonstration working group began using this infor- mation to make automatic identification system data visible, accessible, and under

    BibTeX:
    @article{Macaluso2006,
      author = {John J. Macaluso},
      title = {Maritime Domain Awareness Data Sharing Community of
    Interest:
    A new partnership explores net-centricity.}, journal = {USCG Proceedings}, year = {2006}, volume = {Fall}, pages = {62-64}, url = {http://www.uscg.mil/hq/cg9/NAIS/RFP/SectionJ/MDA-COI-Data.pdf} }
    MacInnis, A. Raw AIS Repository 2009 TEXAS III, pp. 11  article URL 
    Abstract: Defense R&D Canada

    Raw AIS Repository for the CF
    Key Capabilities and Value Added
    Quickly reconfigurable feeds to provide data for given:
    - Ships (by MMSI, name, call sign, etc.)
    - Receivers
    - Geographic area
    - Timeframe
    Handles data from all platforms
    Platform Information
    Data playback
    Platform information can be stripped out for security purposes
    Designed to handle additional data from -advanced' AIS receivers
    Monitors health of incoming feeds
    Logging
    Auto-reconnect
    Decimation service
    Duplicate message flagging and filtering

    MSSIS Server at Volpe Center

    Satellite AIS in RAISR
    Data latency
    Time-stamping
    Receiver/platform data
    Integration with near real-time data

    Conclusion
    RAISR's concept of operations: Be the authoritative source for raw AIS information for the CF's network of AIS receivers
    Collect data from receivers on a variety of platforms, included commercial satellite
    Collect platform data in addition to AIS data
    Current state: an experimental system, in the early stages of research and testing
    AIS via satellite is seen as an important input for RAISR
    Learning how to integrate satellite data is essential

    BibTeX:
    @article{MacInnis2009,
      author = {Andrew MacInnis},
      title = {Raw AIS Repository},
      journal = {TEXAS III},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {11},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/twiki/pub/Main/TexasIII/Andrew_MacInnis_presentation_-_RAISR_-_Texas_III.ppt}
    }
    
    Magazine, I. US Coast Guard issues report from National Small Vessel Security Summit 2008 web  misc URL 
    Abstract: While the participants did not agree on every point in the report, especially when it came to national licensing or AIS boat monitoring systems, the organisers drew up a list of recommendations that have been forwarded to the Department of Homeland Security. "DHS needs to develop a coherent National Small Vessel Security Strategy based on a layered security approach," read the report.

    At this time it is not recommended that AIS technologies be required for vessels under 65 feet in length until the technology is perfected, cost significantly reduced, or until law enforcement has the ability to track and respond to all vessels being tracked in their area of responsibility.
    Research into alternative technologies similar to but less expensive than AIS need to be conducted in order to evaluate the usefulness of such technologies in balancing cost with effectiveness in maintaining maritime domain awareness.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Magazine2008,
      author = {IBI Magazine},
      title = {US Coast Guard issues report from National Small Vessel Security Summit},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://www.ibinews.com/ibinews/newsdesk/20080021151526ibinews.html}
    }
    
    Manion, J. Telemetry burst collision avoidance system 1989 (4835537)  patent URL 
    Abstract: An aircraft collision avoidance system providing warning and avoidance manuevers for all fixed and moving obstructions that threaten the safe navigation of the host aircraft. The system is effective against threatening aircraft, runway maintenance vehicles and prominent geographic obstructions such as radio towers and mountain peaks. It is an economical combination of basic telemetry equipment (transmitter/receiver) and current personal computer components configured to broadcast its host location and intended movement while simultaneously receiving the same information from all nearby similarly equipped stations, either air or ground. Maximum effectiveness is attained when data is available from the Global Positioning System but alternative sources of navigational information including dead reckoning are provided for. Althrough intended primarily for aviation use, the same technology and concepts are valid for the safe transit of ships and railway equipment.
    BibTeX:
    @patent{manion1989,
      author = {James Manion},
      title = {Telemetry burst collision avoidance system},
      year = {1989},
      number = {4835537},
      url = {http://www.wikipatents.com/US-Patent-4835537/telemetry-burst-collision-avoidance-system}
    }
    
    Margarit, G. & Tabasco, A. Ship Classification in Single-Pol SAR Images Based on Fuzzy Logic 2011 Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on
    Vol. PP(99), pp. 10 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper presents a new ship classification methodology that uses single-pol synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to categorize targets based on a fuzzy logic (FL) decision rule. As such, the method tries to overcome the lack of an operational solution that is able to reliably classify ships with one SAR channel. The method has the following three main stages: 1) radar signature isolation; 2) parametric vector $(P)$ estimation; and 3) decision rule. The first part analyzes the reflectivity histogram of the ship signature to iteratively cluster the pixels of interest. Then, $P$ is calculated by estimating the values of some macroscale features such as length, breadth, and radar cross section profile along the ship signature. Finally, the decision rule is evaluated with FL so that the measured vector $P$ is correlated with the vectors associated with a set of reference categories. These categories have been defined based on user feedback and have been characterized with accurate simulation studies. Specifically, the values of $P$ for each reference ship have been derived with the SAR simulator GRECOSAR. The classification method has been tested with several ENVISAT images acquired for the surroundings of the Strait of Gibraltar. Ground truth has been retrieved via transponder polls, which reveals a preliminary ratio of positive classifications close to 70%. Although this value is not definitive and more tests are needed, it is a good starting
    BibTeX:
    @article{Margarit2011,
      author = {Margarit, G and Tabasco, A},
      title = {Ship Classification in Single-Pol SAR Images Based on Fuzzy Logic},
      journal = {Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {PP},
      number = {99},
      pages = {10},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=5735208},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2011.2112371}
    }
    
    Maritec AISTrack SDK - Software Development Kit   misc URL 
    Abstract: A robust source code Software Development Kit for decoding NMEA 0183 formatted AIVDO or AIVDM strings from AIS hardware. This simple and flexible C++ library API allows programmers save time when developing software for AIS. All 24 VHF Data Link (VDL) binary messages defined in the ITU-R M.1371 and IEC 62287 documents are decoded.
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Mariteca,
      author = {Maritec},
      title = {AISTrack SDK - Software Development Kit},
      note = {Accessed Mar 2011},
      url = {http://www.maritec.co.za/aissdk.php}
    }
    
    Maritec AITS-R - AIS Installation Test Set 2011 Hardware  misc URL 
    Abstract: The AITS-R operates on AIS1 (ch87B), AIS2(ch88B) and DSC(ch70) in accordance with IMO MSC.1/Circ.1252, 'Guidelines on annual testing of the Automatic Identification System (AIS)'. Functions include AIS VDL / DSC evaluation, Pilot Plug evaluation and NMEA/RS422 external sensor terminal display. No GPS is required. Designed to test AIS Class A, Class B, Base Station, AtoN, SAR and SART. Test data can be saved in the AITS-R's non volatile memory. This data can be downloaded to and saved on your computer afterwards. Test reports can be generated. It is a conveniently sized battery operated (re-chargeable) hand held unit. The AITS-R is used worldwide by radio surveyors, installers, developers and manufacturers. Factory Performance Verification (calibration) is done free of charge, conditions apply.

    Fully portable with internal battery pack (rechargeable)
    LCD display and keypad, menu driven command set
    Operational performance test on AIS1, AIS2 and DSC (chnl 70)
    In-line forward power and return loss measurement within a 26.667 ms period
    Termaline RF power meter, peak and average readings (1 - 12.5W)
    On-air interrogation of AIS equipment under test using keypad, including DSC
    On-air decoding and display of AIS received packets, including DSC

    NMEA/RS422 terminal display of external sensor inputs
    Pilot Plug evaluation function (NMEA/RS422)
    Selectable non-volatile memory retains test session for processing

    Download test results to PC and print customized reports in HTML format
    Internal battery and charging circuit or external 12VDC operation
    AITS-R operational & technical manual and software simulator provided

    AIS Development Studio (ADS) software utility provided

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Maritec,
      author = {Maritec},
      title = {AITS-R - AIS Installation Test Set},
      year = {2011},
      note = {Accessed 2011-Mar},
      url = {http://www.maritec.co.za/aitsr.php}
    }
    
    Maritime Journal Buoy Mounted AIS for Barcelona 2008 Maritime Journal  article URL 
    Abstract: Tideland Signal Ltd has won the public tender to supply its Informer V03 AIS to Barcelona Port Authority for installation on four of the port' s most important buoys in order to improve identification by mariners and to make it easier to service the equipment.
    Under the contract Tideland is supplying four AIS units together with all accessories necessary for their installation on the buoys and a training programme for the five Port Authority engineers, who will be responsible for operation and maintenance.The training has involved the actual installation and commissioning of the first AIS AtoN on one of the buoys.

    Tideland's Informer V03 AISsystem is the first designed specifically for installation on aids to navigation, and capable of full integration into port or coastal AIS networks. It broadcasts its name, type and MMSI number, virtual target flag and, in the case of moored aids, a warning if it goes off station. This information is received by all AIS fitted vessels as well as land stations and is displayed graphically and in real time on any AIS enabled electronic chart or radar screen.

    BibTeX:
    @article{mj2008,
      author = {Maritime Journal},
      title = {Buoy Mounted AIS for Barcelona},
      journal = {Maritime Journal},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://www.maritimejournal.com/features101/marine-and-port-operations/navaids/buoy_mounted_ais_for_barcelona}
    }
    
    Markle, R. E-Navigation The Industry View
    Robert Markle Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services
    2006 AIS 06  conference URL 
    Abstract: E-Navigation - Everybody likes it. Everybody wants it. No one knows what it is. When I first heard the term and the proposal for IMO to adopt an E-Navigation strategy, I thought it was a clever way to finally introduce a requirement for ships to carry ECDIS - an effort that has not been successful so far, except for High Speed Craft. Then I heard it was a way to eliminate physical aids to navigation. Some of my friends from the UK see it as a way to ensure safe navigation through the English Channel. Still others see it as the integration of everything.
    It's a great topic. No one knows what it is, so I can speculate and not get into arguments.

    Here's IALA's working definition.

    At the IALA Conference, held in Shanghai last May, IMO Secretary General Mitropoulis reiterated that the strategic vision required would ensure that the new generation of navigational tools, available now and anticipated in the near future, could be drawn together in a holistic and systematic manner to secure a greater level of safety and accident prevention and, at the same time, to deliver substantial operating efficiencies with consequent commercial benefits.

    The initial discussions on the subject at the IMO Safety of Navigation Subcommittee covered all of the possibilities. That subcommittee formed a correspondence group to define the scope of the concept, and generally outline the work that is to be accomplished in the next two years. By the way, I think two years is enough time only to get started.

    Functional requirements
    Ship's Navigation Station shall:
    Be capable of displaying waters, shorelines, and features ashore in the vicinity of the ship, including . . .
    Be capable of displaying the ship's speed at heading . . .
    Be equipped with a device to record details of the ship's voyage . . .
    Have independent backup equipment . . .

    More than the bridge -
    Human Element
    Integration of the ship's systems and waterway systems
    Virtual aids to navigation - not limited to conventional buoys, daymarks, ranges, etc.
    Vessel Traffic Systems and port management
    Broadcasting dynamic chart data
    . . . more

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Markle2006,
      author = {Robert Markle},
      title = {E-NavigationThe Industry View
    Robert Markle Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services}, booktitle = {AIS 06}, year = {2006}, url = {http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20090219050952/http://rhppublishing.com/Presentations%20Day%202/Markle%20Presentation.ppt} }
    Martinez, R.G. WatchKeeper 2010 School: Naval Postgraduate School  mastersthesis URL 
    Abstract: The SAFE Port Act of 2006 designated the Coast Guard as the lead federal agency tasked with building Interagency Operations Centers in critical U.S. ports. A critical component of the IOC initiative is an Information Management System (IMS) to provide improved means for information sharing, and coordination among federal, state, local, and public sector stakeholders related to maritime safety and security in critical U.S. ports. The Coast Guard WatchKeeper project is a proposed IMS being designed to address the information sharing and information management challenges faced by these agencies. The WatchKeeper development program has faced challenges in delivering capability. Initial capability was to be delivered in 2009. This did not happen. Up to today, WatchKeeper has not delivered any new capabilities. Several development practices may provide advantages to the development process–ensuring value adding capabilities, minimizing project risk, and ensuring Coast Guard leadership can understand how WatchKeeper capabilities support the Coast Guard’s core business process. This thesis describes these development practices, and proposes an architectural consideration to provide focus to future WatchKeeper products. This thesis concludes with considerations for further developing WatchKeeper, and recommendations for moving forward with development.
    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Martinez2010,
      author = {Rodney Glen Martinez},
      title = {WatchKeeper},
      school = {Naval Postgraduate School},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://edocs.nps.edu/npspubs/scholarly/theses/2010/Mar/10Mar_Martinez.pdf}
    }
    
    Mathapo, K.F. A Software-Defined Radio Implementation of Maritime AIS 2007 School: University of Stellenbosch  mastersthesis URL 
    Abstract: SumbandilaSat is the second South African satellite, and is scheduled to be launched in April/May 2007. A software defined radio (SDR) automatic identification system (AIS) receiver is proposed as a possible experimental payload for this satellite. The AIS receiver can be used to track and store movement of ships at sea, and then forward this information to the ground station upon request. This thesis demonstrates the design of a SDR AIS receiver for Sumbandila satellite. The design of a GMSK/FM modem as used in AIS is presented. Models are developed and simulated in Matlab. Digital signal processing algorithms developed for the AIS receiver are highlighted. Algorithms are developed to decode and translate the AIS encapsulated binary messages. The models are transferred to C++ and the AIS receiver is implemented on the SDR architecture. Finally the real time performance of the AIS receiver is presented along with some test results and performance analysis.
    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Mathapo2007,
      author = {Kgabo Frans Mathapo},
      title = {A Software-Defined Radio Implementation of Maritime AIS},
      school = {University of Stellenbosch},
      year = {2007},
      url = {http://scholar.sun.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10019.1/2215/Mathapo,%20K.F.pdf.pdf?sequence=1}
    }
    
    Mayer, L. & the JHC UNH/NOAA Joint Hydrographic Center, 2009 Performance and Progress Report 2010   techreport URL 
    Abstract: In 2009, Calder and Kurt Schwehr developed tools to automatically extract information necessary to inform the model from Automatic Information System (AIS) transmissions. They found many problems with the information contained in the AIS messages but after much filtering were able to extract needed informa- tion in a form appropriate for input into the model for a given vessel type entering and leaving the Port of Norfolk.

    Inherent in our data-processing phi- losophy is our long-held belief that the “products” of hydrographic data process- ing can also serve a variety of applications and constituencies well beyond hydrogra- phy. Another long-held tenet of the Cen- ter is that the standard navigation charts produced by the world’s hydrographic au- thorities do not do justice to the informa- tion content of high-resolution multibeam and sidescan-sonar data. We also believe that the mode of delivery of these prod- ucts will inevitably be electronic—and thus our initiation of “The Chart of the Future” project. This effort draws upon our visualization team, our signal and image processors, our hydrographers, and our mariners. In doing so, it epitomizes the strength of our Center—the ability to bring together talented people with a range of skills to focus on problems that are important to NOAA and the nation. The project has made important advances with the successful demonstration of the use of the Automatic Identifica- tion System combined with our visualization tools for display of warnings of the presence of acoustically de- tected Right Whales in shipping lanes into and out of Boston Harbor. As mentioned above, this project was cited by the White House Council on Environmental Quality as a prime example of Marine Spatial Planning. The ability of the AIS system to provide automated two-way communications with a vessel has opened up a world of possibilities in the context of safe navigation and other applications. Among the AIS-related projects we are working on are: 1- the use of AIS for Sanctuary
    management (we are working with the Stellwagen Na- tional Marine Sanctuary to track vessel types and traffic patterns through the sanctuary); 2- the use of AIS data for hydrographic survey planning; 3- approaches for using data from the Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS)
    of the World Meteorological Organization and NOAA’s Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue System (AMVERS) for long-range tracking of vessels, and; 4- the use of satellite-based AIS (S-AIS) for world-wide AIS coverage. Efforts are also underway to ensure that the tools and outputs we develop are compatible with Google Earth.
    Figure EX-5. Image captured from the “Digital Coast Pilot” showing approach to bridge in Portsmouth Harbor.
    As a transitional entry in the world of the ‘Chart of the Future,’ we have developed and released a fully digital and interactive version of the commonly used Coast Pilot books (GeoCoast Pilot). With such a digital product, the mariner can, in real-time on the vessel or before entering a harbor, explore, through the click
    of a mouse any object identified in the text and see a pictorial representation (in 2 or 3-D) of the object in geospatial context. Conversely, a click on a picture of an object will directly link to the full description of the object as well as other relevant information. Geo- CoastPilot turns the NOAA CoastPilot® manual into an interactive document linked to a 3D map environ- ment, and provides links between the written text, 2D and 3D views, web content, and other primary sources such as charts, maps, and related federal regulations (Figure EX-5). A critical component of this effort has been devising methods and tools to transform the current text of the Coast Pilot into an XML form that allows for integration with other kinds of data, especially georeferencing information. It is this aspect that has generated the greatest interest from both NOAA and the commercial sector. We are now ex- ploring the idea of delivering much of the GeoCoastPilot capability on small, spatially-aware, hand-held devices like the iPhone or a small tablet PC. The idea is to be able to point the device at the object of interest and have it pro- vide necessary navigation information.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{mayer2010,
      author = {Mayer, L. and the JHC},
      title = {UNH/NOAA Joint Hydrographic Center, 2009 Performance and Progress Report},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://ccom.unh.edu/about_us/reports/2009_ccom_progressReport.pdf}
    }
    
    Mayer, L. & the JHC 2008 UNH/NOAA Joint Hydrographic Center, Performance and Progress Report 2009 CCOM Reports  article URL 
    Abstract: Inherent in our data processing philosophy is our long- held belief that the “products” of hydrographic data processing can also serve a variety of applications and constituencies well beyond hydrography. Another long- held tenet of the Center is that the standard navigation charts produced by the world’s hydrographic authorities do not do justice to the information content of high- resolution multibeam and sidescan sonar data. We also believe that the mode of delivery of these products will inevitably be electronic—and thus our initiation of “The Electronic Chart of the Future” project. This effort draws upon our visualization team, our signal and image processors, our hydrographers, and our mariners. In doing so, it epitomizes the strength of our Center—the ability to bring together talented people with a range of skills to focus on problems that are important to NOAA and the nation. The project has made important advances this year with the successful demonstration of the use of the Automatic Information System (AIS) combined with our visualization tools for display of warnings of the presence of acoustically detected right whales in shipping lanes into and out of Boston Har- bor. The ability of the AIS system to provide automated two-way communications with a vessel has opened up a world of possibilities in the context of safe navigation and other applications. Among the AIS-related projects we are working on are: 1- the use of AIS for Sanctuary management (we are working with the Stellwagen Na- tional Marine Sanctuary to track vessel types and traffic patterns through the sanctuary); 2- the use of AIS data for hydrographic survey planning, and; 3- approaches for using data from the Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) of the World Meteorological Organization and NOAA’s Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue System (AMVERS) for long-range tracking of vessels. This may be extendable to a truly global system through the new USCG LEO satellite that has an AIS receiver on it.

    As a transitionary entry into the world of the ‘Chart of the Future,’ we have developed and released this year a fully digital and interactive version of the commonly used Coast Pilot books (GeoCoastPilot) for Portsmouth, NH. With such a digital product, the mariner can, in real-time, on the vessel or before entering a harbor, explore, through the click of a mouse, any object identified in the text and see a pictorial representation (in 2 or 3-D) of the object in geospatial context. Conversely a click on a picture of an object will link directly to the full descrip- tion of the object as well as other relevant information. GeoCoastPilot turns the NOAA Coast Pilot® into an interactive document linked to a 3D map environment, providing links between the written text, 2D and 3D views, web content, and other primary sources such as charts, maps, and related federal regulations. A critical component of this effort has been devising methods and tools to transform the current text of the Coast Pilot into an xml form that allows for integration with other kinds of data, especially geore- ferencing information. It is this aspect that has generated the greatest interest from both NOAA and the commercial sector. GeoCoast Pilot had its first release on June 6, 2008 with a presentation to the Ports- mouth Yacht Club. It is freely available on our website (there have been 227 down- loads thus far) and we have conducted phone interviews and web surveys with interested users. We are working on add- ing Boston Harbor to the system for 2009.

    BibTeX:
    @article{mayer2009,
      author = {Mayer, L. and the JHC},
      title = {2008 UNH/NOAA Joint Hydrographic Center, Performance and Progress Report},
      journal = {CCOM Reports},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://vislab-ccom.unh.edu/~schwehr/papers/2008_ccom_progressReport.pdf}
    }
    
    Mayer, L. & the JHC Performance and Progress Report for 2007, NOAA Ref No: NA0NOS4001153, Joint Hydrographic Center, 01/01/2007-12/31/2007 2008 CCOM Reports  article URL 
    Abstract: Inherent in the Navigation Surface concept is our long-held belief that the “products” of hydrographic data processing can also serve a variety of applications and constituencies well beyond hydrography. Another long-held tenet of the Center is that the standard navigation charts
    produced by the world’s hydrographic authorities do not do justice to the information content of high- resolution multibeam and sidescan sonar data. We also believe that the mode of delivery of these products will inevitably be electronic - and thus our initiation of “The Electronic Chart of the Future” project. This effort draws upon our visualization team, our signal and image processors, and our hydrographers and mariners. In doing so, it epitomizes the strength of our Center - the ability to bring together talented people with a range of skills to focus on problems that are important to NOAA and the nation. The project has taken roots this year with the successful demonstration of the use of the Automatic Information System (AIS) combined with our visualization tools for verification of compliance with changes in vessel traffic patterns designed to route vessels outside of a known whale migration route. This same capability was used by NOAA and the USCG to quickly view and evaluate the November 2007 collision of the containership Cosco-Buson with the San Francisco Bay Bridge.
    We have also introduced this year a prototype “Digital Coast Pilot” -- a fully digital and interactive version of the commonly used Coastal Pilot books. With the Digital Coast Pilot mariners can explore, through a mouse click, any object identified in the text and see a pictorial representation (in 2-D or 3-D) of the object in geospatial context. Conversely, a click on the picture of an object will link directly to the full description of the object well as other relevant information.
    BibTeX:
    @article{mayer2008,
      author = {Mayer, L. and the JHC},
      title = {Performance and Progress Report for 2007, NOAA Ref No: NA0NOS4001153, Joint Hydrographic Center, 01/01/2007-12/31/2007},
      journal = {CCOM Reports},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://vislab-ccom.unh.edu/~schwehr/papers/2007_ccom_progressReport.pdf}
    }
    
    McArdle, A. COAST GUARD LOOKS TO SPACE FOR MARITIME AWARENESS 2007 Press Release  misc URL 
    Abstract: WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Coast Guard announced today its intention to explore increased use of space as a tool to enhance awareness of activities in ports, coastal waters and their approaches.

    "The Coast Guard has been using space systems for communications, navigation and weather since they first became available, but our use of space may increase considerably in the next few years," said Dana Goward, director of the Coast Guard's maritime domain awareness program. "There is great potential for civil space, and the Coast Guard is strongly considering increasing our involvement in space as a tool to assist us in our many missions."

    The Coast Guard has been studying the feasibility of receiving maritime automatic identification system (AIS) signals from space since 2001. In May 2004 the Coast Guard contracted with ORBCOMM, a satellite data communications company, to develop and build the capability to receive process and forward AIS signals from space via an AIS receiver onboard a communications satellite. In addition, ORBCOMM will provide the ground systems capable of processing the AIS signals and relaying the collected messages to the Coast Guard.

    "This line of sight system was originally designed as a collision avoidance tool, but Coast Guard engineers and scientists quickly realized that significant ship tracking capabilities could be accomplished far out to sea if a receiver were placed on a spacecraft," said Goward.

    Studies conducted at Johns Hopkins University in 2003 indicated this concept was feasible, but it was not proven until a Dec. 16, 2006, launch by the Department of Defense of the TACSAT-2 satellite, which was equipped with an automatic identification receiver.

    The Coast Guard's ORBCOMM satellite is scheduled to launch in the second quarter of 2007, and ORBCOMM has announced plans to include automatic identification system receivers in future communications satellites.

    In another effort, the University of Miami's Center for Southeastern Tropical Advanced Remote Sensing, using a concept of operations developed by the Coast Guard, led a successful multi-organization experiment in late Sept. 2006 to develop and refine maritime domain awareness concepts and capabilities. Using seven civilian satellites, the Center was able to detect and track vessels transiting from the eastern Mediterranean to the coast of the United States.

    "We are committed to achieving our mandate to attain maritime domain awareness, and initial results from each of these efforts to harness the potential of space have been very encouraging," said Goward.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{McArdle2007,
      author = {A. McArdle},
      title = {COAST GUARD LOOKS TO SPACE FOR MARITIME AWARENESS},
      year = {2007},
      url = {https://www.piersystem.com/go/doc/786/142683/}
    }
    
    McCarthy, G.E. Office of Global Maritime Situational Awareness 2009 TEXAS III, pp. 17  article URL 
    Abstract: Maritime Security Inter-Agency Policy Committee
    MDA Executive Steering Committee
    MDA Stakeholders Board
    Inter-Agency Investment Strategy

    Information Sharing Hubs (Vessel Cargo/People/Infrastructure)
    Architecture Management Hub
    Single Web Portal to MDA Information
    Information Sharing Dispute Resolution

    Information Sharing Hubs (Vessel Cargo/People/Infrastructure)
    Architecture Management Hub
    Single Web Portal to MDA Information
    Information Sharing Dispute Resolution

    Global Maritime Information Sharing Symposium
    Global Maritime Partnership
    MDA Web Presence

    Volpe Center and MSSIS
    Panama Canal - Communications, Traffic Management and Navigation (CTAN)
    St. Lawrence Seaway - First operational Automatic Identification System (AIS) network in North America.
    FAA - Enhanced Traffic Management System

    MSSIS
    A non-classified, multi-lateral, freely shared data network exchanging AIS data between participating governments.
    Data is:

    Shared in original form, unaltered
    Distributed in near real-time
    Contributed by a Nation to obtain a more global picture
    Protected by commercially accepted Internet standards.
    Now establishing an International Governance Board to include global Regional Representatives.

    Pilot Navigation
    Vessel Traffic Management
    Oil Spill Modeling
    Accident Investigation
    Buoy Positioning
    Network Monitoring
    Analysis Tool
    Port/Harbor Security
    Force Protection Display

    IALA.NET
    - Globally recognized non-profit, maritime technical association for standards and protocols. Past efforts: Loran, AIS and WWRNS.

    "IALA.NET" = effort to create a network of AIS sharing networks.

    "IALA.NET" steering committee to publish "Recommendations & Guidelines for Open Sharing of AIS between Nations".

    - Eight nations participating, eleven pending agreement signing.

    "IALA-NET" demonstrator available at www.iala-aism.org

    Applicant Approval via Nation's Competent AIS Authority.

    - AIS Live - UK
    - MSSIS - US/NATO
    - EMSA - EU
    - HELCOM - Denmark
    - ReMix - Singapore
    - MSA - China

    www.gmsa.gov

    BibTeX:
    @article{McCarthy2009,
      author = {George E. McCarthy},
      title = {Office of Global Maritime Situational Awareness},
      journal = {TEXAS III},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {17},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/twiki/pub/Main/TexasIII/George_McCarthy_presentations_OGMSA_Texas_III_Presentation_Aug_19_2009.ppt}
    }
    
    McGillivary, P. Technologies and Ideas 2010 SUMMARY OF THE MINUTES FROM WORKSHOP PRESENTATIONS  misc  
    Abstract: The USCG has a vested interest in vessel collisions with whales. In Alaska, there has been a spike in animal mortality from harmful algal blooms in the Bering Strait and an issue with ships colliding with dead whales ('floaters') has resulted. Oil exploration off the North Slope has resulted in a variety of new technologies used by oil companies to reduce collisions with whales (generated by Eskimo whaling community concerns). Environmentally adaptive vessel routing could include variations in ice and animal migrations. AIS is old technology, but we could improve its capabilities (i.e., get a larger bandwidth system with more capabilities for a two-way system which could enable us to send out whale information to vessels) and improve whale-ship avoidance. However, there are limitations to AIS; there are security risks with mariners knowing where whales are located (i.e., can't transmit information using satellite technology). Space Quest is a commercial system of shipping data that provides worldwide real-time data. Shipping is increasing at roughly 3%/annum. Shipping routes are changing to affect more prime whale habitat and high speed ferries are increasing in number worldwide; thus, there are increasing collision risks. Whale detection capabilities have been proven using both fixed hydrophone moorings, and hydrophones on AUVs and ASVs (autonomous underwater and autonomous surface vessels). We could use monitoring hydrophones to follow whales and use inexpensive autonomous vehicles to provide a moving ‘fence' around populations in critical areas. Another potential technology is delay and disruption (using wave energy to power) tolerant wireless networking using an acoustic underwater modem that should be available soon [see http://www.dtnrg.org]; this would increase the bandwidth of hydrophones. WaveGlider (real-time control) can be developed to track whales with hydrophones and can an act as communication nodes for underwater Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) [see www.liuidr.com]. RoboKayaks are typically used in threes for whale monitoring via hydrophones; they are equipped with a CTD (to measure the Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth) and can profile the water column. There is also the Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS) which is an open source of data on surface current mapping data using 12 gliders and surface vessels for monitoring [http://www.sccoos.org]. In summary, we can use the technology with systems already in place to get better data on what the whales are doing.

    Paper distributed:
    Gervaise, C. and M. Andre. 2008. Theorie de l'estimation appliqué a l'etude de performances
    d'un system d'anti-collision entre cachalots et navires. [Theory of estimation applied to the study of performance of an anti-collision system between ships and whales].

    Websites presented:
    http://www.listenforwhales.org
    http://www.dtnrg.org
    http://www.sccoos.org

    BibTeX:
    @misc{McGillivary2010,
      author = {Philip McGillivary},
      title = {Technologies and Ideas},
      year = {2010}
    }
    
    McGillivary, P., S.K.F.K. Enhancing AIS to Improve Whale-Ship Collision Avoidance and Maritime Security 2009 MTS/IEEE  conference URL 
    Abstract: Whale-ship strikes are of growing worldwide concern due to the steady growth of commercial shipping. Improving the current situation involves the creation of a communication capability allowing whale position information to be estimated and exchanged among vessels and other observation assets. An early example of such a system has been implemented for the shipping lane approaches to the harbor of Boston, Massachusetts where ship traffic transits areas of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary frequently used by whales. It uses the Automated Identification Systems (AIS) technology, currently required for larger vessels but becoming more common in all classes of vessels. However, we believe the default mode of AIS operation will be inadequate to meet the long-term needs of whale-ship collision avoidance, and will likewise fall short of meeting other current and future marine safety and security communication needs. This paper explores the emerging safety and security needs for vessel communications, and considers the consequences of a communication framework supporting asynchronous messaging that can be used to enhance the basic AIS capability. The options we analyze can be pursued within the AIS standardization process, or independently developed with attention to compatibility with existing AIS systems. Examples are discussed for minimizing ship interactions with Humpback Whales and endangered North Atlantic Right Whales on the east coast, and North Pacific Right Whales, Bowhead Whales, Humpback Whales, Blue Whales and Beluga Whales in west coast, Alaskan and Hawaiian waters.
    BibTeX:
    @conference{mcgillivary2009,
      author = {McGillivary, P., Schwehr, K., Fall, K},
      title = {Enhancing AIS to Improve Whale-Ship Collision Avoidance and Maritime Security},
      booktitle = {MTS/IEEE},
      year = {2009},
      note = {Schwehr presented},
      url = {http://vislab-ccom.unh.edu/~schwehr/papers/2009-mcgillivary-IEEEOceans-MTS.pdf}
    }
    
    MCKENNA, M. Insights on Ship Traffic Patterns, Presence of Baleen Whale Calls, and Behavior of Blue Whales Around Commercial Ships 2010 SUMMARY OF THE MINUTES FROM WORKSHOP PRESENTATIONS  misc  
    Abstract: AIS is a radio signal that ships send and receive to communicate identification information. AIS is a powerful tool to monitor ship behavior in a coastal region; however, improvements in data sharing and storage can be made to make AIS even more useful for management purposes. A number of AIS receiving stations in the region have been set up by the Scripps Whale Acoustic Lab at Scripps Institution of Oceanography to monitor traffic and relate this to acoustic measurements. AIS data collection began in the Santa Barbara Channel in 2006, with improvement in coverage in 2008 and 2010, including a new site on Santa Cruz Island which gives extended coverage south of the northern Channel Islands. The number of AIS transmissions from individual ships in a particular area and on a certain day can provide information on the density of ship traffic in specific areas. Cargo ships comprise 77% of shipping traffic in the Santa Barbara Channel; the AIS category of 'cargo ship' includes container ships, vehicle carriers and bulk carriers, and speed varies by vessel type. Recent trends in ship traffic in the Santa Barbara Channel area show a 24% decrease in the number of ships between September 2008 and September 2009. The decrease in traffic appears to parallel the recent economic trends. Additionally, there has been an increase in traffic south of the Channel Islands (from 3 to 10 ships per day). The change in ship routes began July 1, 2009, when the California Air Resources Board rule (CARB) on air emissions went into effect. In response to the new regulations of using cleaner fuel within 24 miles of the coast, most ships opted to remain offshore for a longer period. This change in routes overlaps with an active Navy Range, and has the potential to increase the risk of ship strikes to certain species of baleen whales.

    The High Frequency Acoustic Recording Package (HARP) is used for acoustic monitoring in southern California; the instruments measure a broad frequency range and record low frequency baleen whale calls and high frequency dolphin whistles and clicks. Ship noise is also recorded. Analysis of acoustic data from March 2009 to September 2009 showed that calling baleen whales (fin, blue, humpback, Bryde's, and possibly sei) were present south of the northern Channel Islands (in the Santa Cruz Basin). Fin whales were detected 90% of the time. This information is useful for indicating the presence of animals when sightings data are not available.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{MCKENNA2010,
      author = {MEGAN MCKENNA},
      title = {Insights on Ship Traffic Patterns, Presence of Baleen Whale Calls, and Behavior of Blue Whales Around Commercial Ships},
      year = {2010}
    }
    
    McNeil, A. Automatic Identification System / Blue Force Tracking Affects on the VHF Data Link 2006   techreport URL 
    Abstract: My senior design project this year had the broad goal of using theoretical analysis methods to determine if it is possible for BFT communications to impair the normal AIS network to the point that the Very High Frequency Data Link (the VDL) would be congested.
    Finding an answer to this question is relevant to the Coast Guard because such research can influence the policy which dictates the expansion of this emerging Coast Guard technology.
    It is also an important question to pose because ethically, engineers and the Coast Guard in general need to know if there will be a communications breakdown due to this new technology that will impair the safety of life function of basic AIS.

    Using a software simulation of the AIS network developed by the Coast Guard R&D Center at Avery Point, I designed and carried out a Test Plan to meet my project goal.
    The UAIS simulation provides the capability to modify transmit and receive characteristics of individual units, control a set of simulation variables, and initiate the simulation runtime.
    Input for the simulation can be entered by selecting a port of interest and a date/time range. Recent real AIS vessel tracks and position reports can be collected and merged to create extremely high-density vessel traffic scenarios beyond what even the busiest port will see.

    So it's a very powerful and flexible simulation, but it took a long while to understand how to manipulate it.
    Other Parameter categories which were set to closely simulate BFT conditions: unit type, motion, characteristics, signal attenuation, and reporting rates.
    Output from the simulation created a text log and the RDC helped me convert these logs into excel databases from which I could analyze our results.

    Recall that Test Phase 1 is designed to establish a maximum Class A vessel capacity for the AIS VDL, in essence examining the worst-case scenario for VDL loading.

    Since AIS VHF radio operates on two channels, each with 2250 slots per minute, the simple answer to the question of maximum capacity would seem to be that 4500 slots would be available each minute.

    Since Class A AIS mobiles transmit for one slot once every 3 minutes at least (faster reporting rates are required with an according increase in vessel activity), the maximum number of vessels that should theoretically be able to communicate over AIS in any given minute within a single VHF radio cell would be 135,000.

    However, as with any radio communications system, there are transmission losses due to range, time delays, and other common network activity which causes communications to act in a less than ideal manner. As communications traffic increases, these losses compound exponentially as the result of congestion.
    Therefore, we cannot assume that this will be the true maximum capacity of the AIS VDL - we will have to test it.
    Todt Hill simply has ever experienced vessel traffic conditions like those we are looking to examine.
    To generate artificially high traffic density scenarios, the UAIS Simulation allows for multiple hours of traffic to be compressed into a single hour. Using this process, Phase 1 of my test plan compresses 24 hours of traffic data into one hour.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{McNeil2006,
      author = {Anna McNeil},
      title = {Automatic Identification System / Blue Force Tracking Affects on the VHF Data Link},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://www.cga.edu/uploadedFiles/Academics/Departments/Engineering/Electrical_and_Computer_Engineering/Electrical_and_Computer_subpages/2007/McNeil%20BFT.ppt}
    }
    
    Merrick, R.L. & Cole, T.V. Evaluation of Northern Right Whale Ship Strike Reduction Measures in the Great South Channel of Massachusetts 2007 (NMFS-NE-202)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: Ship strike mortality remains one of the two primary causes for lack of recovery of the North Atlantic population of northern right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). As a result, NOAA Fisheries has identified a number of actions to reduce interactions between ships and whales. Central to this approach is the concept that ship strike mortality risk can be reduced either by slowing ships or by separating vessels and whales. More specifically, in the Great South Channel Seasonal Management Area (GSCSMA) of the southern Gulf of Maine, NOAA is considering an April-July requirement that all vessels over 300 gross tons travel no faster than 10 kts. To physically separate whales and vessels, NOAA is also considering (a) designating the Great South Channel critical habitat (GSCCH) area as an International Maritime Organization (IMO)-approved Area To Be Avoided (ATBA) and (b) narrowing (by 1 nm) the Boston Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS).

    We analyzed the risk reduction of right whale ship strikes which could result from the above two proposals by using data on commercial shipping traffic and right whale sightings collected during April-July 1999-2005. During this period, 2,032 right whales were observed in the New England Mandatory Ship Reporting System (MSRS) area. Of these whales, 1,594 were sighted within the bounds of the proposed ATBA, suggesting that such a designation could greatly reduce right whale ship strikes. A narrowing of the TSS by 1 nm suggests that 77 of the 196 right whales seen in the TSS during April-July 1999-2005 would have been separated from ship traffic.

    We also evaluated ship strike risk by overlaying right whale sightings on vessel tracks. This analysis suggests that during April-July there are two areas of the GSCSMA where right whales are at greatest relative risk of ship strike: (a) a diagonal track within the GSCCH proceeding northeasterly from the southwest corner of the GSCCH; and (b) that part of the TSS which passes through the GSCCH. Implementing an ATBA in the GSCCH area would reduce the relative risk of right whale ship strike in the GSCCH by 63%. Narrowing the TSS by 1 nm on the eastern side would reduce the relative risk in the GSCCH by another 11%. Though narrowing the TSS will affect fewer animals than the ATBA, the relative risk per individual whale is much greater in the TSS because of the heavier traffic there. Similar reductions in ship strike risk would accrue for fin (Balaenoptera physalus) and humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) whales in both the ATBA and a narrowed TSS.

    Vessel Tracks

    In 1998, the United States proposed to the IMO a Mandatory Ship Reporting System (MSRS) as a mitigation tool for right whale ship strikes. The IMO, the Specialized Agency of the United Nations to address international shipping issues, is the competent international body to develop guidelines, criteria, and regulations on an international level for shipping including approval of a MSRS. The proposed MSRS was approved by the IMO later that same year (66 FR 58066; Silber et al. 2002).

    Reporting under the MSRS began on 1 July 1999. All commercial vessels 300 gross tons and greater are required to report to a shore-based station when they enter two areas off the east coast of the United States: one off Massachusetts and one off Georgia and Florida. The reporting system off Massachusetts (WHALESNORTH) operates year round, while the Georgia and Florida system (WHALESSOUTH) operates from 15 November to 15 April. Upon entering the MSRS, ships report their name, call sign, course, speed, location, destination, and route. A computer server, operated under federal contract, handles and stores incoming ship reports and sends an automated-return message. Incoming reports are text messages that arrive via International Maritime Satellite (INMARSAT) or Telex (Silber et al. 2002). In return, a vessel receives an automated message that provides the latest information about right whale sightings and avoidance procedures that may prevent a collision.

    Incoming ship reports were reviewed by the USCG for duplicate or erroneous records and stored in a relational database. Florida's Fish and Wildlife Research Institute (FWRI) staff (Ward-Geiger et al. 2005) then extracted records from the database in a format compatible for mapping locations within ArcInfo and ArcView. Tracks were either: (1) "simple," where a line was drawn between the point of entry into the system and the reported destination; or (2) "descriptive," which included tracks that were generated by sequentially linking more than two points along the reported route. For simple tracks from ships that reported only the name of the destination port, substitute coordinates were assigned to complete the track.

    To improve the quality of inbound descriptive tracks, FWRI staff mapped every route terminus coordinate within the MSRS to verify that the end of each track falls within a reasonable distance (10-km radius) from the pilot station for the reported destination port. When a descriptive track did not meet this criterion, the Geographic Information System (GIS) completed the track by using the substitute coordinates from the appropriate pilot station.

    The validity of each track was assessed based on criteria reported by Silber et al. (2002), and only tracks that met these criteria were analyzed. Tracks within each area were tallied and mapped to characterize traffic concentrations.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Merrick2007,
      author = {Richard L. Merrick and Timothy V.N. Cole},
      title = {Evaluation of Northern Right Whale Ship Strike Reduction Measures in the Great South Channel of Massachusetts},
      year = {2007},
      number = {NMFS-NE-202},
      url = {http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/publications/tm/tm202/tm202.pdf}
    }
    
    Metruck, S. Leveraging People and Technology to Optimize Interagency Interoperability
    The Puget Sound Joint Harbor Operations Center.
    2009 USCG Proceedings
    Vol. Spring, pp. 76-81 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In August 2005, the JHOC (or Sector Command Center-Joint) con- cept was formally established with a memorandum of agreement (MOA) between the U.S. Navy Vice Chief of Naval Operations and the Coast Guard Vice Comman- dant to leverage the sensor, detection, personnel, and communication and decision-making systems of each partner to produce a more accurate and timely common operating picture in Coast Guard sector areas of re- sponsibility (AORs) with a large Navy presence.
    However, the concepts that led to the establishment of JHOCs sharing scarce infrastructure resources and leveraging situational awareness information across or- ganizational boundaries can be incorporated into the maritime planning process in all ports with multi-juris- dictional agencies each having intrinsic, independent authority. Emblematic of this concept is the new Com- mander Ray Evans Building at Sector Seattle, which houses the Puget Sound JHOC, and is the new home of the Washington State Patrol Homeland Security Divi- sion, a Customs and Border Protection (CBP) field of- fice, and the USCG Field Intelligence Support Team.

    After the ter- rorist attacks on the USS Cole in Yemen in late 2000, Captain Joseph Bouchard, then commander of the Nor- folk Naval Station, wanted to strengthen the defense of the Navy base, the nation's largest naval facility. Ac- cording to a news report, 'Because the Coast Guard not the Navy is primarily responsible for monitoring vessel traffic, Bouchard reached out to CAPT Larry Brooks, who was then the Coast Guard's captain of the port (COTP) in Hampton Roads, to join him in the quest. Starting out with walkie-talkies and binoculars, the center soon had many high-tech tracking systems.'

    Shortly after the World Trade Center and Pentagon ter- rorist attacks in 2001, as the then Coast Guard COTP in San Diego, I initiated several demonstration projects to identify the most effective way of providing maritime domain awareness in that vitally important naval fleet port. We brought in a Navy Mobile Inshore Undersea Warfare (MIUW) unit as a stopgap measure to provide surface and subsurface surveillance as well as to im- prove command, control, and communication func- tions. At a cost of well over $$3 million per year, however, the MIUW deployment was not sustainable for the long run.

    In 2003, Washington's Senator Patty Murray, who co-authored the SAFE Port/GreenLane legislation mandating interagency opera- tions centers such as the JHOC, earmarked funds for the Sector Seattle Shore Operations Building. The Coast Guard provided acqui- sition, construction, and improvements funds to support full development of com- mand, control, communications, computers, and information technology outfitting and

    stallations Command allocated funds for remote site sensors and the core C2 suite, while other Navy fund- ing enhanced a regional tactical microwave communi- cations grid. Concurrent Coast Guard-wide program improvements significantly aided the JHOC's functionality. Rescue 21, the CG's advanced command, con- trol, and communications system, was created to improve search and rescue capabilities, but it also en- hances the Coast Guard's ability to execute all missions in the coastal zone, and enables better coordination with federal, state, and local agencies.

    The area maritime security committee (AMSC) mandated by the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 assists the federal maritime security coordina- tor in the maritime homeland security missions by co- ordinating planning, sharing information, and other necessary activities. The members consist of represen- tatives from federal, state, and local agencies, and from industry.

    ablishment of incident command structure in a crisis. Business prac- tices may be as basic as the way groups are structured on a radio network. For example, the Navy, with its En- terprise Land Mobile Radio (ELMR) system, has com- plex hierarchical pre-defined talk groups.

    Walking into the JHOC in Seattle, a visitor immediately notices the complex video display 'Wall of Knowledge,' with the vast array of visual information sources available to a JHOC watchstander at a glance. Each watch station has four or five computer monitors on the desktop in addition to the large-format screens on the front wall, each one capable of displaying different applications or tacti- cal information.
    The communications specialist monitors seven different radio sys- tems. Over 70 multi-agency cameras are integrated into the sensor management system. On top of that, there are more than 40 differ- ent data sources the watchstanders have access to.
    There are several initiatives to mitigate this information overload Watchkeeper, a new software suite being developed at USCG head- quarters, the JHOC's own quick response checklists, and command duty officer and watchstander training based on realistic scenarios. Additional information convergence is in the formative stages of development. Initiatives with the Department of Homeland Secu- rity-sponsored university centers of excellence, military research and development centers such as the Coast Guard Research and Development Center and SPAWAR, and self-initiated demonstra- tions and trials at the local deckplate level are paving the way for in- telligent applications that will free decisionmakers to make decisions rather than sift through data.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Metruck2009,
      author = {Stephen Metruck},
      title = {Leveraging People and Technology to Optimize Interagency Interoperability
    The Puget Sound Joint Harbor Operations Center.}, journal = {USCG Proceedings}, year = {2009}, volume = {Spring}, pages = {76-81}, url = {http://www.uscg.mil/proceedings/Spring2009/articles/76_Metruck_Leveraging%20People%20and%20Technology.pdf} }
    Michel, R.K., Knatz, G., Daggett, L.L. & et al Shipboard Automatic Identification System Displays: Meeting the Needs of Mariners 2004 (Sr 273)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/sr/sr273.pdf

    Over the next several years, commercial vessels worldwide, operating on the high seas and in coastal and inland waterways, will begin to carry new tech- nology, known as automatic identification systems (AIS), that promises to enhance the safety of navigation and allow traffic managers to do their jobs more safely and effectively. AIS is essentially a communications medium that automatically provides vessel position and other data to other vessels and shore stations and facilitates the communication of vessel traffic manage- ment and navigational safety data from designated shore stations to vessels. The onboard 'AIS unit' (which consists of a VHF-FM transceiver, an assem- bly unit, and a communications transceiver) continuously and automatically broadcasts identification, location, and other vessel voyage data, and receives messages from other ships and shore stations.
    Three functions have been identified by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) for AIS: (a) to serve as a collision-avoidance tool while the system is operating in the vessel-to-vessel mode, (b) to provide infor- mation about a vessel and its cargo to local authorities who oversee water- borne trade, and (c) to assist those authorities engaged in vessel traffic management. As AIS technology and its applications evolve, additional use- ful and beneficial functions of AIS will most likely also evolve.
    Over the past few years, IMO, working through the International Tele- communication Union and other organizations, has published technical and operational standards for AIS; however, these standards do not address ship- board displays, except for a minimum alphanumeric presentation. For inter- national shipping, AIS equipment requirements, including an implementation schedule, have been established through an amendment to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). In the United States, where AIS technology is in the early stages of implementation and just beginning to become available within certain port and waterway regions, the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) has the responsibility for establishing carriage requirements for AIS equipment aboard vessels in U.S. waters and aboard U.S.-flag vessels. USCG is in the process of developing rulemaking to ensure compliance of SOLAS vessels in U.S. waters and concurrently developing carriage require- ments for non-SOLAS vessels operating in U.S. waters. The initial SOLAS carriage requirements for oceangoing vessels do not specify any shipboard display for use by the mariner except for minimal basic numerical data.
    Because USCG has the responsibility in the United States for determining whether and what requirements should be established for shipboard AIS dis- plays, it asked the Transportation Research Board (TRB)/Marine Board to undertake an investigation and analysis of the key issues affecting the design, development, and implementation of shipboard AIS displays. TRB convened a committee to address USCG's request for guidance. Specifically, USCG asked the committee to assess the state of the art in AIS display technologies, evaluate current system designs and their capabilities, and review the rele- vant human factors aspects associated with operating these systems.
    The challenges associated with shipboard display of AIS information are addressed in this report. However, this does not cover the full spectrum of AIS challenges. For example, AIS complements traditional navigational aids; it does not replace them, nor does it substitute for good judgment or replace the need to use all available means appropriate to the prevailing circum- stances and conditions to establish vessel position. Therefore, government and industry need to address the challenge of integrating existing navigation aids and, in the process, encourage the appropriate use of technology.
    The introduction of onboard displays of AIS information represents an opportunity for significant improvements in available knowledge and aware- ness of waterway and vessel traffic situations for all mariners. It is intended to result in safety and efficiency benefits. If AIS displays are thoughtfully introduced aboard ships so that mariners' needs are met and they are not overburdened with unnecessary information, the benefits may be con- siderable. However, there are dangers and limitations associated with this technology that could overshadow such benefits. The committee is both encouraged at the prospects for major improvements for vessel operations with the proper display of AIS information and cautious about problems that could result from poor display of AIS information.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Michel2004,
      author = {R. Keith Michel and Geraldine Knatz and Larry L. Daggett and et al},
      title = {Shipboard Automatic Identification System Displays: Meeting the Needs of Mariners},
      year = {2004},
      number = {Sr 273},
      url = {http://www.trb.org/Main/Public/Blurbs/152651.aspx}
    }
    
    Micro, S. RadarPlus SM1610-2AN: Rugged, High Sensitivity, Long Range, Frequency Agile Dual AIS Receivers web  misc URL 
    Abstract: * AIS Data Rate: 9,600 bits/s
    * Sensitivity: <20% PER @ -117 dBm w/ SM1610-2AN LNA
    * Co-channel Rejection: -10 dB
    * Adjacent Channel Selectivity: 70 dB
    * Blocking: 84 dB
    * Intermodulation: 74 dB
    * Large Signal PER: 1% or better
    * Image Rejection: 70 dB
    * Spurious Rejection: 70 dB
    * Antenna Interface: female Type N connector w/ LNA power

    Enhanced sensitivity with analysis features including:

    * Received Signal Strength Indication
    * Slot Numbering
    * VDL Loading
    * Ambient Noise Measurement
    * Packet Time of Arrival

    BibTeX:
    @misc{radarplussm1610-2a,
      author = {Shine Micro},
      title = {RadarPlus SM1610-2AN: Rugged, High Sensitivity, Long Range, Frequency Agile Dual AIS Receivers},
      url = {http://www.shinemicro.com/RadarPlusSM16102AN.asp}
    }
    
    Micro, S. RadarPlus ST162: Portable, Rugged AIS Test Set   misc URL 
    Abstract: INTRODUCING THE RADARPLUS ST162:

    A portable, two-channel AIS Test Set designed for AIS operational checkouts aboard Aircraft, UAVs, and Ships.

    * Versatile Test Set is Fully Configurable with a Simple Graphical User Interface and Bluetooth or RS-232 Communications.
    * Rugged Design: Highly Water Resistant, IP67 Enclosure

    Highly suitable for pre-flight AIS system operational checkout, the RadarPlus ST162 is a sophisticated AIS transmitting and receiving test set capable of simulating up to 10 ships that are reporting position, course, speed, or other custom data at a programmable interval of 5 seconds to 5 minutes with very low power consumption, allowing hours of trouble free operation with standard C Cell Batteries.

    The ST162 is capable of generating virtually any AIS message and provides valuable information to aid in verification of AIS installations, including the installation's capability to receive and display Class A, Class B, AtoN, SART, Aircraft SAR, and other AIS messages.

    The ST162 can be easily configured in advance, using the provided graphical user interface, allowing the field technician / inspector to simply turn the unit on and test not only the AIS receiver, but the entire aircraft / vessel AIS installation, including cables, antenna, and display.
    The ST162 is capable of performing:

    * Pre-Operational Checks
    * Identifying Malfunctioning Systems
    * Noise Measurements (optional)
    * Field and Bench Testing
    * Simulate AIS Data
    * Installation Quality Comparisons
    * Other Custom Data

    BibTeX:
    @misc{radarplusst162,
      author = {Shine Micro},
      title = {RadarPlus ST162: Portable, Rugged AIS Test Set},
      url = {http://shinemicro.com/RadarPlusST162.asp}
    }
    
    Micro, S. Enhanced Signal Analysis Package (ESP)   misc URL 
    Abstract: The Shine Micro proprietary Enhanced Signal Analysis Package (ESP) is a valuable diagnostic tool for site selection and performance optimization.

    Why do I need ESP?

    Quiet sites, i.e. sites with low levels of RF interference, are necessary to achieve maximum range from an AIS receiver. Allowing the user to evaluate the existing noise levels of a location, the Enhanced Signal Analysis Package (ESP) can ensure appropriateness of an installation site - saving time and money.

    Do I need ESP at an established site?

    Yes. In addition to assisting with initial site selection, the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) and Noise Floor Monitor features of the Shine Micro ESP are diagnostic tools for analyzing site performance. The ability to monitor changes in noise floor and signal strength received can indicate success or failure of altering conditions to reduce interference, or to ensure all equipment is functioning properly.

    For example:
    an AIS receiver co-located with several other devices at a single site has abruptly gone from a 100 NM reception radius to 25 NM. Checking the Noise Floor Monitor, the user notices a substantial increase in interference, and attributes it to a potential malfunction in a piece of co-located equipment. By watching the Noise Floor Monitor while checking the other pieces of equipment the user is able to ascertain which piece of equipment is causing the interference and disable it.

    Enhanced Signal Analysis Package (ESP)

    The Shine Micro proprietary Enhanced Signal Analysis Package (ESP) is a valuable diagnostic tool for site selection and performance optimization.

    Why do I need ESP?

    Quiet sites, i.e. sites with low levels of RF interference, are necessary to achieve maximum range from an AIS receiver. Allowing the user to evaluate the existing noise levels of a location, the Enhanced Signal Analysis Package (ESP) can ensure appropriateness of an installation site - saving time and money.

    Do I need ESP at an established site?

    Yes. In addition to assisting with initial site selection, the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) and Noise Floor Monitor features of the Shine Micro ESP are diagnostic tools for analyzing site performance. The ability to monitor changes in noise floor and signal strength received can indicate success or failure of altering conditions to reduce interference, or to ensure all equipment is functioning properly.

    For example:
    an AIS receiver co-located with several other devices at a single site has abruptly gone from a 100 NM reception radius to 25 NM. Checking the Noise Floor Monitor, the user notices a substantial increase in interference, and attributes it to a potential malfunction in a piece of co-located equipment. By watching the Noise Floor Monitor while checking the other pieces of equipment the user is able to ascertain which piece of equipment is causing the interference and disable it.

    Is ESP only relevant to AIS Receivers?

    No. The RSSI monitor can also be useful for assessing transponder performance.

    For example:
    a user at a shore station is monitoring a vessel as it travels within range of the AIS receiver. The vessel being monitored leaves a clearly definable track across the navigational software display. Half way across the screen the track becomes intermittent. After checking that the conditions of the AIS receiver have not changed (i.e. the noise floor has not increased) the user rules out receiver failure. The intermittent track of the vessel on screen could indicate a malfunction of the transponder, so the user inputs the MMSI number into the search box of the RSSI Monitor to check the strength of the signal received from that vessel. Noticing that the signal level has dropped below the level of the noise floor, the user can contact the vessel's radioman to evaluate the transponder.

    The RSSI monitor is also a powerful anti-spoofing tool, allowing the user to compare the location that an AIS transponder is broadcasting against the strength of the signal received, thereby validating position. This is particularly powerful in networked applications where multiple AIS receivers are tracking the same vessel.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{shineesp,
      author = {Shine Micro},
      title = {Enhanced Signal Analysis Package (ESP)},
      url = {http://www.shinemicro.com/ESP.asp}
    }
    
    Micro, S. RadarPlus SM1680 "octopus", Phase-Synchronous Octal AIS Receiver Array   misc URL 
    Abstract: Nick-named the "Octopus", each of the 8 AIS receivers in the SM1680 provides unparalleled sensitivity and performance. Maximized tracking range is achieved through advanced, real-time signal processing of four synchronized receivers on each AIS channel, using proprietary Shine Micro software and high-accuracy GPS disciplined timing.

    The octal array performs packet-by-packet "beam forming", resulting in effective sensitivity increases of 6db or more while also providing noise rejection through "interferer nulling". Beam forming is performed in software, enabling the SM1680 to "point" in multiple directions simultaneously; achieving co-channel rejection performance never before possible.

    FEATURES *Preliminary

    * Atomic Standard Accuracy
    * Digital Beam Forming
    * Interferer Nulling
    * Anti-Spoofing Tools
    o Time of Arrival (TOA)
    o Differential Time of Arrival (DTOA)

    Full color, touch-screen display for: *Preliminary

    * Spectrum Analysis
    * Noise Floor Indication
    * Signal Strength Monitoring
    * AIS Messages
    * Vessel statistics
    * GPS Position
    * Status
    * Configuration and Administration

    Atomic standard accuracy allows SM1680 arrays many miles apart to form phase-synchronous virtual receivers via Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Powerful "anti-spoofing" features, including Time of Arrival (TOA) measurements, allow multiple installations to verify reported vessel positions via Differential Time of Arrival (DTOA).

    * AIS Data Rate: 9,600 bits/s
    * Individual Receiver Sensitivity: <20% PER @ -119 dBm
    w/ SM1680LNA
    * System Sensitivity: > -125 dBm
    * Co-channel Rejection: -10 dB
    * Adjacent Channel Selectivity: 70 dB
    * Blocking: 84 dB
    * Intermodulation: 74 dB
    * Large Signal PER: 1% or better
    * Image Rejection: 70 dB
    * Spurious Rejection: 70 dB
    * Antenna Interface: Type N connector

    BibTeX:
    @misc{shineoctopus,
      author = {Shine Micro},
      title = {RadarPlus SM1680 "octopus", Phase-Synchronous Octal AIS Receiver Array},
      url = {http://www.shinemicro.com/RadarPlusSM1680.asp}
    }
    
    Miller, G.E. USCG-2009-0701-0011 2010 Regulations.gov  article URL 
    Abstract: Placing any restrictions on redistributing AIS data, whether real time or historical, is totally ineffectual as a security measure and destroys many benefits to the public of this publicly funded system. AIS data is currently broadcast in the clear and available to anyone within a hundred miles with an inexpensive receiver. So preventing this data from being retransmitted only inconveniences the casual user without providing any enhanced security. One need only look as far as the FAA to see the impacts of providing the similar flight data collected by the FAA in real time to one and all freely. There have been no published bad security outcomes of this policy and a small industry has sprung up making the data available in a useful format to casual users and even the airlines themselves. Simply perform an online search for "faa real time flight data" and see the many good uses this data is being put to. I am familiar with this FAA system because I am a Commercial Pilot. I frequently provide people with the URL to track my flights using these services. This provides piece of mind to people on the ground in that they can see my progress and estimate my time of arrival. In the rare case of a diversion my friends and associates are instantly updated on my new course and can plan accordingly. My brother is a sailor, and communications with him while underway are problematic. If an FAA style system were applied to AIS data I could monitor his progress from my laptop and not worry when he is out of touch. The benefits to the public are obviously large. In the rare case that a pilot does not wish to be identified on the system they can ask the FAA to obfuscate their ID on the public feed. In conclusion, learn from the FAA, their is no practical downside to providing all data publicly and great public benefit to doing so.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Miller2010,
      author = {Gary Edmunds Miller},
      title = {USCG-2009-0701-0011},
      journal = {Regulations.gov},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=USCG-2009-0701-0011}
    }
    
    Miola, A. & Ciuffo, B. Estimating air emissions from ships: meta-analysis of modelling approaches and available data sources 2011 Atmospheric Environment
    Vol. In Press, Accepted Manuscript, pp. -  
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Maritime transport plays a central role in the transport sector's sustainability debate. Its contribution to air pollution and greenhouse gases is significant. An effective policy strategy to regulate air emissions requires their robust estimation in terms of quantification and location. This paper provides a critical analysis of the ship emission modelling approaches and data sources available, identifying their limits and constraints. It classifies the main methodologies on the basis of the approach followed (bottom-up or top-down) for the evaluation and geographic characterisation of emissions. The analysis highlights the uncertainty of results from the different methods. This is mainly due to the level of uncertainty connected with the sources of information that are used as inputs to the different studies. This paper describes the sources of the information required for these analyses, paying particular attention to AIS data and to the possible problems associated with their use. One way of reducing the overall uncertainty in the results could be the simultaneous use of different sources of information. This paper presents an alternative methodology based on this approach. As a final remark, it can be expected that new approaches to the problem together with more reliable data sources over the coming years could give more impetus to the debate on the global impact of maritime traffic on the environment that, currently, has only reached agreement via the #consensus# estimates provided by IMO (2009).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Miola2011,
      author = {Apollonia Miola and Biagio Ciuffo},
      title = {Estimating air emissions from ships: meta-analysis of modelling approaches and available data sources},
      journal = {Atmospheric Environment},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {In Press, Accepted Manuscript},
      pages = { - },
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VH3-523V3KG-1/2/b513135e9745c9088e41aab32e2709e7},
      doi = {DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.01.046}
    }
    
    Mitchell, J.B., Carkhuff, B.G., London, M.L., Ball, R.E. & Hundley, N.J. System and Method for Determining Location of Submerged Submersible Vehicle 2011 (20110051555)  patent URL 
    Abstract: An aspect of the present invention is drawn to method of determining a location of a submersible vehicle. The method includes obtaining first bearing information based on a location of a ship at a first time relative to the submersible vehicle and receiving broadcast information from the ship, wherein the broadcast information includes location information related to a second location of the ship at a second time, a velocity of the ship at the second time and a course of the ship at the second time. The method further includes obtaining second bearing information based on the second location of the ship at the second time relative to the submersible vehicle, obtaining a velocity of the submersible vehicle at the second time and obtaining a course of the submersible vehicle at the second time. The method still further includes determining the location of the submersible vehicle based on the first bearing information, the second location of the ship at the second time, the velocity of the ship at the second time, the course of the ship at the second time, the second bearing information, the velocity of the submersible vehicle at the second time and the course of the submersible vehicle at the second time.

    Read more: http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20110051555#ixzz1G775EtJG

    Review: Seriously? How does this make for a patent?
    BibTeX:
    @patent{Mitchell2011,
      author = {James B. Mitchell and Bliss G. Carkhuff and Morris L. London and Robert E. Ball and Nathaniel J. Hundley},
      title = {System and Method for Determining Location of Submerged Submersible Vehicle},
      year = {2011},
      number = {20110051555},
      url = {http://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2011/0051555.html}
    }
    
    Moberg, E. The Judgment against Hakan Lans - A Planned Judicial Crime? 2004 web  misc URL 
    Abstract: A further development of the secondary radar technology, being used in aviation, is ADS-B, which stands for Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast. The corresponding notation for shipping is AIS (Automatic Identification System). Within these general categories there are a number of specific, individual systems. There are, for example, short distance collision warning systems such as TCAS (Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System) and ACAS (Airborne Collision Avoidance System). There are also systems which, when being hit, return comparative large amounts of information - "Mode S" is such a system. These systems, in turn, have given rise to systems which continuously send information, irrespective of whether they are hit by a radar signal or not - these are the so called Mode S Squitter systems. Still another system, UAT (Universal Access Transceiver), works in approximately the same way as Mode S Squitter, but more efficiently.

    In reality, of course, the technologies so briefly described here, are utterly complex. A main problem is that the different signals must not disturb each other. And this problem, obviously, is most challenging in those contexts where the systems are most needed, for instance around great airports. With respect to this the various systems, and various combinations of them, differ in efficiency. Some systems are better than others.

    According to many experts Lans's system STDMA, which falls within the general categories ADS-B and AIS, is superior to other systems. The reason is that the system alone, or in one strike, solves several important navigation and traffic control problems. It greatly removes the need to combine various technologies, and still the final result is better. The system works all the way "from gate to gate". It's characterized by a kind of simplicity and universality. In addition to that the costs are far below those of the alternatives.

    Lans's system is labeled in various ways. In aviation, in particular, it is often called VDL Mode 4.

    Review: Weird, but helpful
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Moberg2004,
      author = {Erik Moberg},
      title = {The Judgment against Hakan Lans - A Planned Judicial Crime?},
      year = {2004},
      url = {http://www.mobergpublications.se/patents/judgment.htm}
    }
    
    Montali, M., Maggi, F., Chesani, F., Mello, P. & van der Aalst, W. Monitoring Business Constraints with the Event Calculus 2011 (DEIS-LIA-002-11)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: Today, larger systems are composed of smaller interconnected sys- tems and need to evolve over time. The dynamic nature and the complexity of such systems trigger the need for runtime verification and monitoring facilities. These are needed to check whether the actual behavior complies with expected business constraints. In this work, we present a novel monitoring framework that tracks streams of events and continuously determines the state of busi- ness constraints. The framework exploits the Event Calculus as a logic-based, expressive language for the formal specification of constraints. Moreover, our framework uses a light-weight, logic programming-based Event Calculus ax- iomatization for dynamically reasoning on partial, evolving execution traces. We demonstrate that the approach can be exploited to formalize ConDec, a declarative process modeling language, and to extend it with quantitative time constraints. We then sketch how it has been implemented by exploiting the operational decision support architecture of ProM. To demonstrate the appli- cability of our proposal, we provide a concrete case study dealing with maritime safety and security.

    MOBUCON has been applied to a case study in the domain of maritime safety and security. The case study has conducted for Thales, a major electronic systems company acting in areas such as defense, aerospace, airlines security and safety, information technology and transportation. It concerns monitoring a vessel behavior in a specific area using a sensor network. We have enriched the ConDec diagrams used to model the case study with quantitative time constraints, that have been empirically assessed by analyzing the behavior of the monitored vessels in ideal conditions. In general, our approach can be applied to monitor the behavior of a system (in this case a vessel) evaluating the system health on the basis of the number of anomalies detected.

    AIS messages contain information such as the mmsi number of the reporting vessel, which is a maritime vessel identifier, its navigational status and its ship/cargo type. This information can be used to monitor the behavior of the vessel in a specific area. In particular, when monitoring a vessel using the broadcasted stream of AIS messages, we can consider as an event a change in the navigational status of the vessel (e.g. moored, under way using engine, aground, at anchor, not under command, constrained by her draught, restricted maneuverability, etc.). Each case corresponds to the sequence of events referring to the same mmsi number (i.e., to the same vessel). Vessels are expected to behave differently on the basis of their ship/cargo type, i.e. for each ship/cargo type only sequences of events with specific characteristics are allowed. Some characteristics also involve metric time constraints that the event stream must satisfy, e.g. when a change in the vessel's navigational status is expected to occur within a given interval of time. Since the changes in the navigational status of a vessel conform to a less-structured process, their behavior can be effectively represented in ConDec.
    Therefore, the first step of our experimentation has been the construction of a ConDec model representing the observed behavior of every possible ship/cargo type (e.g. passenger or cargo ship). These models can be extracted using process discovery techniques as presented in [9]. Each ConDec model has been enriched with metric aspects. The ship/cargo type in an AIS message is used to identify the reference ConDec model w.r.t. which the corresponding vessel must be monitored.
    For this experimentation, the stream of AIS messages has been recorded in an event log. Experiments have been carried out by loading an excerpt of the log (cor- responding to a period of one week) in MOBUCON while using a time granularity of seconds.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Montali2011,
      author = {Montali, M. and Maggi, F.M. and Chesani, F. and Mello, P. and van der Aalst, W.M.P.},
      title = {Monitoring Business Constraints with the Event Calculus},
      year = {2011},
      number = {DEIS-LIA-002-11},
      url = {http://www-lia.deis.unibo.it/Research/TechReport/LIA-002-11.pdf}
    }
    
    Moser, D., Hofseth, K., Heisey, S., Males, R. & Rogers, C. HARBORSYM: A DATA-DRIVEN MONTE CARLO SIMULATION MODEL OF VESSEL MOVEMENT IN HARBORS 2004 (IWR Report 04-NETS-P-02)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: HarborSym is a planning-level model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to assist in economic analyses of proposed deep draft channel improvements. The model creates an event driven simulation based on data stored in a database, instead of customization within a simulation environment. Included in this data are the user specified transit rules that the model processes with each vessel call in order to calculate delays within the system. Users can define alternative sets of channel dimensions or rules reflecting harbor improvements to determine potential transportation cost savings resulting from reduced delays.

    Shana.a.Heisey@usace.army.mil

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Moser2004,
      author = {David Moser and Keith Hofseth and Shana Heisey and Richard Males and Cory Rogers},
      title = {HARBORSYM: A DATA-DRIVEN MONTE CARLO SIMULATION MODEL OF VESSEL MOVEMENT IN HARBORS},
      year = {2004},
      number = {IWR Report 04-NETS-P-02},
      url = {http://www.corpsnets.us/docs/HarborSym/04-NETS-P-02.pdf}
    }
    
    de Moustier, C. & Porter, M. Oceanic shipping soundscapes 2011 Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, PROGRAM ABSTRACTS OF THE 161ST MEETING OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, pp. 2367  inproceedings DOI URL 
    Abstract: Shipping and wind are key sources in the oceanic soundscape that affects marine mammal habitats. A new method of forming such soundscapes is presented. Frequency and range dependent transmission losses are pre-computed from a grid of virtual sources using fast ray computations (BELLHOP) on a specified number of radial lines. Each radial line samples the bathymetry along its bearing out to a given maximum range. A shipping soundscape is then estimated by assigning a source spectral density level dB re 1 micro Pa2/Hz and a shipping density number of ships per unit area per unit timeto the various grid nodes. Such density values are obtained di- rectly from ships carrying an automatic identification system AIS that transmit information such as ship type, position, heading, and speed. They can be obtained also from compiled statistics of AIS data e.g., number of transits per year in an area. The same gridding approach is used to predict wind-generated sound levels based on maps of average wind speeds in an area for a given epoch, or on maps of forecast wind speeds.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Moustier2011,
      author = {Christian de Moustier and Michael Porter},
      title = {Oceanic shipping soundscapes},
      booktitle = {Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, PROGRAM ABSTRACTS OF THE 161ST MEETING OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {2367},
      url = {http://asadl.org/jasa/resource/1/jasman/v129/i4/p2367_s3?bypassSSO=1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3587661}
    }
    
    Mueller Aids to Navigation and eNavigation 2007 eNavigation conference, pp. 7  article URL 
    Abstract: One of the purposes of eNavigation is to keep the mariner up to date on the status of aids to navigation using some form of automatic means. But, there is more to it than simply collecting and distributing the information automatically. The information must be readily at hand. This implies integration with a navigation display such as ECDIS.

    Where Does Aid to Navigation Data Come From?
    Navigation Charts
    Lights Lists
    Notices to Mariners

    Notice to Mariners
    Various methods of distribution including Navtex
    Manual operations can lead to:
    time delays in notification
    errors in transcription

    AIS for Aids to Navigation
    Message 21 is direct and automatic
    Message 21 delivers position and on-position status
    IALA Page 7 can deliver light and racon status
    Message 21 is local
    Regional distribution requires added services
    Message 21 not integrated - no shore-side control
    Virtual Aids to Navigation alone may be insufficient:
    Why is virtual aid there?
    When is virtual aid in-force?

    Display Issues:
    ECDIS include Navtex
    Other ENC lack Notice display
    Some ENC do not display AIS AtoN Targets
    IALA Page 7 not interpreted

    IEC/IHO Harmonization Group for Marine Information Overlay (HGMIO):
    June 2005 workshop discussed support for AtoN Information in S-57 and ECDIS
    Notices to Mariners simply update chart

    IALA e-ANSI Working Group
    Electronic Aid to Navigation Service Information

    The proposed service is meant "to enhance the guidance to Mariners by providing information on serious hazards or events that might significantly affect the safety of navigation in real time - or as near real-time as is technically practicable - in a form that is immediately apparent to ships navigators"

    BibTeX:
    @article{Mueller2007,
      author = {Mueller},
      title = {Aids to Navigation and eNavigation},
      journal = {eNavigation conference},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {7},
      url = {http://www.tidelandsignal.com/}
    }
    
    NAIS Project Office Nationwide Automatic Identification System Stands Up Increment 1 2007 Delivering the Goods
    Vol. 2, pp. 4-6 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Following a busy year of production, the Nationwide Automatic Identification System (NAIS) project office has completed installation of Increment 1 data reception capability at 55 crucial ports and nine coastal areas around the United States.
    "The mission of NAIS Increment 1 is to establish a reliable network of Automatic Identification System (AIS) receivers in the vicinity of the nation's key ports and waterways as quickly and efficiently as possible," said Cmdr. James K. Ingalsbe, NAIS deputy project manager. "Having achieved initial operational capability in December 2006, we are nearly complete with NAIS Increment 1. The team is busy completing steps to transition the equipment to operations and maintenance by the Coast Guard support community."
    The NAIS project will improve maritime security, marine and navigational safety, search and rescue, and environmental protection services across the United States. NAIS complements other surveillance and intelligence systems and helps decision- makers respond to safety and security risks.
    The system uses AIS -a maritime digital broadcast system that continually transmits and receives voiceless vessel data, including vessel location, course and speed- to help form an overarching view of maritime traffic within or near U.S. and territorial waters.
    After nearly four years of development, in January 2007 the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) granted NAIS approval to enter full rate production for Increment 1 and proceed with initial capability demonstration contracts for Increments 2 and 3.
    BibTeX:
    @article{nais2007,
      author = {NAIS Project Office},
      title = {Nationwide Automatic Identification System Stands Up Increment 1},
      journal = {Delivering the Goods},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {2},
      pages = {4-6},
      url = {http://www.uscg.mil/acquisition/newsroom/pdf/cg9newsletternov07.pdf}
    }
    
    Nakahama, M. SIGNAL PROCESSING DEVICE, RADAR APPARATUS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING PROGRAM 2011 (20110109492)  patent  
    Abstract: This disclosure provides a signal processing device, which includes a reception signal acquiring module for acquiring reception signals received by a radar antenna, an identifying module for identifying a kind of each reception signal, an extracting module for extracting the reception signal for each kind, and a kind-base signal processing module for performing individual signal processing for each kind of the extracted reception signal.

    The signal processing device may further comprise an AIS information acquiring module for acquiring AIS information. The identifying module may identify the kind of the reception signal based on the AIS information.

    The identifying module may identify the reception signal indicating a ship based on the AIS information. The kind-base signal processing module may perform signal processing, which is different from signal processing for other kinds of the reception signals, for the reception signal indicating the ship.

    The signal processing device may further comprise a sea surface reflection detecting module for identifying a reception signal indicating a sea surface reflection. The kind-base signal processing module may perform signal processing, which is different from signal processing for other kinds of the reception signals, for the reception signal indicating the sea surface reflection.

    First, the method of using the information other than the reception data is described. In this embodiment, AIS information and map information are mainly used as the information other than the reception data. For this reason, an MS receiver 23, a GPS receiver 24, an azimuth direction sensor 25, and a map information holding module 26 are connected with the ship radar apparatus 1.

    Review: Crap in terms of AIS.
    BibTeX:
    @patent{Nakahama2011,
      author = {Nakahama, Masahiro},
      title = {SIGNAL PROCESSING DEVICE, RADAR APPARATUS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING PROGRAM},
      year = {2011},
      number = {20110109492}
    }
    
    Naranjo, R. Is AIS Chipping Away at Our Freedoms? 2011 Practical Sailor
    Vol. 37(2) 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Practical Sailor Tech Editor explains his view on the collision-avoidance system and how it raises concerns about privacy and personal freedoms.

    Sailors who read George Orwell's "1984" when it was first published 62 years ago probably wrote off being tracked as a technological feat that was about as unlikely as the discovery of a tiny black box that would replace the sextant. Six decades later, GPS-based navigation has become de rigueur, and the big question is not if, but how tracking technology will be used. The upside of being locatable 24/7 includes many safety and search-and-rescue benefits. But the intrusive downside goes well beyond its impact on sailing's get-away-from-it-all appeal. For many, there's growing concern over the unintended consequences linked to being a very noticeable dot on some tracker's grid

    This decision is likely to be based upon the interplay between competing factors--on one hand, a perceived need for surveillance and security, and on the other, the right to freely navigate coastal waters. Scrutinizing the innocent in order to discover the guilty has gained traction without much congressional debate. It has become standard operating procedure despite constitutional conflict and challenges to prevailing views toward liberty. For many, whatever the effort, if it lessens the likelihood of another terrorist attack, it's worth doing. Others are less willing to abdicate freedom and personal liberty. At present, a sailor has a choice in whether or not to become a blip on the AIS display.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Naranjo2011,
      author = {Ralph Naranjo},
      title = {Is AIS Chipping Away at Our Freedoms?},
      journal = {Practical Sailor},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {37},
      number = {2},
      url = {http://www.practical-sailor.com/issues/37_2/features/AIS-And-Collision-Avoidance_6012-1.html}
    }
    
    Narheim, B.T. & Olsen, O. Monitoring AIS from Space 2009 TEXAS III, pp. 18  article URL 
    Abstract: FFI, Norway
    http://ffi.no

    2008 Global AIS Detection Probability

    2009 Simulation Improvements
    Improved Global AIS Vessel Distribution Map
    Using AIS Base Station data to more accurately separate non-moving, coastal and ocean crossing vessels

    Two refined AIS receiver models with different CCRR
    Standard ~10 dB CCRR receiver
    Signal digitizer with signal processing giving ~6 dB CCRR

    Satellite altitude = 670km
    Simulator Comparison with Com Dev data
    86 sec observation time
    ~1200 vessels detected
    No high density areas
    ~2400 vessels expected
    50% detection probability

    A longer observation time (~5 min) should give >95% detection probability

    FFI simulations indicate approximately the same detection probability
    AISSat-1 Demonstration Satellite
    20x20x20cm body, 85cm tall, 75cm wide
    AIS Sensor built by the Kongsberg Group, Norway
    Platform built by Space Flight Laboratory at UTIAS, Canada

    For the 3rd Frequency
    The updated global vessel distribution shows less vessels in the open oceans thereby easing the detection of vessels in these areas for both "AIS as is" and for a 3rd AIS frequency.

    There are, however, dense traffic areas that would benefit a lot from a 3rd AIS frequency (Europe, Gulf of Mexico, Far East).

    A 3rd frequency exclusively for satellite AIS (ex: ch 75, 76) would remove the current land mobile interference problem on the AIS1 and AIS2 frequencies.

    A 3rd AIS frequency would better absorb future traffic growth.
    Single Timeslot Collision Rates

    AIS satellites chronology:
    2006 AISSat-1
    2007 TRP
    2009 COLAIS
    2009 EQM
    2009 SMRS IOD
    2009 AISSat-2

    BibTeX:
    @article{Narheim2009,
      author = {Bjorn T Narheim and Oystein Olsen},
      title = {Monitoring AIS from Space},
      journal = {TEXAS III},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {18},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/twiki/pub/Main/TexasIII/Bjorn-Narheim-FFI-2009-Texas_III.ppt}
    }
    
    Naus, K., MakaR, A. & Apanowicz, J. Usage AIS Data for Analyzing Ship's Motion Intensity 2007 Trans Nav, pp. 6  article URL 
    Abstract: In preliminary unit of report were introduced order, structure and format of VDM code sended by the AIS VHF data link. Described the process of decoding combination of binary chains sentences describe from ITU R M. 1371.In principle unit analyse of ships intensity of movement in Gulf of Gdansk used coded isoline on background of map as well as transverse intersection on a approach to harbour of Gdynia. Authors presented new generated and used method of processing of regular GRID net - designed to description of spatial expansion of ship intensity of movement. Authors circumscribed method of utilizations the VerticalMapper software Systemu to calculation the izoline of even ships intensity of movement, intersections of transverse, as well as principles of visualizations coded isoline on background of the map, according the author's software.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Naus2007,
      author = {Krzysztof Naus and Artur MakaR and Jaroslaw Apanowicz},
      title = {Usage AIS Data for Analyzing Ship's Motion Intensity},
      journal = {Trans Nav},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {6},
      url = {http://transnav.am.gdynia.pl/transnav2007/proceedings/pdfs/127.pdf}
    }
    
    Nelson, G. Driving Operational Responsiveness with Complex Event Processing 2009 Slideshare  misc URL 
    Abstract: Apama helping Royal Dirkzwager with CEP analysis of AIS and LRIT
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Nelson2009,
      author = {Giles Nelson},
      title = {Driving Operational Responsiveness with Complex Event Processing},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://www.slideshare.net/ProgressSW/driving-operational-responsiveness-with-complex-event-processing}
    }
    
    Nilsson, M., van Laere, J., Susi, T. & Ziemke, T. Information Fusion in Practice: A Distributed Cognition Perspective on the Active Role of Users 2011 Information Fusion
    Vol. In Press, Accepted Manuscript, pp. -  
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Traditionally, the focus of most information fusion research has been on computational aspects, as illustrated by, for example, different versions of the JDL data fusion model. Consequently, the human user has mainly been conceived as a relatively passive recipient of fused information. However, the importance of understanding the active role of human information processing in information fusion is gaining increasing recognition, as also reflected in discussions of a #level#5 in the JDL model. This paper presents a case study of the interaction between human and machine information processing in a maritime surveillance control room. A detailed analysis of cognitive processes and information flows involved in identifying and tracking moving vessels illustrates how machines and human operators collaboratively perform fusion in a highly distributed fashion. The theoretical framework of distributed cognition provides an alternative or complementary way of analysing information fusion systems/processes that more clearly reveals the actual complexities of the interaction between human and machine information processing in practice.

    Extra:

    4.4 Case Site: Maritime Surveillance
    Maritime surveillance was chosen as a case study to exemplify semi-automated fusion processes. Most often maritime surveillance involves identifying and tracking objects at sea or in a harbour. The case study was performed in a surveillance control room responsible for the security of an area outside the south- western Swedish coastline. The main task of the operators located in the surveillance control room is to identify vessels, analyse the situation, and when required, inform the responsible defence agency to take action. During the observations, a total of about 70 vessels were identified and tracked by the team of operators.

    In order to track and identify these objects, there is a number of surveillance resources to be used, such as radars, optic cameras, AIS (automatic identification system), and VHS radio. Fusion of radar data allows automatic tracking of specific identified objects. For interaction with the system, a graphical user interface (GUI) is provided,

    BibTeX:
    @article{Nilsson2011,
      author = {Maria Nilsson and Joeri van Laere and Tarja Susi and Tom Ziemke},
      title = {Information Fusion in Practice: A Distributed Cognition Perspective on the Active Role of Users},
      journal = {Information Fusion},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {In Press, Accepted Manuscript},
      pages = { - },
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6W76-525YP7F-1/2/dbe13f2f5d11c6b6d3f0ed14ebebc232},
      doi = {DOI: 10.1016/j.inffus.2011.01.005}
    }
    
    NOAA & UNH GeoPlatform GulfResponse, Powered by ERMA 2010 web site  misc URL 
    Abstract: You have reached www.GeoPlatform.gov/gulfresponse. Please take a moment to explore the data currently available. If you experience difficulties while using this website, please contact geo.platform@noaa.gov.

    GeoPlatform.gov, powered by Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA), is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool designed to assist both emergency responders and environmental resource managers who deal with incidents that may adversely impact the environment. This application is currently assisting with response operations for the Deepwater Horizon spill and data regarding this incident is displayed here and updated daily. ERMA is also assisting in resource management decisions in support of Natural Resource Damage Assessment.

    ERMA was developed through a joint partnership between NOAA and the University of New Hampshire's Coastal Response Research Center. This site was designed by NOAA's Office of Response and Restoration, the University of New Hampshire and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{NOAA2010,
      author = {NOAA and UNH},
      title = {GeoPlatform GulfResponse, Powered by ERMA},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://gomex.erma.noaa.gov/erma.html}
    }
    
    Noggle, J. & Royal, J. Hawkeye Technology and the Sensor Manager 2008 Coastline - D7's Online Magazine  article URL 
    Abstract: Staff from the Coast Guard Research and Development Center (RDC) arrived in Miami in late 2001 looking for ways to increase maritime domain awareness (MDA) among the watchstanders in command centers. After months of studies, data collection and brain storming sessions, RDC staff recommended that radars and cameras, strategically placed throughout the port, coupled with blue force tracking (Automatic Information System (AIS) for law enforcements partners) would increase situational awareness for the watchstanders and local port partners. Command and Control Engineering Center (C2CEN) was briefed and put together a system to meet requirements recommended by the RDC. The system consisted of infrared cameras; long range optical cameras, RADAR, Geographic Information System/ AIS display, blue force tracking and a web portal for sharing information with port partners. The only thing missing was a name. Coast Guard Headquarters program manager Capt. Dana Goward (Ret.) sponsored an in house 'name the system' contest. Eventually the name 'HAWKEYE' was selected to represent the technology that would lend improved MDA to Sector Miami.

    C2CEN installed the prototype system in the Group Miami operations center in May 2002. Since the initial installation of HAWKEYE, C2CEN has made numerous design spiral improvements and supervised the hiring of contract technicians to maintain system components. With the new equipment in place, dedicated watchstanders were needed to man the new HAWKEYE system. Capt. James Maes, Sector Miami commander, recruited 13 Coast Guard Auxiliarists and Coast Guard Headquarters allotted money to bring five Coast Guard Reservists on active duty to meet HAWKEYE staffing requirements. C2CEN provided the training to bring the new operators or 'sensor managers' (SM) up to speed. Sensor managers use HAWKEYE to monitor the coastal approach, anchorage and ports within the Sector. They check lookout lists and the pilot's arrival list against what they see on HAWKEYE and report any discrepancies. Additionally, the sensor manager is looking for and reports suspicious behavior or anomalies to the situation controller for evaluation. Below are a few examples of when HAWKEYE technology has proven extremely valuable to the operations of the Sector Miami command center and critical to the success of Coast Guard missions in South Florida.

    Additionally, there have been numerous incidents of vessels greater than 300 gross-tons entering anchorage areas without working AIS equipment. These vessels were detected by HAWKEYE's RADAR and cameras, resulting in a Notice of Violation being issued for ships violating the safety of life at sea (SOLAS) AIS requirement. Also, High Interest Vessels (HIV) attempting to enter the port without permission were immediately detected and ordered out of the port when RADAR, cameras and AIS showed them inbound.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Noggle2008,
      author = {Justin Noggle and John Royal},
      title = {Hawkeye Technology and the Sensor Manager},
      journal = {Coastline - D7's Online Magazine},
      year = {2008},
      note = {Year is a guess},
      url = {http://www.d7publicaffairs.com/go/doc/586/92955/}
    }
    
    Norris, A. Radar and AIS, Vol 1 Integrated Bridge Systems 2008 (ISBN: 978 1 870077 95 8)  book URL 
    Abstract: From 2008 all new radars were required to display AIS information, and this book looks at the implications of integrating these functions. It explains how radar and AIS systems can be better integrated with overlay and underlay displays, to assist with decision making on board. The author draws on experience as a leading designer and industry chairman in the international arena.
    BibTeX:
    @book{Norris2008,
      author = {Andy Norris},
      title = {Radar and AIS, Vol 1 Integrated Bridge Systems},
      publisher = {Nautical Institute},
      year = {2008},
      number = {ISBN: 978 1 870077 95 8},
      url = {http://login.nautinst.org/bookshop/default.aspx}
    }
    
    Norris, A. 'Radar and AIS' prerelease 2008   electronic URL 
    Abstract: Press release for a the book?

    From the 1st July 2008, all new radars required mandatory AIS integration; this combined use of data is an innovative example of the power and capability of modern shipboard technology to display two completely separate systems on the same display.
    While much effort has gone into ensuring the AIS, radar and chart information is consistent, with uniform symbols and a standard resolution, operators still need guidance and instruction.
    With the rapid speed of technological advancement, it is all too easy for the human element to become sidelined as a forgotten piece of the jigsaw. It is good news then that The Nautical Institute (NI) has published, as Volume 1 of the Integrated Bridge Systems series, a new guide on 'Radar and AIS'.

    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Norris2008a,
      author = {Andy Norris},
      title = {'Radar and AIS' prerelease},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://www.nautinst.org/press/pdf/radarAIS.pdf}
    }
    
    Norris, A. AIS Implementation - Success or Failure? 2007 Journal of Navigation, pp. 1-10  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: A version of this paper was first presented at the European Navigation Conference 2006, held under the auspices of the RIN at Manchester on 8-10 May 2006.

    AIS is the most recent example of a major globally-introduced maritime navigation system. During its evolution, introduction and early in-service life, it has aroused a lot of negative comment. The basis for this negativity is examined, particularly in the light of the real experience that is now being gained by users of the system. The evolution of the AIS concept through the relevant international bodies - IMO, ITU, IALA and IEC - is discussed, together with the type of problems encountered during its introduction. Many of the problems would have been ameliorated if there had been better communication to users of the system. It is argued that the complexity of the system really required mandatory training to be undertaken, in parallel with the installation of the new equipment.

    andy@drandynorris.co.uk

    BibTeX:
    @article{Norris2006,
      author = {Andy Norris},
      title = {AIS Implementation - Success or Failure?},
      journal = {Journal of Navigation},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {1-10},
      url = {http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=592760},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0373463307004031}
    }
    
    Norris, A. Class B AIS 2006 AIS 06  conference URL 
    Abstract: Designed for ‘non-SOLAS' vessels
    System design prevents overloading of the VHF data link (VDL)
    More affordable than Class A
    Two options:
    Carrier sense time division multiple access (CSTDMA)
    Self organising time division multiple access (SOTDMA)
    At present only Class B CSTDMA has been defined in an international standard (IEC 62287)
    Coastal states regulate use

    Potential issues of Class B
    Will CSTDMA cause garbling of Class B messages?
    What are the effects of Class B on AIS channel loading?
    - will it be a problem for Class A users?
    Will Class B users over-estimate the capability of AIS as a collision avoidance tool?

    Garbling
    Class B CSTDMA transmissions can occur in the same slot
    This can create mutual interference known as ‘garbling', preventing the reception of data from either station
    Garbling will not occur if the levels of the two signals are sufficiently different at the receiving station
    The specification level on co-channel interference rejection, Ico is 10 dB

    What are the effects on AIS channel loading of Class B?
    The extra garbling is contained within the total reception probabilities in USCG simulations. (0-5 mile range 'San Francisco' simulation for a reference Class A receiver):

    Taken from 'Performance Assessment of Proposed Class B AIS Access Schemes using USCG Developed Simulation Software', David Pietraszewski, USCG Research and Development Center

    Will Class B users over-estimate the capability of AIS as a collision avoidance tool?

    Update rate of a 30kn Class B target at 1mile range, compared to radar
    [A 30 kn Class A target would report its position at a similar rate to that of a marine radar]

    Some new radars have an AIS overlay capability
    From July 2008 all SOLAS radars will have to have this facility, in accordance with MSC.192(79)

    Class B user over confidence
    The affordability of Class B will result on many vessels being fitted, particularly onto craft that do not have radar
    Class B users may consider themselves to be invulnerable - 'we now have a beacon that will prevent us from being run down by ships!'

    May not realise that most ships can only detect AIS targets as a list on a small MKD display that may be non-optimally positioned
    May be poorly informed on the use of AIS and its limitations
    Will probably have rather different ideas to SOLAS navigators on:
    What is a safe CPA, TCPA
    At what point decisions relating to poor visibility come into force

    Class B benefits
    Class B systems will be affordable and, sensibly used, offer good benefits to the leisure user
    Most SOLAS vessels have AIS Class A fitted as a mandatory requirement and therefore ‘all' larger vessels transmit AIS data
    In general terms this gives Class B users additional information, provided the AIS data can be displayed reasonably well on the craft (BUT it will not be a complete picture)
    Users of ‘display-less' Class B devices are trusting that they will be more visible to SOLAS vessels
    This is a gross assumption until more ships are displaying AIS on radar (or on an electronic chart)
    Class B users will have few paints compared to radar and so fast moving leisure vessels may present visibility problems

    Conclusions
    Even intensive AIS Class B CSTDMA use is unlikely to overload the VDL
    Class B messages will suffer from some garbling
    An AIS Class B in association with adequate target display facilities (eg ECS) is a useful navigation tool for an educated Class B user
    AIS Class B targets may be missed by bridge staff because:
    An MKD has inadequate display facilities to be a reliable collision avoidance tool
    The MKD may be inappropriately positioned
    Fast AIS targets have an insufficient update rate to be correlated with radar, even on an AIS compatible ‘target tracking' radar
    Class B users therefore must not assume that their AIS signal will be visible on any ship
    However, well educated Class B users with adequate AIS display facilities (eg ECS) will have a powerful and affordable onboard tool to avoid close contact with SOLAS vessels

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Norris2006a,
      author = {Andy Norris},
      title = {Class B AIS},
      booktitle = {AIS 06},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20090219050721/http://rhppublishing.com/Presentations%20Day%201/Norris%20Presentation.ppt}
    }
    
    Norris, A. E-navigation: What is it and where is it going? 2006 AIS 06  conference URL 
    Abstract: What is E-Navigation?

    IMO seeks '…to develop a strategic vision for the utilization of existing and new navigational tools, in particular electronic tools, in a holistic and systematic manner'. The goal is to '…help reduce navigational accidents, errors and failures by developing standards for an accurate and cost effective system'.

    The 'E' is not strictly defined
    It generally means enhanced/electronic

    The short history of E-Navigation
    Earliest public announcement - UK, November 2005
    Input paper to IMO MSC 81 May 2006
    Japan, Marshall Islands, the Netherlands, Norway, Singapore, the United Kingdom, the United States
    Formation of a Correspondence Group at IMO NAV 52, June 2006 to develop an e-navigation strategy
    Formation of an e-NAV Committee at IALA, September 2006 - Chairman Bill Cairns, USCG
    1st International Conference covering e-navigation, October 2006, Seattle

    The contribution of AIS/06
    E-navigation is being defined and agreed internationally
    Conferences such as this one will contribute to the debate on e-navigation
    We are fortunate in having today some of the big players in this process speaking at this conference:
    The mariners view
    The view of equipment manufacturers
    Regulatory and legal matters
    In-depth look at display issues

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Norris2006b,
      author = {Andy Norris},
      title = {E-navigation: What is it and where is it going?},
      booktitle = {AIS 06},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20090219033304/http://rhppublishing.com/Presentations%20Day%202/Norris%20Presentation.ppt}
    }
    
    Norsworthy, R. Improved satellite detection of AIS 2009 (Document 5B/175 (Annex 5))  techreport URL 
    Abstract: From the TEXAS III website

    WG 5B-3 proposes to approve a new report on improved satellite detection of AIS as shown on the following pages.
    1Introduction
    Satellite detection of AIS messages has been requested by administrations. In response, studies were made that were documented in Report ITU-R M.2084 (2006) "Satellite detection of automatic identification system messages." The Report considered the operational and technical characteristics of the shipborne AIS and the requirements and limitations of reception of AIS messages from satellites. Further studies were proposed to deal with the technical limitations that hinder detection of AIS-equipped target ships in high-traffic areas (e.g. the Dover Straits, Singapore, North East United States, and the northern Gulf of Mexico) on the designated AIS VDL (VHF Data Link). The technical limitations specifically cited were:
    1)the length of the AIS message in the time slot (insufficient time buffer for the satellite detection range);
    2)the large number of messages in the satellite antenna footprint (excess reuse of the time slots in the VDL as detected by the satellite);
    3)the difficulty satellite AIS has in distinguishing signals between AIS messages and communications from terrestrial services within the satellite antenna footprint (coverage pattern).
    This Report on further studies shows the need for a special AIS message that is shortened in length and can be transmitted on a special reporting schedule on two other frequencies when those frequencies are designated. Accordingly, a new Recommendation ITU-R M.1371 AIS message (Message 27) and new Appendix 18 frequencies for this service are proposed.

    Solving the problem of overlapping messages (blurred reception)
    The differences in propagation delay between vessels and the satellite causes the AIS messages to overlap. Thus, the slot composition must be adjusted to increase the time buffer so that the AIS transmissions can be received by the satellite in separate slots without a time overlap. Table 1 serves as the basis for the proposed new Message 27 slot composition shown in Table 5 based on an allowance for the "propagation time delay difference (bits)". Tables 2-4 show the technical parameters, reporting intervals and data packet structure of the AIS messages that are currently approved.

    Proposed new data field for AIS satellite detection Message 27

    Solving the problem of the large number of messages in the satellite antenna footprint
    The large number of messages in the satellite antenna footprint (excess reuse of the time slots in the VDL as detected by the satellite) is attributable to both the large number of ships and the reporting rate. Studies show that 100% of AIS Class A ships can be detected if:
    1)an appropriate reporting rate for the AIS Class A ships is selected;
    2)coastal ships within range of an AIS base station are eliminated; and
    3)the AIS Class B is eliminated from satellite reception.

    Selecting a reporting interval for satellite reception of the AIS Class A
    The proposed reporting interval for the proposed new Message 27 is 3 minutes in order to give the best detection probability at a typical observation time of 13.6 minutes as shown in Fig. 1. The reports from administrations on simulation results (for AIS Class A) also support this proposed reporting interval. Note that a 2-channel system doubles the loading capacity and provides interference protection.

    Eliminating coastal ships within range of an AIS base station
    An AIS base station transmits a special Base Station Message 4 that is received by all ships within radio range of that station. Since that AIS base station presumably receives AIS position reports from all ships within that range, it is not necessary for those ships to transmit the proposed AIS Satellite Message 27. Therefore, it is proposed that when a ship receives an AIS Base Station Message 4, the ship should reset the 3-minute message timer for the proposed Message 27. This provision will greatly improve the probability of detection by reducing the number of reports.
    3.3Eliminating the AIS Class B from the satellite reception
    Reports from administrations on simulation results indicate that both AIS Class A transmissions at 12.5 Watts and Class B "CS" transmissions at 2 Watts have sufficient signal margins to support satellite AIS reception. However, the satellite footprint is too wide to accommodate the expected combined population of both classes of AIS. Furthermore, some administrations have stated the need, based on simulation results, to request that special frequencies be designated for transmitting the proposed new Message 27. Therefore, this proposal is to add the new proposed Message 27 to the AIS Class A only with a message priority level 4 and on the other frequencies. In that case, the AIS Class A equipment would not be required to receive on those frequencies and the reporting interval could be implemented with RATDMA based solely on the activity of AIS 1 and AIS 2

    Operating frequencies for satellite detection of AIS
    Separate frequencies for satellite detection of AIS should be considered from within Appendix 18 of the Radio Regulations (RR AP18) because the tuning range of the shipborne AIS Class A is limited to these frequencies.
    At the time of development of this report, besides the secondary mobile satellite service (MSS) allocations referred to in No 5.227A of the Radio Regulations (Edition of 2008), there is no other MSS allocations within the frequency range covered by RR AP18. With respect to possible additional AIS frequencies for satellite detection, Report ITU-R M.2084 indicated that the interference environment resulting from the existing services in those bands must be taken into account in determining the feasibility of accommodating satellite AIS in any given band or channel, due to the satellite antenna footprint that overlaps both land and sea. Examination of Appendix 18 indicates that only 4 frequencies (channels 16, , 70, 75 and 76) are exclusively dedicated to maritime use and restricted from terrestrial use on a global basis.
    Channel 70 is exclusively dedicated for DSC for distress and calling and channel 16 is exclusively dedicated for distress and calling, therefore making them both unavailable for AIS purposes.
    Footnote n), referring to channels 75 and 76, currently limits power to 1 Watt for radio transmissions because they are adjacent channels to channel 16 (the distress and calling channel). It should be noted that at least one administration uses channels 75 and 76 for low-power (1 Watt) maritime communications in-port.
    Transmission of Message 27 at 12.5 Watts only once every 3 minutes for 17 milliseconds, alternating between channels 75 and 76 together with the restriction to not transmit when the ship is within range of an AIS base station, would not interfere with voice communications on any of these channels 16, 75 and 76, and it would be detectable over a 1 Watt radio transmission.
    Indeed, studies (the JSC Report) have shown that AIS transmissions do not significantly degrade voice communications on the adjacent channels due to the shortness of the duration of one AIS time slot compared to the time intervals used by human speech. The JSC Report used the metric of "voice articulation score" (VAS) to make this assessment, and it concluded that the VAS on the channel adjacent to the AIS was 90-95% for the normal reporting interval of the shipborne AIS. In this particular case, the proposed new satellite AIS Message 27 is significantly shorter (only 17 milliseconds) than one AIS time slot (27 milliseconds), and the interval of the proposed transmission is significantly less (only once every 3 minutes) than the AIS reporting interval (2 10 seconds). It is unlikely that this short burst will open the squelch of shipborne VHF radios. The burst may possibly be detected during the reception of a voice call from a distant station, but the duration of the proposed burst will not spoil the detect-ability of human speech, based on the VAS metrics used in the JSC Report.

    Conclusion
    This Report addresses the technical limitations cited in Report ITU-R M.2084 that invited further studies. The possible solutions reached herein are:
    1)A special short AIS message (proposed Message 27, of only 96 bits) that is tailored for satellite reception would solve the problem of blurred reception.
    2)A special reporting interval (proposed 3 minutes) is needed for the satellite AIS message.
    3)Ships within range of an AIS base station should suppress transmission of this message.
    4)Satellite detection of the shipborne AIS should be limited to the AIS Class A (SOLAS Class) because the AIS Class B population is too large to be included.
    5)Separate operating frequencies in addition to AIS 1 and AIS 2 are needed that are not subject to terrestrial use.
    6)Frequencies should be considered only from Appendix 18 due to the limited tuning range of the shipborne AIS.
    7)Appendix 18 contains only 4 frequencies (channels 16, 70, 75 and 76) that are exclusively dedicated to maritime use. Channels 16 and 70 cannot be considered because of their specific status. Should channels 75 and 76 of RR AP18 be considered together with the transmission mode described in this report, studies show the requirement of footnote n) to RR AP18 is met
    8)Recommendation ITU-R M.1371-3 could consequentially be revised to add the new Message 27 along with its transmission characteristics and the AIS Class A equipment
    could be upgraded through software update via the pilot port fitted on all installed AIS transponders.
    Additional studies on AIS satellite detection are encouraged by administrations. Annex 1 provides an example.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Norsworthy2009,
      author = {Ross Norsworthy},
      title = {Improved satellite detection of AIS},
      year = {2009},
      number = {Document 5B/175 (Annex 5)},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/twiki/pub/Main/TexasIII/Ross_Norsworthy_Draft_New_Report_-_Improved_satellite_detection_of_AIS.doc}
    }
    
    Norsworthy, R. Satellite AIS detection at ITU - Report on the development of the technology and use of the spectrum 2009 TEXAS III, pp. 6  article URL 
    Abstract: Issues under consideration

    Performance limitations of the current service
    Slot reuse (multiple messages per slot)
    Slot overlap (insufficient slot time buffer)
    RF interference (terrestrial use of AIS1 & AIS2)
    Limited dedicated maritime spectrum
    Channel 16 (75 kHz bandwidth allocation, 3 channels)
    Channel 70 (25 kHz bandwidth allocation, 1 channel)
    Necessity to revise the ITU (1371-3) AIS standard
    Privacy of data distribution

    Technical approach

    Special short message (17ms) for satellite AIS
    Allows sufficient time buffer to prevent overlap
    Globally-dedicated marine frequencies (2)
    Uses channel 16 guard-bands (channels 75 & 76)
    Provides capacity, redundancy, non-interference
    Message timing (3 min) optimizes detection
    Provides 99.9% detection on one satellite pass
    Privacy for concerned Administrations
    AIS shore stations suppress the satellite message

    Documents under review
    Report: "Improved satellite detection of AIS"
    Draft New Report (May 2009, see backup slides)
    Updates previous Report ITU-R M.2084 (2006)
    Planned for final revision and approval Nov 2009
    Revision of Recommendation ITU-R M.1371-3
    Preliminary Draft Revision sent to IALA May 2009
    Revision to Annex 4 "Long Range Applications"
    Requires software update to shipborne AIS units
    May require modification to a footnote in RR Ap18

    Required actions
    IALA: Agree to draft rev. Rec. ITU-R M.1371-3
    A formality; other revisions being consolidated
    ITU: Produce/approve Rec. ITU-R M.1371-4
    2-yr minimum revision cycle; last revision 2007
    WRC: Modify footnote n) in RR Appendix 18
    A formality; does not effect current usage/users
    IMO: Software update to shipborne AIS
    Updates to ships' equipment are an MSC priority

    Problems
    Lack of understanding of technical issues
    Misunderstanding service providers claims
    Desire for privacy generates negative bias
    Confusion over spectrum issues
    Political posturing at IMO
    Need for software update for ships' AIS units
    Requires IMO action, however
    Updates are required for other important reasons

    BibTeX:
    @article{Norsworthy2009a,
      author = {Ross Norsworthy},
      title = {Satellite AIS detection at ITU - Report on the development of the technology and use of the spectrum},
      journal = {TEXAS III},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {6},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/twiki/pub/Main/TexasIII/Ross_Norsworthy_Satellite_AIS_detection_at_ITU.ppt}
    }
    
    NTSB NTSB Docket 44544 CD list of Contents - Cosco Busan 2009 Web  misc URL 
    Abstract: All of the documents that went into the NTSB investigation of the Coscu Busan SF Bay Bridge allision
    BibTeX:
    @misc{ntsb2009,
      author = {NTSB},
      title = {NTSB Docket 44544 CD list of Contents - Cosco Busan},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://www.ntsb.gov/Dockets/Marine/DCA08MM004/default.htm}
    }
    
    O'Neil, C.T. 2007 USCG Coastline
    Vol. Winter 
    article  
    Abstract: MIAMI -- It is the database upon which so much depends. From resource allocation, to
    unit staffing levels, to boarding officer safety, the accuracy of the information logged in
    this database is critical to Coast Guard commands. Yet since its inception, errors,
    duplications and a lack of emphasis on complete data entry have all combined to vex
    users of the information contained within the Coast Guard's Marine Information for
    Safety and Law Enforcement (MISLE) database.
    MISLE is the Coast Guard's only
    comprehensive and official, lawenforcement
    information database.
    MISLE entries are used for
    documentation of a range of activities
    including marine inspections,
    recreational boating safety, search and
    rescue operations and marine casualty
    investigations to name a few.
    The problems with MSILE data reached
    critical mass in the Seventh District
    when units were receiving credit for
    less than 50 percent of their actual work
    and violation cases couldn't be
    processed by the district's processing
    center within the same year. But the
    genesis of the Seventh District's quality
    control effort, that would eventually become a model for the Coast Guard, didn't begin in
    the processing center or with MISLE users in the field. It began instead in a non-descript,
    windowless office on the eighth floor of the district headquarters building in Miami.
    "It all started with fisheries," said Lt. Chad Brick, project leader for District Seven
    MISLE Compliance.
    According to Brick, analysis of living marine resource compliance rates was skewed due
    to a lack of data entry into MISLE. "We increased our enforcement however the
    compliance rate didn't drop, and this was because all of our efforts weren't being entered
    in MISLE," said Brick.
    "I started pulling up the other numbers for search and rescue, counter-drug and alien
    migrant interdiction operations and realized that this was an issue for every mission, not
    just fisheries," he said, "and the experts for each of these missions were addressing the
    MISLE issue differently.
    Recognizing the need for a coordinated plan that would span program boundaries, Brick
    briefed Capt. Michael Jett, chief of the District Seven enforcement branch, who
    supported Brick's initiative.
    The district's program relies upon a three-pronged approach to quality control that
    includes a comprehensive process to ensure units receive 100 percent credit for all law
    enforcement efforts within the district, an in-depth MISLE guidance and training program
    that reaches all levels of command and a constructive feedback mechanism that also
    holds units accountable for performance.
    According to Brick, the MISLE Performance Evaluation (MPE) was created to provide
    units with constructive feedback on MISLE data entry compliance rates. "The MPE
    comes out monthly via message traffic, lists every unit by sector and shows the gap
    between activities performed by units versus what is entered in MISLE," said Brick.
    Along with the creation of the MPE, a Maritime Law Enforcement Bulletin provided an
    easy to follow checklist and data entry examples as a guide for MISLE users. Both tools
    were well received in the field because, in part, Brick ensured that users and managers at
    the sector level were included in the creation of both the MPE and the MLEB guide.
    "Units are always very motivated to do a good job, no matter what the job is," said Brick.
    "Our success in the process thus far is only due to the hard work from the field and we
    look forward to adjusting this process in order to meet future challenges."
    As good as the process is the real measure of the project's success can be seen through
    analysis of MISLE data.
    According to Brick, the District Seven MISLE Compliance Project has resulted in:
    A decrease of missing/incorrect MISLE entries from more than 50 percent in
    fiscal year 2005 to just 14 percent thus far in fiscal year 2007.
    An increase of more than 450 law enforcement activity entries per quarter.
    A district processing center that is caught up for the first time in five years.
    A district processing center that processes most cases within one month of the
    violation.
    Another indicator of the success of the project is recognition from headquarters that
    District Seven's process is the model for all other districts to emulate. The Eighth
    District recently received training in the process from the District Seven Law
    Enforcement Branch and is currently adopting the program.
    While Brick is responsible for beginning the project, he is quick to point out he couldn't
    have done it on his own.
    "The MISLE program manager at headquarters, Lt. Cmdr. Jon Smithers really put in a lot
    of time with me in creating this process," said Brick. "He kept this project moving in the
    right direction and Capt. Jett allowed me to work on this and really pushed its importance
    which helped a lot."
    Now, because of Brick's efforts, those of his project team and MISLE users throughout
    District Seven, the Coast Guard has a system that is, as Brick says, "very effective" in
    solving MISLE data entry problems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{O'Neil2007,
      author = {C. T. O'Neil},
      journal = {USCG Coastline},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {Winter}
    }
    
    Okoroji, L.I. & Ukpere, W.I. The effectiveness of the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS) in Nigeria 2011 African Journal of Business Management
    Vol. 5(4), pp. 1426-1430 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Over the years, acts of insecurity, lack of safety consciousness and threat of terrorism have pervaded the maritime landscape of the world economy. The obvious dishonest outlook and fraud-like tendencies which over the years, have formed the most basic characteristics of the maritime industry have never helped matters either way, but has indeed complicated the issue of high insecurity of the port industries worldwide. The amendment of the Convention on Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) introduced the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS) code) as preventive measure against the likelihood of terrorist attacks on Ships and Port Facilities.

    Furthermore, to ensure complete adherence to the requirements for complying with the provisions of the ISPS Code, Nigeria has embarked on the development and integration of various telemetric and surveillance infrastructure for ship to shore, shore to ship, shore to shore, intra/inter agency communications, throughthefollowingmaritimecommunication installations (Sekibo, 2004):
    Automatic Identification System (AIS) Vessel Traffic Management System (VTMS) Global Maritime Distress and Safety Systems (GMDSS) Ship Security alert System (SSAS) Long Range Identification and Tracking of Ships (LRIT)
    Tracking/Identification of non Convention Crafts Command Communication/Co-ordination Centers.
    Overall there was upgrading of vulnerable or sub-optimal physical structures, port approaches, quay/land side access and restricted areas. An important element in the technical requirements, was training. In accordance with the dictates of the ISPS Code, training for maritime security was carried out at all levels in the maritime industry (ISPS Code, 2003).

    BibTeX:
    @article{Okoroji2011,
      author = {Lazarus I. Okoroji and Wilfred I. Ukpere},
      title = {The effectiveness of the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS) in Nigeria},
      journal = {African Journal of Business Management},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {5},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1426-1430},
      url = {http://www.academicjournals.org/AJBM/PDF/pdf2011/18Feb/Okoroji%20and%20Ukpere.pdf}
    }
    
    Olsen, K. & Fagerlie, E. Adaptive Systems - A Case for Calculating Estimated Time of Arrival 2011 Potentials, IEEE
    Vol. 30(2), pp. 15 -19 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: German trains have been renowned for their punctuality. It may be an exaggeration that one can set the time by the trains, still 97 #x0025; of the trains run on schedule. But a railway has an advantage: it has full control over the tracks. When buses are stuck in traffic or boats delayed by bad weather, timetables are no longer working and we need sophisticated means of calculating the estimated time of arrival (ETA).

    These vessels, as most other ships, will send an automatic identification system (AIS) message every 30 s. This electronic signal gives the vessel ID, position, course, speed, destination, and several other parameters. It is sent over VHF radio and is captured by antennas on shore or on other boats. In this way, ships can exchange data with other nearby ships and costal stations. Vessel movements can be monitored and colli- sions avoided.
    A sister application to the one we describe here, Shiplog, captures AIS data from all ships along the coast. These are presented on maps as seen in Fig. 2. Each ship is visualized on the map, in the right position and with the course indicated. The map is interactive and will update itself every minute. By click- ing on a ship, we get additional data such as name, speed, destination even a picture of the ship from an interna- tional maritime register. This data is used by shipping lines, harbor authorities, and the general public. In our applica- tion we are only interested in position, speed, and course from the AIS data. Since these are received from each vessel every 30 s, we have a formalized environment with very accurate data. We may then consider an adaptive system, a system that can learn from experience.

    The idea of adaption will work best in situations where the system model gives a good approximation of the application area. Today we find many applications for adaptive methods within technical environments, such as for steering robots, tuning wireless systems, network control, recognizing visual images, and traffic sur- veillance. In these examples, we find the level of formalization that is needed for an adaptive application to work well. Our application is similar. First, the ves- sels have a timetable to follow and an incentive to keep to it. If there are too many delays, the boat company will be punished by a reduction in the financial support they get from the state. Secondly, we have formalized data from the AIS system, position, speed, and course every 30 s. Therefore, this application looks to be a promising application area for an adaptive system.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Olsen2011,
      author = {Olsen, K.A. and Fagerlie, E.},
      title = {Adaptive Systems - A Case for Calculating Estimated Time of Arrival},
      journal = {Potentials, IEEE},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {30},
      number = {2},
      pages = {15 -19},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MPOT.2011.940643}
    }
    
    Olson, D. CEP in Transport and Logistics 2009 blog  misc URL 
    Abstract: Royal Dirkzwager's use of GPS, GIS events as well as information from Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) and Long Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT) systems, when correlated with their other infrastructure events, is where the magic is. Yes, they had all those events before but CEP pulls them together and makes them much more meaningful. They're also going to leverage their Sonic ESB as a convenient on- and off-ramp for many of their events. And while Royal Dirkzwager's a maritime logistics provider, it's not a far stretch to see how other land- or sea-based LSPs can put themselves in a similar position. Whether they own, manage or contribute to the supply chain, the events are there - harnessing them should be an imperative. Royal Dirkzwager's not our first in this space and it won't be the last.
    Review: I have been meaning to apply Complex Event Processing (CEP) to AIS for a long time
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Olson2009,
      author = {David Olson},
      title = {CEP in Transport and Logistics},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://apama.typepad.com/my_weblog/2009/03/cep-in-transport-and-logistics.html}
    }
    
    Olson, J. & Carley, K.M. Visualizing Spatial Dependencies in Network Topology 2010 (CMU-ISR-09-127)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: Increasingly, the data available to network analysts includes not only relationships between entities but the observation of entity attributes and relations in geographic space. Integrating this informa- tion with existing dynamic network analysis techniques demands new models and new tools. This paper introduces extensions to the ORA dynamic network analysis platform intended to meet this need. In particular, we present new visualization techniques for displaying the network topology of large, noisy datasets embedded in geographic space. We present these extensions and demonstrate them on some sample datasets.

    From the 25th to 30th of June 2005, a sensor network queried Automated Identification Sys- tem (AIS) transponders on merchant marine vessels conducting exercises in the English Channel, recording navigational details such as current latitude and longitude, heading, speed, reported des- tination, and several forms of identifying information. In total, movements of over 1700 vessels were recorded, with activities ranging from simple shipping lane traversals to apparently complex itineraries with stops at multiple ports of call. The dataset we analyzed includes 42869 AIS reports from approximately 1729 distinct vessels, over a large geographic range that suggests multiple polling stations, shown in Figure 2.

    Although the specific format of the message is standardized, several factors limit the consis-
    tency and precision of the interpretation of AIS reports. The numerical precision of the geographic 7
    location fields is fixed but distances over degrees of latitude and longitude vary around the globe, resulting in actual physical precision of the readings are also inconsistent. In the English Channel area, the effective sensor resolution was approximately 1100 meters, or .6 nautical miles, meaning that smaller differences in location could not be accurately distinguished. Because of this, it is not possible to examine movement patterns at a higher geographic scale with AIS data. Another lim- itation of AIS data is the polling frequency and duration. Although it varies somewhat across the sampled region, queries appeared to be conducted at approximately 40 minute intervals, meaning that activities on a similar timescale might be unrecorded or almost impossible to identify. For these reasons we focus on patterns at a low geographic scale, across the entire sampled region. More information as well as an in depth analysis of this dataset can be found in [4].

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Olson2010,
      author = {Jamie Olson and Kathleen M Carley},
      title = {Visualizing Spatial Dependencies in Network Topology},
      year = {2010},
      number = {CMU-ISR-09-127},
      url = {http://www.casos.cs.cmu.edu/publications/papers/CMU-ISR-09-127.pdf}
    }
    
    Olson, J.F., Davis, G.B. & Carley, K.M. Extending ORAfor Spatial and Temporal Data 2008 CASOS Summer Institute  conference URL 
    Abstract: Extending ORAfor Spatial and Temporal Data
    Jamie F. OlsonGeorge B. DavisProf. Kathleen M. Carley jolson@cs.cmu.edugbd@cs.cmu.edukathleen.carley@cs.cmu.edu
    patial and TemporalData
    Surveillance and Sensor Systems
    - Dynamic network analysis (DNA) consists of a set of theories, methodologies and tools for analyzing the relationships and attributes assigned to discrete entities.
    - Recent proliferation of sensor systems has produced many datasets which feature geospatial and temporal information about agent activities in addition to the attributes and relationships typically measured. Examples include data from GPS sensors embedded in vehicles or devices, logs of online activities, and collected data from intelligence networks.
    - Two new tools, Loom and OraGIS, have been added to the ORA analysis platform targeted at spatially and temporally continuous data.

    GPS Data on Merchant Marines
    Automated Information System (AIS)
    - For traffic control and security, large vessels are required internationally to carry an AIS transponder
    - Sensors queried AIS transponders on vessels traveling through the English Channel over a period of 5 days.

    Continuous Temporal Data
    Visualizing Trails
    - Loom utilizes a waterfall diagram to show discrete transitions through space. OraGIS can be used to preprocess continuous locations.

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Olson2008,
      author = {Jamie F. Olson and George B. Davis and Kathleen M. Carley},
      title = {Extending ORAfor Spatial and Temporal Data},
      booktitle = {CASOS Summer Institute},
      year = {2008},
      note = {Poster},
      url = {http://www.casos.cs.cmu.edu/projects/ora/jfolson-SI08-poster-final.pdf}
    }
    
    Oltmann, J.-H. The e-Navigation System Architecture Viewed from Ashore 2007 eNavigation conference, pp. 20  article  
    Abstract: We arrive now at a critical point regarding the definition of the shore-based architecture:
    How do we as a competent authority master the complexity involved?

    How do we do this in a cost-efficient manner?

    The answer:
    Encapsulate complexity in shore-based eNAV services

    The term "service" should be used to designate a set of shore based functionality participating in the peer-to-peer virtual connection to encapsulate their complexities.
    For every link technology there is defined a specific e-Nav service, and also for similar specific tasks within the shore-based system.

    Examples of such shore based e-Nav services are: the AIS Service, the Radar Service, the Floating Visual Aids Service, but also the Gateway Service and certain Value-Added Services within the core of the shore-based system architecture.

    And: define open and standardised interfaces between the e-Nav services.

    Third:
    Consider the shore-based e-Nav architecture as a client-server-architecture where different specific e-Nav services perform certain tasks, supporting each other:
    Data Collection and Data Transfer services
    Value-added data processing services
    Gateway Service
    User Interaction Service

    This model could serve as a holistic architecture model for the competent authorities, i. e. is of common relevance.

    I stated earlier that all user requirements should be collected and harmonized in a top-down approach. This is a huge task.
    However, although the term "e-Nav" as such is new, the concept has been there for quite a time:
    In particular the advent of the AIS constituted a major trigger event to start thinking in architectural terms on the shore side already years ago.
    Hence, there are a lot of existing, well-known user requirements and applications which need to be brought together in a harmonized way.

    That is the new task. And huge it is as well.
    And also there are some genuinely new e-Nav applications, which need to be described from scratch.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Oltmann2007,
      author = {Jan-Hendrik Oltmann},
      title = {The e-Navigation System Architecture Viewed from Ashore},
      journal = {eNavigation conference},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {20}
    }
    
    Ondrej Vanek, Michal Jakob, O.H. & Pechoucek, M. Using Multi-Agent Simulation to Improve the Security of Maritime Transit 2011 FIX: where?, pp. 12  article URL 
    Abstract: Despite their use for modeling traffic in ports and regional waters, agent-based simulations have not yet been applied to model mar- itime traffic on a global scale. We therefore propose a fully agent-based, data-driven model of global maritime traffic, focusing primarily on mod- eling transit through piracy-affected areas. The model uses finite state machines to represent the behavior of several classes of vessels and can accurately replicate global shipping patterns and approximate real-world distribution of pirate attacks. The application of the model to the prob- lem of optimizing the Gulf of Aden group transit demonstrates the useful- ness of agent-based modeling in evaluating and improving counter-piracy measures.
    BibTeX:
    @article{OndrejVanek2011,
      author = {Ondrej Vanek, Michal Jakob, Ondrej Hrstka, and Michal Pechoucek},
      title = {Using Multi-Agent Simulation to Improve the Security of Maritime Transit},
      journal = {FIX: where?},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {12},
      url = {http://agents.felk.cvut.cz/cgi-bin/docarc/public.pl/document/332/agentc-mabs2011.pdf}
    }
    
    Oo, K.M.S., Shi, C. & Weintrit, A. CLUSTERING ANALYSIS AND IDENTIFICATION OF MARINE TRAFFIC CONGESTED ZONES AT WUSONGKOU, SHANGHAI   article URL 
    Abstract: Shanghai, with its natural, cultural and historical wealth, is not only one of China's most beautiful cities, but it is also one of the most exciting cities in the world. However, there are enormous challenges for navigation in the Shanghai Strait due to its geographical, geopolitical and oceanographic structure. One of the challenges is the marine traffic which crosses from one side to other of the strait. In this study, an attempt is made to identify of vessel traffic zones based on DBSCAN in the Wusongkou. It is located along the north end of Huangpu river which flows from South-West of Shanghai to the North-East and flows into Yangtze river. Ship's domain is introduced into the DBSCAN algorithm, a particle suitable clustering algorithm is improved for clustering the real-time ship's dynamic data and detecting potential traffic congested areas at sea, and define three neighborhood models. In addition, fuzzy evaluation model is applied to identify traffic congestion degree. At the end of study, combining the improved DBSCAN algorithm and fuzzy evaluation model for traffic congestion degree, using three neighborhood models with different size to analyses the AIS data from the vessels nearby Wusongkou in Shanghai, and build the corresponding figure of traffic condition visualisation, used to visualise the evaluation result. The result indicate that the neighborhood three model (length is seventeen times of ship's length, width is six point four times of ship's length plus ship's width) can identify the traffic congested zones better.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Oo,
      author = {Kyay Mone Soe Oo and Chaojian Shi and Adam Weintrit},
      title = {CLUSTERING ANALYSIS AND IDENTIFICATION OF MARINE TRAFFIC CONGESTED ZONES AT WUSONGKOU, SHANGHAI},
      url = {http://zeszyty.am.gdynia.pl/artykul/Clustering%20analysis%20and%20identification%20of%20marine%20traffic%20congested%20zones%20at%20Wusongkou,%20Shanghai_90.pdf}
    }
    
    ORBCOMM Worldwide AIS Data From Space 2010 TEXAS IV  inproceedings URL 
    Abstract: Next Generation OG2
    18 satellites plus options for up to 30 more.
    Over $164 Million (USD) committed for 18 satellites & launch
    Advanced processing capability with increased capacity
    AIS receiver and demodulation improvements along with other enhancements

    Up to four (4) satellites per launch on 9 month launch increments planned
    Initial launch of 2 satellites planned for 2Q11
    Entire 18 Next Generation OG2 constellation completed by end of 2013
    Additional commitments made for equatorial and polar satellites (AIS only satellites)
    2Q11 launches planned - one equatorial and one polar

    18 Inclined Satellites
    Altitude 750 km
    2 planes of 5 sats @ 45 deg
    2 planes of 4 sats @ 45 deg

    15 Ground Stations
    US (New York, Georgia, Washington, Arizona), Curacao, Argentina, Brazil, Italy, Morocco, Kazakhstan, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Australia, and South Africa

    2 Polar Satellites
    Altitude 670 km
    Inclination 98 deg

    2 Ground Stations
    Europe and New York

    1 Equatorial Satellite
    Altitude 670 km
    Inclination 5 deg

    1 Ground Station
    Malaysia

    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{ORBCOM2010,
      author = {ORBCOMM},
      title = {Worldwide AIS Data From Space},
      booktitle = {TEXAS IV},
      publisher = {Nationa Maritime Domain Awareness Coordination Office (NMCO)},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/TEXAS/briefs/Worldwide%20AIS%20from%20Space%20ORBCOMM%20-%20Texas%20IV%20-%209-28-10.ppt}
    }
    
    Orbcomm Orbcomm - Worldwide AIS Data From Space 2009 TEXAS III, pp. 24  article URL 
    Abstract: What is ORBCOMM?

    ORBCOMM is a leading global satellite data communications company focused on
    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications. The company's satellite constellation includes spacecraft carrying Automatic Identification System (AIS) receivers, making ORBCOMM the first commercial provider of globally collected AIS data from space.
    By means of a global network of low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites and
    accompanying ground infrastructure, ORBCOMM's low-cost and reliable data communications products and services track, monitor and control mobile and fixed assets.
    ORBCOMM is headquartered in Fort Lee, New Jersey and has a network control center in Dulles, Virginia. For more information, visit www.orbcomm.com.

    ORBCOMM awarded contract to develop and supply AIS concept demonstration capability over the ORBCOMM satellite network

    ORBCOMM made business decision to
    develop and implement AIS capability on additional satellites being produced for constellation replenishment
    -AIS enabled ORBCOMM satellites are fully compatible with existing AIS transponders
    -Provides additional maritime awareness
    of activities and extends AIS data
    collection beyond the coasts to anywhere in the world

    Six (6) AIS enabled ORBCOMM satellites launched June 19,
    2008. -One USCG Concept Demonstration Satellite (CDS) -Five "quick launch" (QL) ORBCOMM satellites
    -One additional "quick launch" (QL) satellite remains as ground spare
    -Possible secondary payload for polar launch -"Next Generation" satellite contract awarded by ORBCOMM
    for 18 satellites plus options
    -Additional AIS enhancements planned
    -Plan to begin launching "Next Generation" satellites in late 2010/early 2011

    ORBCOMM did NOT use "commercial" AIS receivers
    -ORBCOMM's AIS receivers: - Utilizestateoftheartdigitalsignalprocessing - Operateacrosswidefrequencyrange - Incorporateco-channelinterferencerejection - Designedspecificallyforspaceapplication - Space-qualifiedtoprovidelonglife - BasedonprovendesignofORBCOMMreceivers - Reprogrammableovertheairforupdatesandenhancements
    -ORBCOMM experienced with VHF frequencies from space
    -Leverages ORBCOMM's existing proven worldwide infrastructure
    -Intended to extend terrestrial systems not replace them - satellite AIS is receive only

    BibTeX:
    @article{Orbcomm2009,
      author = {Orbcomm},
      title = {Orbcomm - Worldwide AIS Data From Space},
      journal = {TEXAS III},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {24},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/twiki/pub/Main/TexasIII/ORBCOMM_Worldwide_AIS_from_Space_TexasIII.pdf}
    }
    
    Otteni, B. Nationwide Automatic Identification System (NAIS) Achieves Full Operational Capability (FOC) milestone and Prepares for Increment 2 2008 EE&L Quarterly
    Vol. Fall, pp. 32-35 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The Nationwide Automatic Identification System (NAIS) Project was initiated in response to the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 (46 U.S.C. 2101) to implement a system to collect, integrate, and disseminate AIS information received from vessels operating on, or bound for, waters sub- ject to the jurisdiction of the United States and to help establish effective Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA).
    NAIS is primarily intended to be a provider of Automatic Identification System (AIS) information and services that can be accessed and used via other sys- tems. Due to the variety of command and control systems, NAIS has been designed following standard formats to be interoperable and interface with a variety of command and control systems, including user interfaces for situation display, analysis and control of the system. In particular, it is intended that data correlation and fusion and the display of AIS data will be performed by non-NAIS systems. The NAIS will operate solely within the Sensitive but Unclassified (SBU) domain, while having the capability to provide data to higher level security systems.
    The system will monitor and manage the health of the Very High Frequency Data Link (VDL). NAIS data and functionality will be used by USCG, Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Department of Defense (DoD) and other government agencies for communications, surveillance, and data pro- cessing in support of their missions. The system uses Automatic Identification System (AIS) technology and international communication standards as the foundation for its ability to track vessels and exchange safety and security information with AIS-equipped vessels. AIS technology is already in use by many vessels, and the number of AIS users and applications is expected to grow significantly over the coming years. NAIS provides a robust and scalable system to receive AIS broadcasts from AIS-equipped ships and other AIS users and convey the message data to other command and control, analytical and case management systems and applications to improve MDA. Other capabilities inherent to the AIS technology and stan- dards can be leveraged by NAIS such as exchanging binary messages with other AIS- equipped stations.
    NAIS is being implemented over the following three primary increments:

    Inc 1

    Increment 2: NAIS Inc-2 will enable the Coast Guard to transmit as well as receive AIS mes- sages to/from vessels traveling on the navigable waters of the United States and its territories. This increment will allow for transmission of AIS information out to 24 nautical miles (nm) from the U.S. baseline and reception of AIS signals out to 50 nm from the U.S. baseline nationwide to include areas of the Great Lakes and U.S. Inland Rivers. The added capabilities of Inc-2 will be accomplished using receivers and transmitters installed at physical shore stations. Received AIS data will be used to identify and track vessel movement, while transmitted NAIS messages may include Aids to Navigation (AtoN) information and other marine safety/security broadcasts. Inc-2 will be implemented in the following two phases:
    Phase I: Delivers the core NAIS Inc-2 capability and achieves the NAIS Inc-2 Initial Operational Capability (IOC) by developing USCG Sector-based coverage designs, recom- mending PSS sites and implementing PSSs and LSSs to achieve NAIS receive and trans- mit coverage for three designated Coast Guard Sectors.
    Phase II: Provides physical and logical shore stations hardware and software design, and implementation as required beyond the designated IOC Sectors to achieve FOC for com- plete nationwide coverage.

    Increment 3: Expanded NAIS capabilities for reception of AIS messages beyond 50 nm and out to 2,000 nm nationwide. Long Range Tracking capability will be provided through service contracts to satellite providers, and through AIS equipment installed on buoys and offshore platforms.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Otteni2008,
      author = {Ben Otteni},
      title = {Nationwide Automatic Identification System (NAIS) Achieves Full Operational Capability (FOC) milestone and Prepares for Increment 2},
      journal = {EE&L Quarterly},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {Fall},
      pages = {32-35},
      url = {http://www.uscg.mil/hq/cg4/eelquarterly/Mags/fall2008.pdf}
    }
    
    Palmer, M. New Apama CEP Customer Misses the Boat 2009 blog  misc URL 
    Abstract: I have a lot of respect for David Olsen, one of the technical field guys at Progress - and thankfully he got it right in his blog post on Royal Dirkzwager. His post doesn't mention performance as a driver at all - David rightly talks about how CEP helps break down siloed event sources like GPS events, GIS events, automatic identification system (AIS) events, and long range identification and tracking (LRIT) events, and correlate that data with other infrastructure. He also talks about how they use an enterprise service bus (ESB) as a convenient on-and-off ramp for many of their events. Event-driven SOA, CEP, and the ease with which these tools help firms create event-driven applications is exactly the right message. "That's where the magic [of CEP] is," he concludes. Well said, David - perhaps Progress could let you help with the press releases, because you got it right!
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Palmer2009,
      author = {Mark Palmer},
      title = {New Apama CEP Customer Misses the Boat},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://streambase.typepad.com/streambase_stream_process/2009/04/new-apama-cep-customer-misses-the-boat.html}
    }
    
    Patraiko, D. e-Navigation and the Mariner 2007 eNavigation conference, pp. 28  article  
    Abstract: Single Person Errors
    Poor Human Integration
    Poor Equipment Specific Training
    Poor Decision Making Training

    Sources of Information
    Marine Accident Investigation Bureau (UK)
    Australian Safety Transport Bureau
    Swedish Accident Investigation Board
    Transport Accident Investigation Commission (NZ)
    Transport Safety Board of Canada
    US Coast Guard Marine Board Reports
    National Transportation Safety Board (US)
    Marine Accident Inquiry Agency (Japan)
    Isle of Man Ship Registry
    Accident Investigation Board of Finland
    Etc-

    Causes of Collisions: "Improper Lookout" accounts for half of causes

    Findings
    Poor watch standing
    In 50-70% of cases either one or both vessels didn't see one another until it was too late!
    Single person errors
    Poor systems support
    Training and procedures

    Manning/ BRM/ Pilotage
    More effective Ship - VTS/VTM collaboration
    Greater use of onboard Guard Zones
    Effective alarm management systems
    Greater use of Decision Support Systems

    Humans still make decisions!
    They need to be competent; confident; motivated and engaged in the process of navigation.
    We need a paradigm shift in defining the role of the navigator/watchkeeper.

    S-Mode is a proposed default navigation mode with standardised features for display, functionality and interface, designed to meet mariners' needs while optimising training.
    The concept of S-Mode tries to address the necessary balance between the benefits of standardisation and the need for innovation.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Patraiko2007,
      author = {David Patraiko},
      title = {e-Navigation and the Mariner},
      journal = {eNavigation conference},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {28}
    }
    
    Patraiko, D. e-Navigation: The Mariner's Needs ???? 2006 AIS 06  conference URL 
    Abstract: Definition
    'e-Navigation is the collection, integration and display [presentation] of maritime information onboard and ashore by electronic means to enhance berth-to-berth navigation and related services, safety and security at sea and protection of the marine environment [and efficiency].'

    IALA working definition

    Mariner's Needs
    To avoid Navigation Hazards
    To avoid Collisions
    To get a good night sleep

    Is this possible?

    Constraints
    Maybe technically possible, but…
    Can we agree international common standards?
    Is it affordable?
    What's the Cost/Benefit Analysis outcome?
    Can we compromise???
    We must try!!!!

    To create a wider area navigation team which allows the bridge team (including pilot) and shore team (VTS) to share tactical and planning information in order to make better decisions.

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Patraiko2006,
      author = {David Patraiko},
      title = {e-Navigation: The Mariner's Needs ????},
      booktitle = {AIS 06},
      publisher = {RHP Publications},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20090219050957/http://rhppublishing.com/Presentations%20Day%202/Patraiko%20Presentation.ppt}
    }
    
    Peach, R. & Chen, W. SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR DECODING AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM SIGNALS 2011 (20110075602)  patent URL 
    Abstract: A method of extracting automatic identification system (AIS) message segments from AIS signals received by a satellite. The method includes: (a) receiving AIS signals from satellite antennas; (b) generating multiple versions of the AIS signals; (c) extracting message segments contained within each of the AIS signals using one or more AIS receivers; (d) sorting the message segments by time; and (e) deleting any duplicate message segments. Multiple versions of the AIS signals may be generated by one or more of the following methods: (i) processing the AIS signals multiple times, each time with different AIS receiver parameter settings; (ii) splitting each signal into multiple signals and filtering each of the multiple signals separately; (iii) receiving multiple AIS signals and combining them with different phases and amplitudes to produce a plurality of combined AIS signals; and (iv) removing extracted message segments from the received AIS signals and reprocessing the modified AIS signals.
    BibTeX:
    @patent{Peach2011,
      author = {Robert Peach and Weiguo Chen},
      title = {SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR DECODING AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM SIGNALS},
      year = {2011},
      number = {20110075602},
      url = {http://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2011/0075602.html}
    }
    
    Pecar-Ilic, J. & Ruzic, I. Application of GIS and Web technologies for Danube waterway data management in Croatia 2006 Environmental Modelling & Software
    Vol. 21(11), pp. 1562-1571 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The paper gives a general description of the Danube waterway data management in Croatia at both national and Pan-European levels. For these purposes, we initiated the development of a specialized geographic information system (GIS), the so-called River IS, which provides efficient waterway related data management for the Croatian part of the Danube River. In addition, Croatian activities in the Pan-European programme Consortium Operational Management Platform River Information Services (COMPRIS) and INTERREG project data warehouse for the Danube waterway (D4D) are described. Focusing on how to solve the major problems identified by "GIS Forum Danube" expert groups, we present our solutions for two important D4D project objectives. The first project objective concerns preparation of national GIS data of the participating countries in the world geodetic WGS84 coordinates as well as checking the transnational compatibility of GIS data. The second important project objective concerns the development of a commonly agreed catalogue of object types and their attributes necessary to describe waterway related data. For example, the conversion of the Croatian national geographic data into Inland ECDIS digital navigation maps is described.
    BibTeX:
    @article{pecar2006application,
      author = {Pecar-Ilic, J. and Ruzic, I.},
      title = {Application of GIS and Web technologies for Danube waterway data management in Croatia},
      journal = {Environmental Modelling & Software},
      publisher = {Elsevier},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {21},
      number = {11},
      pages = {1562--1571},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2006.05.003},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2006.05.003}
    }
    
    Pettersson, B. & Zetterberg, R. AIS for ships in the future 2004 Web - Swedish Maritime Administration (SMA)  misc URL 
    Abstract: Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a technical system that makes it possible to monitor ships from other ships, and from shore based stations. AIS is a requirement. (see Interna- tional standardisation below). AIS-equipped ships continu- ously transmit a short message containing information of posi- tion, course over ground (COG), speed over ground (SOG), gyro course (heading), etc. Ships equipped with AIS meeting anywhere on earth will be able to identify and track each other without being dependent of shore stations.
    Shore stations will also get the same information from “AIS-ships” within the VHF area of the station when moni- toring the coastal areas and the ports. The AIS is using a broadcast and an interrogating self organised technology the so called AIS STDMA/ITDMA that operates ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore including limited communication capabilities. AIS does not require a radar.
    The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has defined the technical standard and ratified the global frequen- cies. (see International standardisation below). International Electrotechnical Commision (IEC) has accomplished the test standard . (see International standardisation below). This pamphlet will stress the advantages of the AIS, show how to use it and why the techniques can operate and handle the information from all ships even in the most dense shipping waters of the world.
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Pettersson2004,
      author = {Benny Pettersson and Rolf Zetterberg},
      title = {AIS for ships in the future},
      year = {2004},
      url = {http://www.sjofartsverket.se/upload/1486/a171_2.pdf}
    }
    
    Podlich, M.B. re: Docket Number USCG 2009-0701 from Boat U.S. 2010 Regulations.gov, pp. 2  article URL 
    Abstract: At this time, AIS is required on many commercial craft but it is an optional piece of safety equipment for the recreational boat. In the last few months, Class B AIS have become available in the U.S, and their prices have come down to the 600 level (uninstalled). As a result, we are seeing that some coastal and offshore recreational boaters are interested in voluntarily carrying this equipment to improve their situational awareness, thereby improving their safety and peace of mind. Some chose 'receive only' units, while others have 'transmit and receive' units. It is a very new tool for these cruisers, and one that is not widely understood.
    The current Request for Comments raises an array of confidentiality concerns with regard to the recreational boating public. As boaters employ the transmit button they should understand they are sharing their boat's movement data with other mariners (and the USCG). We doubt that they are aware that this data as well as historical movement data, could be requested by a person, a group, or a business via a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request.If this data becomes available to the general public, we feel that there may be a substantial backlash from the boaters, reducing the amount of AIS use and the number of transmissions, which runs counter to the U.S. Coast Guard's goals. It also raises questions as to who might wish to use this data and to what end? For example, should an offshore raft manufacturer use a subset of this data to send marketing materials to offshore boaters? Should NOAA or the National Marine Fisheries Service use this data to articulate who has gone to a sanctuary area that does not allow powered boats or fishing?
    Perhaps one way to address this confidentiality concern on the part of the recreational boaters is to segregate data, and it's availability to various entities? Should different data be available for Class A and Class B AIS units?
    We understand that the U.S. Coast Guard is keenly interested in knowing more about the movements of vessels within our coastal waters. We recommend that the U.S. Coast Guard narrowly confine the use of this data for safety and homeland security purposes.
    Thank you for the opportunity to comment on this matter. Please let us know if we can provide any additional information.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Goward2010,
      author = {Margaret B. Podlich},
      title = {re: Docket Number USCG 2009-0701 from Boat U.S.},
      journal = {Regulations.gov},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {2},
      url = {http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=USCG-2009-0701-0009}
    }
    
    Porthin, M. The Baltic AIS Trial - Administrative Final Report 2009 (VTT-R-06324-09)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: The objective of the AISBaltic project is to (from the project plan):

    identify the information needs of Baltic Sea states maritime safety, security, environment and SAR authorities that may be fulfilled by the limited information available from AIS,
    define what modifications to static and voyage related information would be essential to fulfil the identified information needs,
    study the possibilities of using AIS binary messages as additional source of information and to critically analyse the present content of these messages to commonly define such message contents that provide for the requirements of the above mentioned authorities,
    identify a demonstrated need for information not presently included in any AIS information and, if such a need is obvious, agree on the format and content of a new binary message including this information,
    test the usability of binary messages in field tests at least in the Gulf of Finland (transmission tests are made between GOFREP Traffic Centre Helsinki Traffic and ships) but not necessarily limited to that area,
    discuss the project with IALA and HELCOM to gain information essential for the conducting of this work and to share the results achieved,
    produce a proposal to IMO NAV Sub-Committee in 2008 for amending AIS operation on the basis of the identified needs for modifications to AIS static and voyage related information, to the predefined binary messages and of the possible new binary message(s) and to report the results of the trial use of binary messages at the Baltic Sea,
    provide means to enhance the SAR, VTS / SRS and environment protection operations and enable more reliable and efficient informationexchange by e.g. reducing VHF radio traffic where practical and simultaneously increasing the information available to authorities and
    -identify and document any additional results achieved in the project such as the enhanced use of AIS or the means onboard providing for efficient use of AIS and especially the use of binary messages.

    Full results
    The project fulfilled all initial objectives set out in Chapter 1, with one exception: it was agreed by the Steering group that the project will, deviating from the original project plan, prepare an information paper for the 2008 IMO NAV meeting and submit the project's final proposals for amendments to AIS content in 2009.
    A short summary of the project and its results can be found in Porthin, M., Karppinen, S. 2009 (see publication list and Appendix 2).

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Porthin2009,
      author = {Markus Porthin},
      title = {The Baltic AIS Trial - Administrative Final Report},
      year = {2009},
      number = {VTT-R-06324-09},
      url = {http://www.vtt.fi/inf/julkaisut/muut/2009/VTT-R-06324-09.pdf}
    }
    
    Porthin, M., Berglund, R. & Seitsonen, L. AIS+ - facilitating on board use of AIS Application-Specific Messages 2011 e-Navigation Underway: International Conference on e-Navigation Testbeds, pp. 42-  article URL 
    Abstract: In May 2010 the International Maritime Organization approved 17 AIS Application-Specific Messages (ASM) for international use. To facilitate and speed up the process of taking them into operational use, VTT together with the Baltic Sea Action Group and IBM, set up a project with the aim of implementing software to be used on board ships providing a User interface for utilising a subset of the new messages. To achieve the objectives, the software should be available free of charge and easy to take into use. Thus, development of the software called AIS+ started from existing Open Source software to which a user interface for ASMs was implemented. Preliminary versions were installed on trial ships and the implementation was continued based on user feedback. Connecting a PC with dedicated software to the AIS transponder proved to be a practical solution to enhance AIS messaging. Some user feedback has been obtained, and more extensive testing periods are planned, but the implementation of the full set of messages is pending on funding decisions.
    Introduction
    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a powerful tool for ship identification and tracking. However, AIS could be exploited more efficiently to improve the situational awareness both on board and ashore as well as reduce the manual workload. To respond to these challenges, the functionalities and information content of AIS have recently been augmented by defining new Application-Specific Messages (ASM) [1]. For these messages, also referred to as Binary addressed and broadcast messages (Message ID 6 and 8), multiple content structures can be defined using an Application identifier. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) published a circular with seven ASMs for international trial use in 2004 [2] and new circular in 2010 [3], revoking the old one from 1 January 2013, containing 17 messages. These messages could be used for communicating of area related information such as navigational warnings as well as weather information, ship reporting data, route information, traffic management etc.
    So far, the usage of the international ASMs has been quite limited. The Number of persons onboard message is in moderately frequent use. Finland and Sweden broadcast real time weather information along their coasts and USA has also set up test beds where weather information and area notice messaging is tested. In addition, regional ASMs are in use in inland traffic in parts of Europe and Canada. One of the main barriers for a wider use of ASMs is that current bridge equipment in general cannot handle the new messages. Neither do the current performance standards for ECDIS and radars [4] take the display and user interface of new information into account. This makes equipment manufacturers cautious in updating their products. With a limited number of users, the authorities have neither updated their systems nor procedures to serve shipping using ASMs.
    The AIS+ open source software strives to overcome the implementation barriers by providing shipping with an easy and low cost solution for taking the ASM services in use. With AIS+ the user can send and receive ASMs through an intuitive user interface. AIS+ is currently in use on a limited number of test ships, but the aim is to make it available for all ships free of charge in the future. It is hoped that AIS+ will motivate both authorities and manufacturers to speed up their implementation of ASMs.

    AIS+ Software
    AIS+ is an application for receiving and sending AIS ASMs using a user-friendly user interface. The software can be run on a normal PC connected to the AIS transmitter through the Pilot plug. AIS+ reads AIS messages from the serial or USB port of the computer, decodes them and visualises the information content. It also codes user inputs into AIS ASM messages and sends them to the AIS transmitter for transmission. The ASMs currently implemented in AIS+ are: Meteorological and hydrological data (FI = 11), Area notice (FI = 22 and 23) (receiving), Number of persons on board (FI = 16), Dangerous cargo indication (FI = 25) and
    Area notice (sending) [2], [3], all defined under the international designated area code (DAC = 1). In addition, AIS Addressed text messages (Message ID 6, FI = 0) can be sent. AIS+ contains public domain GSHHS (Global Self-consistent, Hierarchical, High-resolution Shoreline Database) coastline data for the whole world at five different granularity levels. It uses some components from the open source Freeais.org software that can be used to show AIS targets and their information.
    The hardware requirements for AIS+ are a normal PC with Windows operating system and a converter cable to the Pilot plug of the AIS transponder from the serial or USB port of the PC. The performance requirements for the PC are moderate and the program should run on any modern PC.
    The main view of the AIS+ program is shown in the figure below. The map view shows the vessel‘s current own position with a black circle. The location information is retrieved from the vessels own position report AIS messages and the map by default follows the vessel. The snapshots in this document are from AIS+ attached to the AIS transponder at VTT‘s office in Espoo, so the location ashore is not a mistake. The map also shows major place-names and lighthouses depending on the zoom level of the map. The wind barbs with an attached wind speed and direction display show the current wind gust at available weather observation stations.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Porthin2011,
      author = {Markus Porthin and Robin Berglund and Lauri Seitsonen},
      title = {AIS+ - facilitating on board use of AIS Application-Specific Messages},
      journal = {e-Navigation Underway: International Conference on e-Navigation Testbeds},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {42-},
      url = {http://www.efficiensea.org/files/conferenceproceedings.pdf}
    }
    
    PortVision PortVision   misc URL 
    Abstract: AIS Ship Tracking, Vessel Tracking & Maritime Business Intelligence

    PortVision is a web-based service that empowers maritime users with new levels of information and knowledge about vessel and terminal activities. Whatever your job function is on the waterway, knowledge is power. And PortVision gives you this power 24/7.

    BibTeX:
    @misc{portvision,
      author = {PortVision},
      title = {PortVision},
      url = {http://portvision.com/}
    }
    
    Pot, F. AIS 2.0? 2007 word doc  misc  
    Abstract: Why AIS 2.0? Why do we need another version of AIS? There are two reasons to start thinking about AIS 2.0: Redundancy and Capacity.

    AIS is gradually becoming an integral part of the aids that mariners use to conn a ship. Not yet as important as Radar and GPS but probably about at par with VHF. We already require ships to carry two radars and it is likely that we will be requiring ships to carry eLoran as a fail-over for GPS.

    Do we need a fail-over for AIS too? To the extent that mariners have started using AIS target information for collision avoidance the answer is yes. Mariners already use AIS identification information (Name, Position, Call Sign) when hailing a ship via VHF. Also, although IMO doesn't condone doing so, I wouldn't be surprised if mariners are starting to use (T)CPA derived from AIS because it generally is more accurate and up-to-date than (T)CPA derived from radar.

    Capacity is the other reason why we need to start thinking about AIS 2.0. Using AIS for messaging is still at a very early stage but it is clear that binary messages could be used to convey important safety related information to the mariner more efficiently and effectively than voice VHF:
    - Traffic advisory - other vessel locations
    - Navigation hazards
    - Hydro and meteorological info
    - Traffic organization information - lock order, procession through one-way channel
    - Status of aids to navigation

    There are serious efforts underway to standardize binary AIS messages that will convey such information and display it in the context of the situation at hand on an ECDIS or enhanced Radar screen. Some of these efforts have already been completed (AIS AtoN messages), some are undertaken in the framework of eNavigation and some are aimed to address regional safety issues (Straight of Malacca, Great Lakes, etc.). All will use the meager 19.2 kbps throughput capacity available with AIS. The problem is that in some areas we are already reaching the point where AIS cell size will be reduced to accommodate just the regular AIS message traffic, i.e. ships' position and identification. We need more capacity to fully realize the benefits of AIS binary messaging (and eNavigation).

    BibTeX:
    @misc{Pot2007,
      author = {Fred Pot},
      title = {AIS 2.0?},
      year = {2007}
    }
    
    Pot, F.W. AIS and the Recreational Boater 2006 AIS 06  conference URL 
    Abstract: Multiple-Use Radio Service (MURS)

    2 watts,11.25kHz Bandwidth
    Frequencies (MHz)
    151.82
    151.88
    151.94
    154.57
    154.60

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Pot2006,
      author = {Fred W. Pot},
      title = {AIS and the Recreational Boater},
      booktitle = {AIS 06},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20090219050725/http://rhppublishing.com/Presentations%20Day%201/Pot%20Presentation.ppt}
    }
    
    Pririe, R.B., WHELAN, D.A. & et al Maritime Security Partnerships 2008 , pp. 242  book URL 
    Abstract: At the outset of his tenure as Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), ADM Michael G. Mullen, USN, adopted a progressive vision for the peacetime engage- ment of naval forces—namely, to enhance the stability and security of the mari- time environment. He called this vision “the 1,000-ship Navy.” To help develop the concept, ADM Mullen asked the Naval Studies Board, under the auspices of the National Research Council, to establish a committee that would examine the technical and operational implications of the 1,000-ship Navy.1 In response to the emphasis in the study’s terms of reference on the sharing of maritime infor- mation and on coordinated tactical action to help maintain order on the seas for all concerned, the committee has chosen to call this concept “maritime security partnerships”

    The unifying concept for maritime security partnerships is information shar- ing. Using the vocabulary that has been adopted in the U.S. initiatives responding to the National Strategy for Maritime Security (NSMS), the information to be shared is referred to as maritime domain awareness (MDA).4 A comprehensive MDA system would permit identification of threatening activities and anomalous behavior. Achieving such a system where it does not now exist—and strengthen- ing it where there is already a foundation—must be viewed as a critical step in building regional partnerships.
    It is important to recognize that some regions have established networks to achieve maritime domain awareness by sharing information. For example, the Malacca Strait Security Initiative partnering Singapore, Indonesia, and Malaysia is already operational; the Gulf of Guinea network, still in its formative stage, has generated great interest among potential partners; the Joint Interagency Task Force-South that addresses concerns about drugs and other law enforcement matters in the Caribbean region is functioning effectively. There is a worldwide patchwork of capabilities in support of MDA systems but no overarching MDA architecture. Current arrangements, some of them multilateral, for sharing MDA information constitute an inefficient assortment lacking broad application; excep- tions are the IMO-sanctioned Automatic Identification System (AIS) and Long- Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT) reporting systems for commercial ships.

    BibTeX:
    @book{PIRIE2008,
      author = {ROBERT B. Pririe and DAVID A. WHELAN and et al},
      title = {Maritime Security Partnerships},
      publisher = {Committee on the "1,000-Ship Navy" - A Distributed and Global Maritime Network, National Research Council},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {242},
      url = {http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12029}
    }
    
    Qinyou, H., Yong, J., Shi, C. & Chen, G. Evaluation of Main Traffic Congestion Degree for Restricted Waters with AIS Reports 2009 8th International Symposium on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, TransNav 2009  conference  
    Abstract: FIX: Need to get a copy
    BibTeX:
    @conference{Qinyou2009,
      author = {Qinyou, H. and Yong, J. and Shi, Ch. and Chen, G.},
      title = {Evaluation of Main Traffic Congestion Degree for Restricted Waters with AIS Reports},
      booktitle = {8th International Symposium on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, TransNav 2009},
      year = {2009}
    }
    
    Quinn, R. & Vachon, P. Canada - Global Leader in Maritime Domain Awareness from Space 2009 TEXAS III  article URL 
    Abstract: Project Polar Epsilon

    Space-based Automated Identification Systems (AIS)
    6 satellite ORBCOMM constellation
    Fused RADARSAT-2 and Space-Based AIS in near-real time

    M3MSAT
    Enhance maritime domain awareness and support risk reduction for RADARSAT Constellation Mission.

    Scope: Develop/Demonstrate advanced AIS reception and processing technologies.

    Cost: $$11.9M Launch: 2010-11 (TBD

    BibTeX:
    @article{Quinn2009,
      author = {RJ Quinn and Paris Vachon},
      title = {Canada - Global Leader in Maritime Domain Awareness from Space},
      journal = {TEXAS III},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/twiki/pub/Main/TexasIII/RJ_Quinn-Paris_Vachon_presentation_-_Cdn_Embassy_26_Mar_09.ppt}
    }
    
    R.J. Papp, J., Rufe, R., Moore, C., Behler, D., Dietrick, J.C.L., Moore, D., Parker, B., Pollock, G., Shaneyfelt, R. & Tarpley, J. Final Action Memorandum - Incident Specific Preparedness Review (ISPR) Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill 2011 (16000)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: For the nation, the Deepwater Horizon oil well blowout and release was unprecedented in scope, scale, and duration. While the response system established by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) has effectively dealt with approximately 1,500 oil spill incidents per year since its enactment, this incident exposed deficiencies in planning and preparedness for an uncontrolled release of oil from an offshore drilling operation. The incident also highlighted the differences between the system of response for oil spills and that provided for other emergencies such as natural disasters and terrorist incidents.
    Over the past decade, both public and private sector investment in planning and preparedness for and response to oil spills has decreased. If the public and Congress expect significant improvements in this Nation's ability to respond to catastrophic oil spills, additional funding will be needed for improvements, which include research and development and increased governmental oversight of private sector preparedness and response capability. To be effective, such oversight should begin at the outset of the offshore drilling permit process. This report urges that planning and preparedness programs be reviewed, and that adequate funding be provided to enhance oil spill preparedness and response programs so they can effectively address an offshore Spill of National Significance.
    Additionally, the report recommends a thorough review of the standards used to determine the adequacy of private sector oil spill response capability. Although the approved response plan for the Macondo well was in compliance with Government standards for response capability to address a worst case discharge (WCD), there is a critical need to ensure that oil and gas facility response plans (OSRPs) and existing Area Contingency Plans provide for sufficient trained personnel, equipment, and response resources to address the WCD from any offshore drilling operation.
    Beyond the need for sufficient resources for on-water response and shoreline protection, it is evident that more resources need to be dedicated to improve technology and response protocols to adequately address source control and containment objectives arising from an uncontrolled well blowout.
    The Deepwater Horizon incident severely tested the Nation's response capability to address an uncontrolled, sustained, deepwater oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. This report identifies aspects of the response that failed, aspects that did not proceed as previously planned, and areas where new or different response protocols may have provided better results. Through identification of these areas, the Coast Guard, and the entire response community, will be better equipped to address and implement change to improve the Nation's oil spill response capability.
    During the field research phase of this report process, the team observed many facets of the response that did work as planned, produced expected results, and were evidence of experience drawn from prior events and exercises.
    There are three major areas of positive observations that merit mention:
    Many of those interviewed specifically stated that the National Incident Management System/Incident Command System (ICS) worked as intended. Because NIMS/ICS is scalable, adaptive, and dynamic, responders were able to tailor the response organization according to need. The ICS organization experienced numerous challenges, such as external communications taking place outside of the ICS hierarchy, and political pressure applied to various levels of the respond organization. Nonetheless, the ICS organization worked well during this event. Recommendations provided in this report relating to NIMS/ICS serve to further enhance its use in future spills.
    Media reports often left viewers with the impression that the Coast Guard and the responsible party (RP) were at odds periodically during the response. To the contrary, the team observed that personnel provided by the RP and Coast Guard personnel worked effectively together, and that there was 'unity of effort' throughout the response organization. Moreover, BP has been openly cooperative in assisting the Incident Specific Preparedness Review (ISPR) Team in the research for this report.
    Ironically, other media reports left the impression that there was collusion between the Coast Guard and BP, and that the Coast Guard was not fulfilling its responsibility to the public. During its research for this report, the ISPR Team found absolutely no evidence to support this impression.
    Lastly, the response generally benefited from the ability of the Government and the private sector to rapidly assess and adapt to new or unusual contingencies and develop innovative solutions for problems not previously experienced. The knowledge acquired and capabilities learned from this experience are unprecedented, and should become a basis for significant improvements in planning, preparedness, and response for industry, Government, and the response community.
    Review: Does not mention AIS directly, but it is inherently in the background
    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Papp2011,
      author = {R. J. Papp, Jr. and Roger Rufe and Carlton Moore and David Behler and John Cunningham Larry Dietrick and David Moore and Barbara Parker and Greg Pollock and Randy Shaneyfelt and John Tarpley},
      title = {Final Action Memorandum - Incident Specific Preparedness Review (ISPR) Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill},
      year = {2011},
      number = {16000},
      url = {http://www.uscg.mil/foia/docs/DWH/BPDWH.pdf}
    }
    
    Rangel, R.K., Kienitz, K.H. & Brandao, M.P. Development of a multi-purpose portable electrical UAV system, fixed & rotative wing 2011 Aerospace Conference, 2011 IEEE  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper describes the development of a multipurpose portable electrical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system, consisting of aircraft, ground station and field support equipment. This UAV can be employed in different applications, such as tactical surveillance, and power line inspection. The system allows the operator to remotely fly and control the aircraft from a one-man portable ground station. We also describe the development of the UAV electrically propelled airborne platform system, including two aircraft types (rotative and fixed wing type), the assembling of the onboard hardware, the one-man portable ground station components, and subsystem integration. An overview of on-ground and in-flight tests required for the system qualification is also presented. This system proves that employing low-cost and off-the-shelf equipment to develop flexible UAV models is possible

    ... We propose a system that uses UAVs to visually patroller an area. This system can be configured
    to use equipment that allows vessel identification with an Automatic Identification System (AIS).
    Figure 13 shows a simulated scenario of an UAV tactical surveillance. ...

    BibTeX:
    @article{Rangel2011,
      author = {Rangel, Rodrigo Kuntz and Kienitz, Karl Heinz and Brandao, Mauricio Pazini},
      title = {Development of a multi-purpose portable electrical UAV system, fixed & rotative wing},
      journal = {Aerospace Conference, 2011 IEEE},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=5747512},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AERO.2011.5747512}
    }
    
    Ray, C., Devogele, T., Noyon, V., Petit, M., Fournier, S. & Claramunt, C. GIS Technology for Maritime Traffic Systems 2007 European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics
    Vol. 68, pp. 40-41 
    article URL 
    Abstract: At the Naval Academy Research Institute in France, collaborative research in the fields of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and maritime transportation is producing data models and computing architectures that favour the development of traffic monitoring and analysis for decision-aid systems.

    Safety and security are constant con- cerns in maritime navigation, not least because of the constant increase in mar- itime traffic and reduction of crews on decks. This has favoured the develop- ment of automated monitoring systems such as the Automatic Identification System (AIS) and the Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS). However, officers on the watch and monitoring authorities require additional and advanced deci- sion-aid solutions that will take advan- tage of these communication and carto- graphical systems.
    The development of geolocalisation, information and telecommunication technology offers higher traffic data availability, but presents new challenges for the integration, analysis and delivery of maritime traffic data. Hence there is a great need for integrated traffic systems that are able to cope with all these tech- nological domains. The development of a real-time integrated maritime platform implies a reconsideration of storage, modelling, manipulation, analysis and visualisation functions, since current models have not been designed to han- dle such dynamic phenomena.
    One of the most promising solutions to this problem is the integration of Geo- graphical Information Systems (GIS) with maritime navigation systems. Our approach relies on a monitoring project, the purpose of which is to integrate het- erogeneous positional data from three sources: an Automatic Identification System (AIS), public traffic data avail- able from the Internet, and a real-time monitoring system developed for sailing races. These systems generate geolocal- isation frames from different types (eg AIS frames) and from different ad-hoc networks (eg VHF for AIS, WiMAX forsailing races). Coupled with external databases, this constitutes the input for an internal spatio-temporal database that manages historic and real-time data. These data include maritime tra- jectories, vessel characteristics and environmental data.
    The framework developed so far inte- grates several modules. One of these is an anti-collision function that monitors the risk of running aground and evasive ship behaviour. This module also inte- grates simulation capabilities in order to control and predict the evolution of ship behaviour and trajectories. These simu- lations are based on a multi-agent sys- tem and micro-simulation capabilities, where ships are modelled as autonomous agents acting in their envi- ronment according to maritime rules. The module is designed for maritime authorities and for educational and training purposes. Moreover, the traffic analysis module integrates intelligent inference mechanisms that can use data mining to derive traffic patterns. The objective is to observe and understand maritime traffic at different levels of granularity.
    Two complementary external views are of interest in maritime traffic monitor- ing. One is the conventional absolute view of spatial trajectories. The other combines the relative position and velocity of mobile ships with respect to an observer. This relative external view helps users to perceive traffic evolution according to their point of view and aids their perception of the underlying processes that emerge from the ships' behaviour.

    ray@ecole-navale.fr

    BibTeX:
    @article{Ray2007,
      author = {Cyril Ray and Thomas Devogele and Valerie Noyon and Mathieu Petit and Sebastien Fournier and Christophe Claramunt},
      title = {GIS Technology for Maritime Traffic Systems},
      journal = {European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {68},
      pages = {40-41},
      url = {http://www.iac.rm.cnr.it/~bretti/EN68.pdf}
    }
    
    Raymond, E. AIVDM/AIVDO protocol decoding 2010 (Version 1.27)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: This is a description of how to decode AIVDM/AIVDO sentences. It collects and integrates information from publicly available sources and is intended to assist developers of open-source software for interpreting these messages.

    AIVDM/AIVDO sentences are emitted by receivers for AIS, the marine Automatic Identification System. AIS transmitters are fitted to vessels, navigation markers, and certain types of shore station. They periodically squawk their position and course (if applicable), using TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) technology similar to the way cellphones do to avoid mutual interference. AIS receivers make this data available for navigation, anti-collision systems, and other uses.

    The International Maritime Organization's (IMO) International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) reqires operating AIS transmitters on all international cargo vessels of more than 300 tons displacement, all cargo vessels of more than 500 tons displacement, and all passenger vessels; see [SOLAS] for details. Individual maritime nations may have stricter and more detailed rules: for those obtaining in U.S. waters, see [US-REQUIREMENTS].

    AIS receivers report ASCII data packets over serial or USB lines, using the NMEA 0183 data format and physical network standards. AIS packets have the introducer "!AIVDM" or "!AIVDO"; AIVDM packets are reports from other ships and AIVDO packets are reports from your own ship.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Raymond2010,
      author = {Eric Raymond},
      title = {AIVDM/AIVDO protocol decoding},
      year = {2010},
      number = {Version 1.27},
      url = {http://gpsd.berlios.de/AIVDM.html}
    }
    
    Raymond, E. Comment to USCG on NAIS policy 2010 Armed and Dangerous blog  article URL 
    Abstract: First, I declare my interest. I am a lead of the GPSD project, a set of open-source software tools for collecting and processing GPS and AIS data. GPSD is extremely widely deployed on Linux and Unix systems including navigational suites, SBC telemetry packages, and cellphones. In connection with this project, I am also the editor of the most complete publicly available description of AIS/AIVDM decoding.

    One goal of my work is to make access to high-quality GIS information generally available for purposes of research, day-to-day navigation, and public safety.

    NAIS data is collected with tax funds. Thus, policy formulation should begin from a presumption that, absent a showing of specific unmanageable risks, the general public is entitled to free access to the data. The burden of demonstration should fall on those advocating restrictions rather than openness.

    The policy I advocate is complete openness: that all data collected by NAIS should be made available in real time as an AIVDM stream via a Internet public feed at a stable and documented address.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Raymond2010a,
      author = {Eric Raymond},
      title = {Comment to USCG on NAIS policy},
      journal = {Armed and Dangerous blog},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://esr.ibiblio.org/?p=1616}
    }
    
    Raymond, E. GPSD-NG: A Case Study in Application Protocol Evolution 2010 GPSD(version 1.4)  article URL 
    Abstract: GPSD is a service daemon that collects data from serial and USB GPS sensors attached to a host machine and presents it in a simple-to-parse form on TCP/IP port 2947. This is a less trivial task than it sounds, because GPS sensor interfaces are both highly variable and really badly designed (see Why GPSes suck, and what to do about it for a description of NMEA 0183 and other horrors).

    In this paper, however, we will be ignoring all the dodgy stuff that goes on at GPSD's back end to concentrate on what happens at the front - the request-response protocol through which client programs get access to the information that GPSD acquires from its devices and internal computations.

    The GPSD request-response protocol is entering its third generation of design, and I think the way it has evolved spotlights some interesting design issues and long-term trends in the design of network protocols in general. To anticipate, these trends are: (1) changing tradeoffs of bandwidth economy versus extensibility and explicitness, (2) a shift from lockstep conversational interfaces to event streams, (3) changes in the "sweet spot" of protocol designs due to increasing use of scripting languages, and (4) protocols built on metaprotocols.

    Carrying these trends forward may even give us a bit of a glimpse at the future of application-protocol design.

    What finally got me off the dime in early 2009 were two developments - the push of AIS and the pull of JSON.

    AIS is the marine Automatic Identification System. All the open-source implementations of AIS packet decoding I could find were sketchy, incomplete, and not at a quality level I was comfortable with. It quickly became apparent that this was due to a paucity of freely available public information about the applicable standards.

    I fixed that problem - but having done so, I was faced with the problem of just how GPSD is supposed to report AIS data packets to clients in a way that can't be confused with GPS data. This brought the GPSD-NG design problem to the front burner again.

    Fortunately, my AIS-related research also led me to discover JSON, aka JavaScript Object Notation. And JSON is really nifty, one of those ideas that seem so simple and powerful and obvious once you've seen it that you wonder why it wasn't invented sooner.

    In brief, JSON is a lightweight and human-readable way to serialize data structures equivalent to Python dictionaries, with attributes that can be numbers, strings, booleans, nested dictionary objects, or variable-extent lists of any of these things.

    Just to round out this section, here is an example of what an actual AIS transponder report looks like in JSON.

    "class"="AIS","msgtype":5,"repeat":0,"mmsi":"351759000","imo":9134270,
    "ais_version":0,"callsign":"3FOF8","shipname":"EVER DIADEM",
    "shiptype":70,"to_bow":225,"to_stern":70,"to_port":1,"to_starboard":31,
    "epfd":1,"eta":05-15T14:00Z,"draught":122,"destination":"NEW YORK",
    "dte":0

    BibTeX:
    @article{Raymond2010d,
      author = {Eric Raymond},
      title = {GPSD-NG: A Case Study in Application Protocol Evolution},
      journal = {GPSD},
      year = {2010},
      number = {version 1.4},
      url = {http://gpsd.berlios.de/protocol-evolution.html}
    }
    
    Raymond, E.S. AIS 'security' considered harmful 2010 Armed and Dangerous blog  article URL 
    Abstract: One Kelly Sweeney is publicly advocating that public access to AIS ship information should be prohibited in order to foil pirates and terrorists.

    I must respectfully disagree with the premise of this article. I'm the lead of GPSD, a widely-used open-source GPS/AIS monitor daemon, and I am thus both a domain expert on AIS and a systems architect who is required to think about data security issues all the time. Attempting to 'secure' AIS data would harm the public and have no security benefits. In fact, the second-order effects would be seriously bad.

    The public harm is obvious; people such as your friend on Puget Sound with an interest in knowing what traffic passes near them would be hindered. But it would also fail to have security benefits, because getting actual use out of AIS is in direct contradiction with the threat model.

    AIS information has to be widely available to anyone on the water in order for the system to achieve its design purposes (notably, automated collision avoidance). This means that credentials to get access to it have to be widely distributed as well. Pirates and terrorists would have very strong incentives to steal and spoof those credentials.

    Any security light enough to leave the system usable would be no more than a minor, easily surmountable nuisance to the bad guys; any security heavy enough to stop them would make the friction cost of enabling AIS high enough to effectively lock out many legitimate users who have actual need for it.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Raymond2010b,
      author = {Eric S. Raymond},
      title = {AIS 'security' considered harmful},
      journal = {Armed and Dangerous blog},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://esr.ibiblio.org/?p=2038}
    }
    
    Raymond, E.S. USCG-2009-0701-0002.1 2010 Regulations.gov  article URL 
    Abstract: These are comments on policy for sharing information forom the U.S. Coast Goard's NAIS, a network of 140 AIS receivers covering U.S. coastal waters, as solicited by Federal docket USCG-2009-0701. First, I declare my interest. I am a lead of the GPSD project , a set of open-source software tools for collecting and processing GPS and AIS data. GPSD is extremely widely deployed on Linux and Unix systems including navigational suites, SBC telemetry packages, and cellphones. In connection with this, project, I am also the editor of the most complete publicly available description of AIS/AIVDM decoding: One goal of my work is to make access to high-quality GIS information generally available for purposes of research, day-to-day navigation, and public saferty. NAIS data is collected with tax funds. Thus, policy formulation should begin from a presumption that, absent a showing of specific unmanageable risks, the general public is entitled to free access to the data. The burden of demonstration should fall on those advocating restrictions rather than openness. The policy I advocate is complete openness: that all data collected by NAIS should be made available in real time as an AIVDM stream via a Internet public feed at a stable and documented address. 1. How might providing real-time, near real-time, or historical NAIS information to the public impact maritime commerce? Accurate and timely information is the life-blood of commerce. In the past, inceases in the information richess of the environment in which market actors make decisions have shown a strong tendency to promote economic activity of all kinds, help markets clear more rapidly, and increase average wealth levels. I see no reason for general publication of NAIS information to be an exception. I cannot predict what specific business strategies or tactics it will enable, but I think the precedent of GPS provides strong reason for optimism. 2. What would be the impact of providing this information, if any, on the following? a. Safety of ships and passengers or crew, b. Security of ships and their cargo, I do not anticipate a safety or security impact. The substantial safety benefits of AIS in navigational and collision avoidance systems are readily collected by LOS (line-of-sight) use through local receivers. Ship velocities are low enough that non-LOS information over an Internet feed is not generally relevant in real time. In the past, there has been some concern that Internet publication of AIS data might enable commerce-raiding, piracy or terrorism via non-LOS monitoring of ship locations. But in no conditions short of major war would commerce-raiding or piracy be an issue for the NAIS coverage area (U.S. coastal and inland waterways). And terrorists, unlike national governments, do not generally have the ability to throw cruise missiles over the horizon. Thus I conclude that the risk from publishing real-time ship locations in the NAIS coverage area is effectively nil in peacetime conditions. c. Economic advantage or disadvantage to commercial stakeholders, I see no disadvantage to anyone in a policy of open publication. Because Internet access is unreliable and expensive at sea and AIS receivers are cheap, substatution of real-time NAIS data for local receivers seems unlikely. A policy of unrestricted public access ensures that any commercial advantages will be symmetrically distributed without favor. Conversely, restrictions on the data would advantage large players with the resources to jump through bureaucratic hoops and/or good political connections -- not a good outcome. d. Environmental impact on extractable resources or coastal activities. Difficult to call. On the one hand, open publication of NAIS data would probably increase general activity levels slightly, with concomitant slightly increased environmental risk. On the other hand, AIS is already being used for risk mitigation, e.g. by broadcasting whale pod locations. More general availability of such data might head off specific and serious environmental harms. 3. Is information collected by the NAIS considered sensitive? I do not believe NAIS information should be considered sensitive in peacetime conditions. a. Is real-time or near real-time information collected by the NAIS viewed differently than historical NAIS information, and if so, how? Historical NAIS information presents not even the minimal (wartime) risks of real-time informstion. b. Does the sharing of information collected by the NAIS generate concern about unfair commercial advantage? If so, for which segments of the industry is this a concern? As previously noted, open access would make asymmetrical commercial advantage impossible. c. Is there a timeframe within which real-time or historical information collected by the NAIS is considered sensitive or is no longer considered sensitive? See above. d. Given that ships last for decades and that their capabilities and capacities are relatively stable, is there a concern that historical NAIS information might be analyzed to derive a competitive advantage? See above. 4. What controls on sharing real-time, near real-time, or historical information collected by the NAIS with the public are suitable? General publication with no controls whatsoever would be the simplest, fairest, and least expensive policy. a. Who should receive each type of NAIS information? In tha absence of wartime threats to U.S. littoral waters, all NAIS information should be made generally available in real time on a stable public Internet feed. b. What are appropriate uses of information collected by the NAIS? Research. Maritime traffic analysis. Robustness testing of AIS decoders. c. Do message types matter? I see no reason to complicate policy or implementation by distinguishing among message types. Publish them all and let the applications sort it out. d. Should addressed messages be handled differently from broadcast messages? Do addressed messages contain information significant to understanding maritime activity? Should addressed messages be shared with the public? I see no reason to restrict access to addressed messages. Though addressed, the tecnological substrate of AIS is such that they are public broadcasts with no expectation of privacy. Privacy concerns are properly addressed via message encryption, which AIS readily supports.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Raymond2010c,
      author = {Eric S. Raymond},
      title = {USCG-2009-0701-0002.1},
      journal = {Regulations.gov},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=USCG-2009-0701-0002.1}
    }
    
    Raymond, E.S. Freeing technical standards 2009 Armed and Dangerous blog  article URL 
    Abstract: Well…you can do something useful with these sentences if you can read them. And why is that a problem? Because distribution of the core standard for the AIS reporting format (ITU-R 1371) is, you guessed it, restricted under terms that are proprietary and evil. Just like NMEA 0183. But what's even worse, in this case, is that the International Telecommunications Union is charging secrecy rent on a standard that appears to have been designed mostly by the U.S. Coast Guard. So, a organization that is (a) private, and (b) foreign is charging Americans secrecy rent on a design built with U.S. taxpayer dollars.

    When I learned this, I decided I was going to (a) do the open-source world a service, and (b) break their secrecy any way I could. Yeah, I know, some of you are going to tell me this sort of thing is pretty normal in every area of technical standardization other than the Internet; I even knew that, having run into it occasionally before. But this time I reached the 'mad as hell and not gonna take-it any more' stage. I'm pushing back.

    Here's what I've done. Without looking at the two proprietary standards that bear on AIS (NMEA 4.0 and ITU-R 1371), I've collected all the public information on AIS messages and reporting formats into a document which essentially blows the lid off their secrecy. The 'without looking' is important; at this point, I don't want to see them so that I can't be gigged for copyright infringement over my document. Here it is: AIVDM/AIVDO protocol decoding.

    And how do I know this describes reality? Because it describes the masses of AIS sentences helpful people have been sending me. I have a working decoder in the GPSD suite now; it's not integrated into gpsd itself yet, but you can use it to filter logs full of armored/encoded AIS sentences into readable text. Full support, and test clients that do cool stuff, will follow soon.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Raymond2009,
      author = {Eric S. Raymond},
      title = {Freeing technical standards},
      journal = {Armed and Dangerous blog},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://esr.ibiblio.org/?p=888}
    }
    
    Read, T. AIS TideMet Binary Message update - IMO SN.1/Circ.289 2011 U.S. Hydro  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Read2011,
      author = {Ted Read},
      title = {AIS TideMet Binary Message update - IMO SN.1/Circ.289},
      booktitle = {U.S. Hydro},
      publisher = {The Hydrographic Society of America},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www.hypack.com/ushydro/2011/program.aspx}
    }
    
    Reed, T. AIS TideMet Binary Message update – IMO SN.1/Circ.289 2011 US Hydro  inproceedings URL 
    Abstract: This short presentation is a review, from a commercial perspective, of the recent changes to the transmission of information by way of AIS binary messages. The changes introduced by IMO SN.1/Circ 289 and Circ.290 are reviewed and the implications for software used to decode and present the embedded message data to the AIS user. Ohmex is a manufacturer of AIS tide and weather equipment so particular attention is given to the ‘TideMet’ binary message used to transmit current Tide and Weather information. The topic is of particular interest to VTS authorities for the safe navigation relating to ports and harbours using ECDIS equipment. The presentation includes data from a recent survey of the use of these messages and considers the reason why a fundamental standard navigation message has not, as yet, been adhered to on a regional or global basis.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Reed2011,
      author = {Ted Reed},
      title = {AIS TideMet Binary Message update – IMO SN.1/Circ.289},
      booktitle = {US Hydro},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www.hypack.com/ushydro/2011/program.aspx}
    }
    
    Renton, D. RADARSAT Constellation Mission and AIS 2010 TEXAS IV  inproceedings URL 
    Abstract: Provide AIS coverage where land-based AIS cannot reach
    Provide coincident AIS and SAR detection for reliable fusion
    Performance: Minimum probability of decoding at least one AIS message from a vessel that is underway and equipped with a class-A AIS transmitter must be equal or better than 90%

    AIS Antennas: two orthogonal monopole pairs mounted on the SAR panel
    Provides omni-directional coverage (horizon to horizon)
    Provides circular polarization for receiving linearly polarized transmit signals that may have experienced Faraday rotation while propagating through the atmosphere
    AIS Receiver
    Filters, amplifies, frequency down converts and digitizes the AIS signals
    AIS Processor (ground based)
    Performs data demodulation, signal de-collision and message extraction

    Conclusions:
    Desired performance looks achievable
    The AIS units are feasible to accommodate on the Spacecraft
    Mass and volume are Ok
    Required power is minimal when operated concurrently with SAR
    Data Rates and Volumes can be accommodated at 3Mbps for an average of 17 min./orbit
    Results in 3.6% of total downlink capacity

    Potential Solutions
    Buffering of AIS data
    Would solve power issue
    Does not solve data problem
    Smarter use of the downlink capacity
    Use the full AIS data rate of 3Mbps for areas when the message density is high
    Use on board decoder for parts of the orbit where message densities are low
    With this approach we believe the data volumes become manageable

    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Renton2010,
      author = {Danielle Renton},
      title = {RADARSAT Constellation Mission and AIS},
      booktitle = {TEXAS IV},
      publisher = {Nationa Maritime Domain Awareness Coordination Office (NMCO)},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.gmsa.gov/TEXAS/briefs/RCM-AIS%20TEXASIV%20presentation_v3.ppt}
    }
    
    RIMES News September 2010 2010 Web  misc URL 
    Abstract: Mark Sassenfeld, a graduate student in the Department of Industrial, Manufacturing, and Systems Engineering at UTEP spent his summer interning at the Coast Guard's National Incident Command in Washington D.C. working directly with the government's response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.

    "I was assigned to the US Coast Guard's National Incident Command (NIC) to maximize collaborative utility of the Tactics and Planning (TAP) Table dispatched to the NIC for the Deepwater Horizon oil spill," said Mark. "I have briefed Admiral Thad Allen twice on the TAP table, as well as Valerie Jarrett, senior advisor to President Obama, and other senior Coast Guard officials. I also worked to bring additional capabilities to the Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA) in order to enhance the Coast Guard's maritime domain awareness."

    Mark also worked with a software developer and was assigned a research and development project to research the patterns and trends of maritime vessels. "Computer games represent some of the most sophisticated programming in the industry and I got to work with the actual developer of one of my favorite computer games. It was a rapid learning environment that I found both challenging and exciting."

    "Mark is one of six students in our program- with co-op assignments within the US Intelligence Community during the past year" said Dr. Ricardo Pineda, Director of RIMES and Chair of the Industrial, Manufacturing, and Systems Engineering department. The program was supported by Congressman Silvestre Reyes to provide opportunities for students from UTEP to work in the intelligence community. The long term goal is to expand UTEP and El Paso's contribution and influence in the Global Intelligence community.

    "Living in the D.C. area, I got to see and do so many things. I went to major league games, watched a performance at the Kennedy Center, and even attended a fund raiser for the Smithsonian Institution at the Finnish embassy. One of my highlights was a trip to the White House; it was President Barack Obama's birthday and we all got to sing happy birthday to him before he boarded Marine One."

    Marked earned his B.S. in Electrical Engineering from UTEP and applied for the program as a senior. He had just started working on his M.S. in Systems Engineering when the group got final approval for the co-op assignments. Now that Mark is back at UTEP, he expects to finish his degree by next year.

    "While I really enjoyed my summer, I must admit it was great to see my friends and family when I got back. I was surprised at what a warm reception I received. This is a great town and UTEP has provided me with many opportunities. I hope to work in the intelligence community after I graduate and I don't know exactly where that will take me. I'll admit it is a little scary but I know I will always have a home here in El Paso!"

    http://engineering.utep.edu/news090110.htm

    BibTeX:
    @misc{RIMES2010,
      author = {RIMES},
      title = {News September 2010},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://rimes.utep.edu/news.htm}
    }
    
    Riveiro, M. & Falkman, G. Empirical evaluation of visualizations of normal behavioral models for supporting maritime anomaly detection 2011 GeoViz  article URL 
    Abstract: http://www.geomatik-hamburg.de/geoviz/
    Many approaches for anomaly detection use statistical based methods that build profiles of normality. In these cases, anomalies are defined as deviations from normal models build from representative data. Detection capabilities based solely on these approaches typically generate high false alarm rates due to the difficulty of creating flawless models. In order to support the comprehension, validation, update and use of such models, our latest work has been devoted to the visualization of normal behavioral models of maritime traffic and their usability evaluation. This paper presents the results of a usability assessment carried out in order to evaluate the ability of previously suggested visualizations to support the detection and identification of anomalous vessel behavior.
    Data:The data set used for investigative analysis is a subset of real Automatic Identification System (AIS) data, that consist of a col- lection of real AIS messages broadcasted by vessels traveling along the Swedish west coast, including Gothenburg port area and parts of the coast of Denmark, Germany and Norway. The data corresponds to 17 days during winter. Nine days of the data set are used as train- ing data, i.e. they are considered to model the normal vessel behavior. Eight features are employed for calculating the models, adding the di- mensions (length and width) and draught of the vessel to the kinematic features (longitude, latitude, speed, heading and course over ground). Four days of data are analyzed during the exercises by the participants.
    The results of the quantitative evaluation carried out show that partic- ipants aided by visualizations of normal behavioral models perform better (taking into account the correctness of response value). No sig- nificant difference regarding the time to complete each block of tasks was noted. Current work focuses on a qualitative evaluation that in- volves the realization of the experiments by three experts in design- ing and developing military and surveillance systems from Saab Elec- tronic Defence Systems and a group discussion with two experts in maritime surveillance (one from Shipping and Marine Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg and one from VTS West Gothenburg). The qualitative evaluation complements the quan- titative approach presented here, since it provides experts insight con- cerning our suggestions regarding the use of anomaly detection ca- pabilities to support operators in the detection of anomalous behavior and the use of visualizations of normal models.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Riveiro2011,
      author = {Maria Riveiro and Goran Falkman},
      title = {Empirical evaluation of visualizations of normal behavioral models for supporting maritime anomaly detection},
      journal = {GeoViz},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www.geomatik-hamburg.de/geoviz/abstracts/42_Riveiro.pdf}
    }
    
    Roberts, M.S., Lesniakowski, T.W., Perez, M.A.M.R., Roberts, K.K. & Wheeler, D.J. EMC ANALYSIS OF UNIVERSAL AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE SYSTEMS IN THE MARITIME VHF BAND 2004 (JSC-PR-04-007)  techreport URL 
    Abstract: An electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) analysis of the potential for interference from a single automatic identification system (AIS) transmitter to a public correspondence (PC) VHF/FM receiver operating in both the voice and data modes was completed in December 2003. Subsequently, and prior to documenting the first analysis, the USCG requested an additional EMC analysis of potential interference from multiple shipborne AIS transmitters, again on a maritime PC receiver operating in the same modes. Both analyses are documented in this report. Frequency and antenna distance separations required in order to eliminate the interference were determined. To mitigate interference to the PC receiver in the data mode, the need for forward error correction code was investigated. The appropriate code values were calculated and are provided in this report.

    he effect on the performance of the maritime PC receiver in the presence of the AIS transmitter(s) was analyzed using the JSC Cosite Model (COSAM Version 5.2)

    The BER is the ratio of the number of bits of a digital message incorrectly received due to interference, receiver noise, or ambient noise to the number of bits in the message transmitted. A BER of 1X10-6 was determined to be an acceptable baseline performance threshold for the PC receiver.
    This threshold is based on a benign environment where there is no Rayleigh fading, no multipath, no external interference, and without any FEC.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Roberts2004,
      author = {Melvin S. Roberts and Thomas W. Lesniakowski and Michael A. Maiuzzo Ricardo Perez and Kenneth K. Roberts and Donald J. Wheeler},
      title = {EMC ANALYSIS OF UNIVERSAL AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE SYSTEMS IN THE MARITIME VHF BAND},
      year = {2004},
      number = {JSC-PR-04-007},
      url = {http://www.fcc.gov/omd/dataquality/peer-reviews/ais/source-1.pdf}
    }
    
    Robertson, T. Reaching E-Navigation Through Systems Integration 2007 eNavigation conference, pp. 25  article  
    Abstract: Examples of Past & Present - PAWSS
    Description: Vessel Surveillance System for U.S. ports and waterways for identification and tracking.
    Selected as the U.S. Coast Guard supplier of Vessel Traffic Systems to upgrade legacy USCG VTS systems and build new.
    Multi-Year Acquisition ID/IQ Contract (1998-2006) and Follow-On Support Contract (2006-present)
    System Benefits
    9 Ports Installed plus 1 USCG support center
    AIS feed to Support Local and National Surveillance
    Provides Situational Awareness to USCG & 1st Responders Data sharing
    Provides link to DHS Information Nodes

    SI, E-Navigation and PAWSS
    Site Surveys & Site Selection Recommendations
    AIS Binary Messaging
    Vessel Procession order
    Met/Hydro (from NOAA PORTS)
    VTS Tracks
    AIS Evaluations and Trade Studies
    Class A
    AIS Base Stations
    Mobile / Shore interactions
    DSC-Based AIS Channel Management
    AIS Data Anomaly Detection
    AIS Simplex Repeaters
    Data Sharing With Non-VTS Users
    OTH-Gold Track Messages
    XML Track Messages

    PAWSS FATDMA Planning
    FATDMA slot reservations coordinated for the 4 Gulf of Mexico PAWSS ports
    Slots reserved for shore-based messaging
    Maintained sufficient slots for mobile stations

    Examples of Past & Present - Greek National VTMIS
    Integrated Technologies for Greek Coast Guard
    Sensors, Mobile- and Land-Based Displays, Processors, Software, Database Design, and Command and Control Integration
    4 Vessel Traffic Centers, 10 Remote Sensor Sites, 4 Microwave Relay Sites With National Database Center
    Full Voice Communications Subsystems (VHF-FM, VHF-AM); AIS; Digital Audio & Data Recording
    Supports Vessel & Navigation Safety, Search & Rescue, National Security, and Anti-smuggling

    Other Examples of Future
    Further Integration of ATON capability
    SAR Aircraft
    New AIS Binaries
    Do the "Wright" thing - Wright Whale navigational keep out areas
    ENC enhancements including dynamic water depth
    AIS SART

    E-Navigation is a new buzzword, but concept has been implemented for many years

    Continue to focus on improving navigational safety and user requirements

    Don't forget about the HMI, Training and Logistics

    Value-added Services of an Experienced Systems Integrator

    Get involved

    BibTeX:
    @article{Robertson2007,
      author = {Todd Robertson},
      title = {Reaching E-Navigation Through Systems Integration},
      journal = {eNavigation conference},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {25}
    }
    
    Rocco, J. Electronic Charting Systems and other Navigation Regulatory Changes 2006 AIS 06  conference URL 
    Abstract: DOMESTIC DEVELOPMENTS
    Public Law 108 293 mandates the Coast Guard shall prescribe implementation of Electronic Chart Systems by January 1, 2007.
    NOAA is working to complete 'vectorization' of U.S. navigation charts data by late 2009.

    INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS CONT.
    Fishing vessels
    All vessels operating landward of the baseline

    PUBLIC LAW 108-293 ELECTRONIC CHARTS …..the following vessels, while operating on the navigable waters of the United States, shall be equipped with and operate electronic charts under regulations prescribed by the secretary of the department in which the Coast guard is operating:

    (Public Law 108-293 cont.) A) A self-propelled commercial vessel of at least 65 feet overall length B) A vessel carrying more than a number of passengers for hire determined by the Secretary C) A towing vessel of more than 26 feet in overall length and 600 HP D) Any other vessel for which the Secretary decides that electronic charts are necessary for the safe navigation of the vessel.
    SOLAS recognizes only ECDIS as an optional primary navigation means to paper charts
    Discretion for implementing SOLAS requirements exists only for domestic vessels less than 500 GTs, international vessels less than 150 GTs, and fishing vessels

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Rocco2006,
      author = {Jim Rocco},
      title = {Electronic Charting Systems and other Navigation Regulatory Changes},
      booktitle = {AIS 06},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20090219050726/http://rhppublishing.com/Presentations%20Day%201/Rocco%20Presentation.ppt}
    }
    
    Rogers, C., Woelbeling, W.K., Males, R., Hofseth, K. & Heisey, S. AN INTERACTIVE, IMMERSIVE ANIMATION OF DEEP-DRAFT MARITIME TRAFFIC SIMULATIONS 2005 (IWR Report 05-NETS-P-06)  techreport  
    Abstract: HSAM, the HarborSym Animation Module, is an interactive, immersive visualization of deep draft maritime traffic simulations developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. HSAM is designed as an extension to the rendering framework known as the Object-oriented Graphical Rendering Engine (OGRE). It is completely data driven, which allows the operator to configure the animation to visually represent any harbor configuration and dynamically update the animation to reflect simulation modifications without programmatic alterations. Users are able to select a graphical representation of the harbor as the surface on which HSAM animates vessel movements. Visually distinctive 3D models, or avatars, are selected to represent each vessel class, as are the textures applied to the avatars. Once the representations are selected, HSAM is directed to make vessel movements and environmental alterations though a time sequenced queue of event commands. The program is provided access to the internal databases of the simulation model, HarborSym, allowing advanced querying of individual vessel details, calls, and cargo transactions. The interactive nature of HSAM provides a rich environment for simulation analysis while its data driven structure provides a flexible and cost effective solution for planning level analyses.

    The world time clock in the HSAM architecture is based on a user definable unit of time. The choice to unbind the unit of time was made to support simulations of vastly differing temporal scope and granularity. In the HarborSym implementation of the HSAM animation framework, the unit of time is dictated by the simulation kernel and is specified to be hours. The world time clock has a time scale property that controls the relationship of passage of time between the simulated world and that of the real world. The time scale factor is a decimal number restricted to non-negative values. The consequence of this range restriction is that the operator can vary the passage of time in the simulated world between stoppage and a rate that has months of simulated time passing in a single real- world second. This enables the analyst/operator to quickly pass through uninteresting portions of the simulation and focus valuable time and attention on animated segments at a rate that gives a maximum visual experience.

    The OGRE root scene node is an element of the world object and serves as the linkage point between the HSAM animation framework and the OGRE rendering engine.

    OGRE maintains a scene graph comprised of meshes, textures, cameras, and other supporting elements commonly found in a rendering engine. The root scene node is the access point to the scene graph. The HSAM animation framework modifies and expands the OGRE scene graph by adding a plane mesh with an associated, user defined texture or image forming the surface over which the navigation network is laid and upon which the animation will ultimately play out. While both the HSAM animation framework and OGRE support height field defined 3-Dimensional terrain implementations, the cost, in terms of performance degradation, was excessive when compared to the additional visual impact in the simulation of vessel calls in a deep-draft harbor. Once the animation surface has been created in the OGRE scene graph, the textured mesh objects specified in the world objects collection of navigation nodes are added. The reach meshes are then added with the mesh being oriented and scaled to span between the nodes indicated in the world collection of navigation reaches.

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{Rogers2005,
      author = {Cory Rogers and William K. Woelbeling and Richard Males and Keith Hofseth and Shana Heisey},
      title = {AN INTERACTIVE, IMMERSIVE ANIMATION OF DEEP-DRAFT MARITIME TRAFFIC SIMULATIONS},
      year = {2005},
      number = {IWR Report 05-NETS-P-06}
    }
    
    Rosenberg, D. PortVision: Maximizing the Value of AIS, Changing the Business of Maritime 2007 eNavigation conference, pp. 10  article URL 
    Abstract: About AIRSIS
    Maritime technology company
    Software focus
    Vessel and remote asset monitoring
    Headquartered in San Diego, offices in Houston
    Founded in 1995

    About PortVision
    Perfect visibility and transparency to all commercial vessel activities
    Logging and alerting of arrival, departure, passing, and alongside events
    5 years of history to support business intelligence, data analytics, and historic reporting
    Web-based. Portable MDA-anywhere

    2005 USCG mandate
    -Transponders stay active
    in ports and waterways

    Commercial Applications
    Demurrage reduction
    Contract compliance
    Vendor management
    Labor and resource optimization
    Market intelligence
    Training
    Quality management and best practices

    Government Applications
    Portable MDA
    Remote briefings
    Schedule and optimize security boardings
    Incident Response
    Investigations

    BibTeX:
    @article{Rosenberg2007,
      author = {Dean Rosenberg},
      title = {PortVision: Maximizing the Value of AIS, Changing the Business of Maritime},
      journal = {eNavigation conference},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {10},
      url = {http://www.portvision.com}
    }
    
    Rosenberg, D., Crawford, K. & Stock, K. System and method for harvesting business intelligence from maritime communications 2011 (US7933693)  patent URL 
    Abstract: A system for harvesting business intelligence from maritime communications uses AIS signals as the source of information regarding the position and heading of vessels. The system builds and maintains a data base of location information of vessels within one or more defined geographic areas over time. The system further includes definitions of points of interest and can use the information from the AIS signals to identify and store events associated with the points of information.
    Review: Crap crap and more crap.
    BibTeX:
    @patent{Rosenberg2011,
      author = {Dean Rosenberg and Kevin Crawford and Kiel Stock},
      title = {System and method for harvesting business intelligence from maritime communications},
      year = {2011},
      number = {US7933693},
      note = {Provisional application No. 60/913,193 on Apr 20, 2007},
      url = {http://www.freepatentsonline.com/7933693.html}
    }
    
    ROSMORPORT, R.F. National AIS network and DGNSS 2009   techreport URL 
    Abstract: Operational requirements to radio-navigational
    system which has to be used in harbor approaches and coastal waters have been regulated with IMO Resolution A.953 (23).
    The system including any augmentation should
    provide positional information with an error not greater than 10 meters with a probability of 95%. The rigorous requirements are applied for update rate, signal availability, reliability etc.

    Regular transmission of Msg 17 started:
    AIS BS Petrodvorets - September 2007
    AIS BS's Primorsk and Gorki - July 2008.

    Real transmission period of RTCM messages
    No. 1 and No. 31 (VDL Tx, Msg 17) - 12 seconds.

    Proposal for transmission of VDL
    message 17 for GLONASS/GPS
    Transmission period - 15 second for
    each system (GLONASS & GPS) on
    each channel A & B (to admit normal
    work for one channel AIS receiver)

    Number of slots reserved to broadcast one Msg 17 - 3. Total VDL loading - 1.06 %; GLONASS - 24 slots/min.; GPS - 24 slots/min.

    RTCM Msg 5, 33 (unhealthy satellites) will be transmitted in time less than 10s (i.e. TTA is not more than 6,3 seconds).

    BibTeX:
    @techreport{ROSMORPORT,
      author = {ROSMORPORT, Russian Federation},
      title = {National AIS network and DGNSS},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://meeting.helcom.fi/c/document_library/get_file?p_l_id=18827&folderId=673029&name=DLFE-39469.pdf}
    }
    
    Ryan, J.F. Standards Governing the Presentation of Navigation Related Information 2006 AIS 06  conference URL 
    Abstract: Convenor, IEC TC80 WG13

    What standards govern the displays for navigational systems and equipment?

    How will these standards affect choices for e-navigation?
    No Standard for Displays
    While drafting IEC 61924 on INS, IEC TC80 WG10 identified that:
    The requirements for the presentation of navigational information differed significantly within the individual IMO Performance Standards for navigational systems and equipment
    There was no overall standard governing navigational displays
    IEC TC80:
    Proposed to convene WG13 to draft a new general standard on "Displays for the Presentation of Navigation Related Information" (May 2001)
    Reported the problem to IMO NAV 47 (Jun 2001)

    International Standard IEC 62288

    IMO NAV 47 invited IEC to set up a working group to develop a standard for the presentation of information to:
    Display and interaction objects
    Multifunction Displays
    Co-location, merging, processing, fusion of graphical information
    Indication of quantity, status, integrity and accuracy of information
    NAV specified that the work should take account of:
    Appropriate IMO resolutions
    IMO decisions on the Human Element
    Appropriate decisions of the IHO

    IEC TC80 established WG13 (Sep 2001) to draft future International Standard IEC 62288

    IEC reported to IMO NAV 48 (Jul 2002) that:
    The multiple displays associated with the individual navigational systems and equipment required and allowed for carriage created an information overload for mariners
    The mariners needed task-oriented presentations that could integrate navigation related information derived from multiple navigational systems and equipment

    IMO NAV 49 expressed concern that the draft Performance Standards:

    Conflicted with existing Performance Standards for individual navigational systems and equipment
    Conflicts could be avoided if the new Performance Standards took precedence
    Should possibly apply to all the displays on the bridge of a ship, not just the navigational displays

    IMO NAV 49 established a Correspondence Group to:
    Expand the draft Performance Standards with additional details of display requirements
    Draft a Safety of Navigation Circular in support of the new Performance Standards to:
    Harmonize symbols
    Harmonize terms and numerical quantities

    IEC TC80 WG13 suspended work on IEC 62288 to supported the IMO Correspondence Group

    IMO MSC.191(79)
    Harmonize the requirements for the presentation of navigation-related information on the bridge of a ship:
    To ensure that all navigational displays adopt a consistent human machine interface philosophy and implementation
    Supplement and, in case of a conflict, take priority over, presentation requirements in individual Performance Standards
    Cover the presentation of navigation-related information by equipment for which Performance Standards have not been adopted
    General principles are applicable for all displays on the bridge of a ship

    BibTeX:
    @conference{Ryan2006,
      author = {Joseph F. Ryan},
      title = {Standards Governingthe Presentation of Navigation Related Information},
      booktitle = {AIS 06},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20090219051001/http://rhppublishing.com/Presentations%20Day%202/Ryan%20Presentation.ppt}
    }
    
    Salerno, B. Interim Policy for the Sharing of Information Collected by the Coast Guard Nationwide Automatic Indentification System (NAIS) 2009   standard  
    Abstract: This memorandum serves to establish an interim Coast Guard policy for the access and sharing of information collected by the Nationwide Automatic Identification System (NAIS) with foreign governments, Federal, State, local, and tribal government agencies and non-government entities.
    BibTeX:
    @standard{Salerno2009,
      author = {Brian Salerno},
      title = {Interim Policy for the Sharing of Information Collected by the Coast Guard Nationwide Automatic Indentification System (NAIS)},
      year = {2009}
    }
    
    SC121 Environmental Message 2010   techreport  
    Abstract: As per ITU-1371 series a binary message consist of three parts:
    1.Standard AIS framework (message ID, repeat indicator, source ID, and, for addressed binary messages, a destination ID)
    2.16-bit application identifier (AI = DAC + FI), consisting of:
    a)10-bit designated area code (DAC) - based on the MID, as maintained in ITU